The method of extracting energy from a flowing fluid and a device for its implementation
(57) Abstract:The invention is intended for use of the kinetic energy of a moving fluid or gas flow and produce useful work. Method and device for converting the kinetic energy of the moving gas or fluid stream into useful work carried out through the use of a set of Aero - and hydracrylic. The wings can have at least two degrees of freedom, and connecting the wings can move in antiphase. The wings have induced fluid vibration, known as flutter (unstable oscillations). For efficiency, the bottom, top or sides of the device can be equipped with dampers. To increase the inertia of the wings of hydrocoele can be combined with a system of primaries wheels. Vibration cascade Aero and hydracrylic can be mechanical. The invention allows to generate electrical energy by converting energy of the fluid flow. 2 C. and 7 C.p. f-crystals, 15 ill. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
The invention includes the improvement of the methods and devices disclosed in issued to the author of the U.S. patents 4184805 (January 1980) and 4347036 (August 1982 ), and basically can use the SJ INVENTION
The invention relates to the technology of using the kinetic energy of a moving fluid or gas flow, in the first instance to the cascade Aero and hydracrylic, oscillating under the action of such flows. These wings will produce useful work, i.e., to generate electricity, due to the energy flow or to build on the momentum by accumulation coming from an external source of energy to create a negative pitch.ART
The ongoing search for alternative energy sources has caused renewed interest in the use of almost inexhaustible kinetic energy of moving fluids or gases, such as wind, river, and ocean currents. All these sources are derived from solar energy in the sense that the flow occurs as a result of solar heating. The windmill is a simple example of devices that can use this energy, however, is very limited in use due to the large centrifugal forces created in the large rotating blades, depending on the operating frequency from the wind speed, the need for large working areas, i.e. large circles described vramaudio, alternative windmill disclosed in U.S. patent 4024409 issued to Peter R. Paine. This patent discloses a device that includes a wire, oscillating due to the propagation of the vortex, the vibration of which is then transformed into useful work. Like the Aeolian harp, the bridge Tahoma narrows and street sign waving in the wind, this type of movement occurs when the vortices repel from the rounded body when the frequency of the resonant natural frequency of the subject. The patent also discloses the use of a single blade that oscillates depending on the wind parameters. However, as in the case of the windmill, the amount of energy that can be used is limited. Moreover, such vibration is caused rather Karmanovskaya phenomenon of street whirlwind than aeroelastic phenomenon of flutter.U.S. patent 3995972 discloses a device comprising a set of aerocrine rigidly interconnected and placed in a wind stream. Due to incremental changes in the angle of attack of aerocrine occurs homogeneous oscillatory motion, causing reciprocation of the rod, which then, in turn, drives the output device. The disadvantage twat (avoid) changes in wind speed, in order to provide a relatively constant output energy at fairly the same frequency.Some works were also carried out to create a negative pitch in the case of a single oscillating aerocrine (see I. E. Garrick "the oscillating Movement of the oscillating aerocrine", NASA REP. 567, may 1936).It has long been known that a large amount of energy is released when aerocrine prone to the phenomenon of aeroelastic flutter. Despite the fact that at sufficiently high velocities of liquids hydrocoele also prone to the phenomenon of flutter, in the nature of such phenomenon was not observed. Moreover, studies of this phenomenon were intended only to prevent the occurrence of this phenomenon, because in the case of being out of control, it can lead to significant destruction of aerocrine. U.S. patents 4347036 and 4184805 pointed a useful application of this phenomenon to produce energy and translational motion.THE INVENTION
The present invention extends to the inventions described in the previous patents of this author, in order to improve their effectiveness and applicability in natural air and water flows. The invention iskljucivo energy flows moving liquids and gases by means of a cascade of wings, placed in the stream. Except in those cases when used to specify a particular liquid, the term "aerocrine" will also include the concept of gidroksila when appropriately modified language, namely hydraulic and aerosystem and so on, the Term "aerocrine" is used instead of the more conventional "wing" in order to emphasize this relationship and to emphasize the use of such wings for energy, and not as a lifting means for aircraft (Under liquid if necessary also refers to liquid or gas). Another aspect of this invention is the application of the new method in the aquatic environment. Although the phenomenon of flutter in General was not observed when existing in nature water velocities, the occurrence of this phenomenon has been