The way to create an ice load-carrying platform
(57) Abstract:The invention is intended to create a platform on the ice surface, used for transport and/or storage of goods. The way to create an ice load-carrying platform provides education on the ice surface of the ribs. In ice cover in at least one direction to form the through grooves. In them vorgelegt steel beams. The horizontal neutral axis of the cross-section beams coincides with the neutral axis of the ice plate. The upper part of the beam rises above the ice cover. The lower part of it comes from the ice into the water. Thereafter, the resulting structure is exposed to low temperature (t<0(C) within the time required for the formation of growths under the ice in places protrusion parts of the beams. The thickness of the growths equal to the thickness of the ice cover. The invention allows to create an ice platform, the rigidity of which is to ensure traffic safety for transport and secure storage of goods. 1 Il. The invention relates to the field of hladotehnika and can be used when creating a load-carrying ice platforms.There is a method to create the platform. RF patent 2141610 from 20.11.99), namely, that the ice cover forming ribs by forming in ice grooves in at least one direction, after which the ice surface is exposed to low natural temperature (t<0(C ) within the time required for education under the ice buildup of ice in places making grooves thickness equal to the thickness of the ice cover.The disadvantage of this method is the lack of a cylindrical rigidity of the platform and reduce the strength of the ribs when the inevitable filling out grooves precipitation (e.g. snow), since thermal conductivity of the platform in these areas will decrease, which will cause little lower layers of ice on zamorojennih the ribs.The task of the claimed invention is to provide an ice load-carrying platform with a high degree of reliability.Technical result achieved when the task is to reduce the deflection of the ice, resulting in ice under the influence of external loads.The essential features characterizing the invention.Distinctive: the ribs formed by marajuana in ice sheet steel beams, and horizontal neutral axis of the cross-sectional area of the beams coincides with the neutral axis of the ice plate, and the height must be sufficient to enter the lower parts of the beams from the ice and elevation of the upper part of the beams above the ice cover.It is known (2. Peschansky, I. C. Lagoudera and hladotehnika. L.: Sea transport, 1963, 345 S.) that the presence of ice snow cover reduces the intensity of increase of its thickness due to the low atmospheric temperature. Thus, the implementation of known technical solutions  requires periodic cleaning of the developed grooves from possible precipitation in the form of snow, which complicates the operation of the platforms. In addition, the formation of ribs just under the ice cover is not conducive to a uniform increase the rigidity of the ice platform with alternating loads from the effects of Flexural-gravity waves (VVM). To eliminate these defects are supposed to be reinforced ice sheet steel beams, i.e. beams from a material with high thermal conductivity, d for reliable marajuana beams in the ice cover. With the aim of ensuring ravnopravnosti ice platform with alternating loads from VVM horizontal neutral axis of the cross-sectional area of the beams must be aligned with the neutral axis of the ice plate, and the height must be sufficient to enter the lower parts of the beams from the ice and elevation of the upper part of the beams above the ice cover. The latter condition ensures that the contact beams with cold ambient air and cooling parts of the beams protruding from the ice.The method is as follows. In ice cover at some distance from each other to form the through grooves, for example, using laboratroy machine. The length of the grooves is determined by the length of the platform. Then in the resulting grooves vorgelegt steel profiles, for example, t-section. The height of their positions relative to the top surface of the ice cover handle with the help of wooden bars to the horizontal neutral axis of the squares of the cross-sections and an ice plate match. Then the ice platform is exposed to low temperature (t<0C) atmospheric air. As a result of high thermal conductivity beams is the STI, and marzenie beams in ice due to freezing of water received in the through groove. High adhesion of steel to ice and the protrusion of the upper parts of the beams provides reliable marajuana beams in the ice cover.After a time sufficient to freeze water received in the grooves, and freezing on the bottom of the speakers under the ice parts of the beams of ice required thickness of the ice platform is ready for operation.The invention is illustrated by the drawing, which shows a diagram of the invention's implementation.In ice cover 1 at a distance L from each other to form the through grooves 2, for example, using laboratroy machine. The width of the grooves b for the convenience of putting the beams should not be greater than the width of the belt brand Century. Then received in grooves vorgelegt beams, for example, in the form of Tauris 3, adjusting their height relative to the upper surface of the ice cover through the bars 4 so that the horizontal neutral axis of the squares of the cross-sections and an ice plate O coincide. The resulting ice platform is exposed to low temperature (t<0C) atmospheric air during the time required for obrazovanii 2. The way to create an ice load-carrying platform, consisting in education under the ice of the ribs by forming grooves, characterized in that the ribs formed by marajuana in the ice cover plate steel beams, and horizontal neutral axis of the cross-sectional area of the beams coincides with the neutral axis of the plate of the ice cover, and their height should be sufficient to enter the lower parts of the beams from the ice and elevation of the upper part of the beams above the ice cover.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in designing ramp and propulsion and steering gear and their hydraulic systems. Novelty in proposed water craft is that it is furnished with streamlined carrying frame for fastening devices of propulsion and steering complex installed in hull aft part and formed by two pairs of rigid longitudinal beams hinge secured by inner ends of aft sheet of hull in zone located under loading side coupled by flexible cross beams in each pair and support bar between pairs. Hydraulic heads of propulsors are hinge-mounted on outer ends of each pair of longitudinal beams, being secured on said beams to form additional cross tie between beams. Carrying frame is furnished with power hydraulic cylinders connected with hydraulic system and installed to control position of heads and loading side by turning carrying frame in aft sheet hinge joints. Body of each is provided with upper roller support, being rolling support for each hinged loading side at its opening, and lower platform being rigid base interacting with ground at resting of hinged loading side on head body in loading position of loading side. Novelty in hydraulic system of watercraft is that it is furnished, in additional to propulsor control hydraulic cylinders, with hydraulic cylinders for setting ramps, changing thrust vector, fixing loading side and locking carrying frame. Each hydraulic cylinder, including propulsor position control hydraulic cylinders, are supplied through parallel hydraulic lines connected with main line, with electric control in each line. Invention contains description of design peculiarities of each line providing required modes of operation of watercraft.
EFFECT: improved performance of watercraft and creating of hydraulic system providing required mode of operation of watercraft.
9 cl, 11 dwg