experimentally confirmed in the case of hydraulic systems, if you increase the inertia of the system with PM wheels attached to the generators or between gidroksilnami and generator system.According to another aspect of the invention a new method of conversion of kinetic energy of air flow into useful work by using a cascade of thin aerocrine placed in a moving stream. Able ravnovesnogo move in antiphase. The system is in equilibrium as long as the speed of a moving stream reaches a critical value, is sufficient to excite flutter oscillations. After that, the system goes into an excited state and the resulting oscillations of aerocrine used to produce useful work. Changes in velocity of the fluid is monitored and the system is controlled so as to maintain the critical speed and stable oscillation.According to further aspect of the invention features an apparatus for converting kinetic energy of the liquid or air stream into useful work, consisting of a supporting structure, open on the opposite edges so that the fluid can flow through the device, with many subtle aerocrine and tools to strengthen these wings inside the supporting structure in the cascade and located in the equilibrium state at zero angle of attack. In addition, aerocrine have two degrees of freedom, and the adjacent wings can move in antiphase to each other. The supporting structure consists of a frame with walls, the bottom and/or top and sides of the stream passing through the device, and increasing skorostemernoi motion aerocrine with the aim of obtaining useful work.Aerocrine preferably combined into two subsystems striped wings, aerocrine each subsystem are interconnected in such a way as to oscillate in phase. Subsystems can be connected to each other in such a way as to move 180 degrees out of phase, or can be connected to only operating in antiphase mechanical oscillators that support and increase the flutter oscillations and also provide initial perturbation of aerocrine within the fluid flow.The device may be equipped with a control system to maintain the flutter oscillations, when the speed of the liquid is changed.According to further aspect of the invention proposes a method for converting the kinetic energy of the fluid stream into useful work through the unit, including a pair of parallel plates and thin aerocrine located at the same distance from each plate and having at least two degrees of freedom, within the fluid flow. Plates are parallel to the free stream, and aerocrine in the equilibrium state of the system is at zero angle of attack to provide aerodynamic system. System schillachi, aerocrine then goes into an excited state, and the resulting oscillations are used to produce useful work.According to further aspect of the invention features an apparatus for converting kinetic energy of the fluid stream into useful work, consisting of a supporting structure, open on the opposite edges so that the fluid can flow through the device, and includes many flat plates, placed at equal distances from each other parallel to the fluid flow, and many thin aerocrine inside the supporting structure, forming a cascade, with each wing has at least two degrees of freedom and is located at equal distances from the adjacent flat plate at zero angle of attack in the equilibrium state, means connecting aerocrine, so that the latter oscillated in phase, and means directly connected with aerocrine to use their oscillatory movement to produce useful work.According to further aspect of the invention, it is suggested that either one aerocrine in the associated liquid, or a cascade of aerocrine located in the flow of a moving fluid. Aerocrine mechanically brought into doubt the type, including the impact (selected energy) from cascade aerocrine prone flutter oscillations.Thus, there were widely described the most important features of the invention so that a detailed description of the present invention, described below, was better understood and in order that the present contribution to the work was properly assessed. Naturally, there are additional features of the invention, which form the content of the formulas of the present invention. Specialists will appreciate that this invention may serve as a basis for creating other devices or methods to achieve several purposes of the present invention. It is therefore important that the formula of the present invention was regarded as including such equivalent devices or methods that are not beyond the scope of the invention.LIST OF DRAWINGS AND OTHER MATERIALS
To illustrate and describe the invention have been selected several design variations and improvements, which are listed below:
Fig. 1. Perspective view of the modules, separate or United, each of which includes a cascade of wings, vertical or horizontal, according to ishodnikami side of the barrier; C) is the module mounted on the hinge and freely rotating in the stream.Fig. 2. The following chart illustrates that for a given set of parameters, the critical speed required to induce flutter oscillations, less for cascade wings than for one wing.Fig. 3. A graph showing how to use injection device for supplying energy to the workplace in a system experiencing flutter oscillations, can be derived energy.Fig. 4 and 5. The projection of the modules shown in Fig. 1, in section, illustrating the arrangement of the wings when the critical flow velocity at equilibrium and excited States; the wings can be either aerodynamic shape, or be in the form of flat plates with rounded edges attacks and vanishing.Fig. 6. Schematic view of the system module with horizontally spaced wings, illustrating the strengthening of the wings in accordance with the first design option and showing the alternating lever connections as edges of the attack, and the edges of the gathering.Fig. 7. A schematic representation of a system of wings connected with the fly wheel by means of the cable wound on the axis of flight of the wheels, or with t is provided to better illustrate the construction.Fig. 8. Schematic representation of the flight feathers of the wheels and the weight attached to the shoulder for messages increased the effective inertia of the ribs attacks and vanishing edges of each paired set of wings that are attached to the supporting axis of the flywheel; a rod connects large the flywheel to the crankshaft, which turns the generator.Fig. 9. Schematic representation of typical lever connection even/odd pairs of ribs attacks/vanishing wings with generator, accompanied by heavy move the wheel.Fig. 10. Schematic projection view illustrating another structural variant of the invention, in which the aerodynamic wing is used in conjunction with Aileron.Fig. 11. Projected view illustrating the wing according to the constructive variant, shown in Fig. 10.Fig. 12. A schematic perspective view illustrating another structural variant of the invention.Fig. 13. The following chart illustrates the increased efficiency obtained from cascade wings, oscillating flow of a moving fluid, providing the progressive movement.Fig. 14. Schematic view in section of one embodiment of the power set of the series (a), (b), (C) energy converters or systems (sfec), which includes a frame 1 with a vertical or horizontal wings 2 in different ways.In Fig. 1 (a) presents the system strengthened over the barrier 3, which is a circular or elliptical cylinder. Round 4 cylinder, mounted on a system that contains a lever connection, crankshafts and generators to protect them from the elements. Fig. 1 (b) shows the system mounted on the side of the existing structure, such as a bunker or a water tower 5. The cylinder 4 in this figure, mounted on the side of a water tower, again contains a lever connection, crankshafts and generators. Finally, Fig. 1 (C) shows the system, freely mounted on the hinge 6 cylinder 4 at the top, which contains a lever connection, crankshafts and generators, and the top has a so-called fin 7 to Orient the system across the fluid flow. Each energy Converter includes a lot situated at the same distance from each other of the wings 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28located inside the supporting structure 1 at zero angle of attack in equilibrium SOSTOYaNII.As will be described below, the wings are strengthened so that in the excited state, coming under the condition of occurrence of the flutter oscillations, adjacent wings are oscillated out of phase by 180 degrees, and this oscillatory movement was used to produce useful work. Each wing symmetrically with respect to the rounded edges attacks and fin Assembly and the rest of the width can be flat, has zero curvature profile to reduce the lifting force and the projection of the top has a rectangular shape. Despite the fact that usually shows the cascade of eight wings, you need to understand that the number of wings in the cascade may vary depending on the destination device. The wings can be installed in cascade vertically or horizontally, they can be installed in any direction, provided that in equilibrium the wings are at zero angle of attack.The present invention uses the phenomenon of self-excited feedback associated with the aeroelastic phenomenon, known as the phenomenon of flutter. Despite the fact that this phenomenon is found in the air, it also occurs in the water, where due to the large differences in the densities of the amount of energy visvobodi air currents. The following discussion will be given for air flow, but it also applies to water flows subject to certain limitations, which will be discussed separately.This phenomenon arises due to the interaction of the elastic force, inertial forces and dissipative forces aerocrine with unstable aerodynamic forces resulting from movement of aerocrine in the fluid flow. Oscillatory movement of aerocrine and translational movement aerocrine cause complex turbulence, flying away from the edges of the flow, which in turn form a turbulent Wake. The vorticity track then feedback is returned to aerocrine, creating strength and movement, with +/-90-degree components, out-of-phase movement of aerocrine. This out-of-phase component of the obvious causes damping of aerocrine. At the critical velocity (VWITHthis aerodynamic damping component becomes negative and positive balances mechanical damping aerocrine, providing harmonic oscillations aerocrine. At speeds greater than the critical speed, the increase in wind energy creates more instability and, with the motrya, what a lot of work for the study of the phenomenon of flutter was done long ago discovered that this phenomenon is released huge amounts of energy, research has been directed at avoiding the devastating consequences of this phenomenon, because in the time of flight of the aircraft such flutter oscillations can not be controlled and continue to grow up until the wing of the plane is not destroyed. The invention, however, makes use of the phenomenon of flutter due to the presence of the control system, which prevents instability and destruction, usually in case the flutter oscillations of the wing. This allows you to apply this phenomenon to generate energy, subject to the availability of control.The use of the cascade has an obvious advantage compared with the use of one wing, prone to the phenomenon of flutter. It can be shown that for a given set of parameters, the critical speed required for the excitation of oscillations of the cascade should be less than in the case of a single wing. Moreover, when aerocrine installed so that adjacent aerocrine oscillate 180 degrees out of phase to each other, the critical speed for a particular Y to produce electrical energy from the energy of natural wind currents, cross-section through which the flow must be very large (option windmill) or the speed of the liquid must be increased, i.e., must be used the variant with the barriers described in this invention. Placing a barrier to the natural flow and thus forcing the fluid to move the same amount of weight over a smaller area, you can increase the speed of the liquid. Because the released energy is proportional to the cube of the velocity of the fluid, the use of barriers is quite effective. If water flows, velocities, at which the phenomenon of flutter in the ordinary case, in the nature are not observed. However, when the effective mass of the system is increased, i.e., a flywheel attached to the rotating rod, through which the translational and rotational energy gidroksila is transmitted to the electrical generator, the critical speed necessary for the occurrence of flutter is reduced to values existing in the natural river and ocean currents. Two of these improvements form the basis of the present invention.In Fig.2 depicts a graph illustrating the advantage of the cascade. Parameter S/C on the x-axis at e is - iameter wing, as shown in Fig. 4. Along the ordinate axis the dimensionless ratio of the critical speed V (S/C), where the adjacent wings oscillate out of phase by 180 degrees, to the critical rate in the case of a single wing V. For a given set of parameters can be seen that if S/C is equal to , the critical speed for the cascade is equal to approximately 1/2 that is sufficient to induce flutter oscillations in the case of a single wing. Accordingly, when using cascade for the release of energy of the liquid flow resulting from the flutter of excitement, the phenomenon of flutter can be achieved at much lower velocities of the liquid than in the case of one wing. In fact, controlling parameters in accordance with the fact, as will be explained below, the critical velocity required to induce harmonic vibrations can be equal only 1 mile per hour. This is also true for the occurrence of flutter in the water, provided that the system will be informed of the additional inertia in accordance with the explanation below.In Fig.3 shows a graph illustrating the advantages of the introduction of the device to divert energy, such as electric chain wrote fluid; Wnatural frequency related to the frequency of the oscillations around the transverse axis, when V is zero and b is the radius of aerocrine. The abscissa axis shows the ratio of Whfor Wwhere Whnatural frequency related to the frequency of the translational motion when V is equal to zero. The area under each curve defines the domain where the aerodynamic energy EANDless than the mechanical energy EM. For a given set of values of Wh and Wthe critical velocity VWITHcan be installed. The area above each curve, which represents the critical velocity VWITHEANDmore than EMand, accordingly, is an area of instability.The lower curve represents the critical speed in the case of a single wing, and the upper curve represents the critical speed in the case of the embedded device to drain energy. This graph shows that the introduction device to divert energy wind energy, which otherwise could cause the system to go unstable region, but instead is absorbed by the device to divert energy and the system remains in a stable region. In the case of the cascade, which will be lower compared with the same Trivimi, it is shown in Fig.3, in the case of one wing.Fig. 4 and 5 illustrate harmonic oscillations that occur when the cascade aerocrine (these figures shows the ten wings) exposed to liquid flow at its critical velocity VWITHi.e. flutter oscillations. These figures depicts a top view of a vertically arranged wings (or side view of the horizontal wings), which are typical symmetric cross-section aerocrine. As mentioned above, the term "aerocrine" is applied in cases, when it comes to air currents, and the term "hydrocoele" is used in the case of liquid flow. In both cases, or in each case used the term "wing". The cross-section of these wings must be symmetrical or may be, as shown in the other figures, the flat planes with rounded edges attacks and gathering. The term "aerocrine" will be used in the case of a typical cross sections used in the aircraft.In Fig. 4 aerocrine are at zero angle of attack in the equilibrium state to transition to an excited state. Even though the wind speed is critical, the wings are at rest, the movement of at least one wing, there is a coupling effect of adjacent wings, causing oscillations occurring at 180 degrees out of phase, as schematically shown in Fig. 5. Odd and even edges attacks moving in phase wings are connected by rods or cables 8eand 8abouta even and odd fin Assembly are connected by rods 9eand 9aboutrespectively. (In these figures the lower rod or wire is not visible because it is closed the top). Fig.6 shows that the rods or cables 8 and 9 are connected to the wings by means of pins 101, 102etc. on the front and back sides of the wings. Oscillatory motion that occurs when the critical speed, was first discovered while exploring the devastating effects of flutter on the rotating compressor blades.In Fig. 6 shows the first constructive variant strengthening aerocrine. For convenience, shows only four wings, marked 23, 24, 25, 26, inside the supporting structure, generally indicated by the numeral 1. These wings in Fig.6 are located in a horizontal position, but can also be strengthened in a vertical position. As shown in Fig. 6 wings merged into two subsystems, odd wings etc is sistemy wings. The wings of each subsystem are connected in such a way as to move in the same phase, while each wing has at least two degrees of freedom, so as to induce flutter oscillations need at least two degrees of freedom. Both edges of the wing is fastened to the frame of the supporting structure by means of springs, for convenience, designated 123for both edges of the wing 23and so onIn the case of vertically reinforced wings lower springs can be replaced by ropes, as in this case, the supporting effect of the spring is not required. A pair of rods or cables 8eand 8aboutattached with pins 104and 103with the two ends of the wing to the ribs of the attack, and the rods or cables 9eand 9aboutwith the help of pins 114and 113attached at both ends to the edges of the gathering of the wing. The rods or cables outside the frame through the holes 13eand 13abouta sufficiently large diameter that allows to avoid crushing and connected to the generating device. If the rods have a rigidity sufficient to transmit both compression and tension, no additional devices are not required, however, in the case of flexible cables, cat is Ruzhin 14eand 14aboutconnecting the cable to the frame. The brakes are not shown separately for clarity, the rest of the drawing, serve to limit the movement within the system.From the above we can conclude that two subsystems are free to oscillate around a transverse axis and to perform the translational motion relative to each other and that when the device is placed in the fluid flow, moving with a critical speed, the wings will oscillate out of phase by 180 degrees, as shown in Fig.5 Thus, the critical speed is the lowest for a particular set of parameters.So as to establish the harmonic vibrations of the wings must be brought into an excited state, at least one mechanical oscillator must be in one of the subsystems. It can be placed directly in the subsystem or in any way connected with the Electromechanical generator system, is attached to the rods or cables subsystems. Also features the announcement of the initial perturbation of the system, the oscillators support and amplify the oscillatory movement. Thus, if the flow rate decreases to values, nedostatochna oscillators will maintain the oscillatory motion of the wings as long while the speed of the liquid will not increase to a value sufficient to restore critical flow velocity.The invention uses as the critical speed the natural flow rate. Therefore, in order for this speed was sufficient to excite flutter oscillations, one or more parameters of the system, which includes the generator system must be changed. Moreover, due to the fact that the velocity of the fluid can change over time, these parameters should be changed in accordance with changes in velocity of the fluid so that the prevailing rate was sufficient to maintain oscillations. To change the settings of the system there is a control system that includes a detector (not shown), such as an anemometer for wind speed, the velocity of the fluid, or the detector, which controls the amplitude of oscillation. The signal from the detector is fed into the system to change at least one of its parameters. As the critical speed depends on the stiffness of the wings and the location of their center of gravity, these parameters can be changed, for example, by changing the effective stiffness of the spring or center of mass, using isodictya odd and even aerocrine itself consists of two subsystems, consisting of rods or cables connecting ribs attacks or ribs gathering, and system energy converters, to which the rods or cables are connected.In addition, in accordance with the foregoing parameters associated with the energy converters are controlled, within the framework of the present invention also has control over the fluctuations of the velocity of the fluid so that the wings all the time was in the flow of constant velocity.Fig. 7 illustrates one way of increasing the inertia of the system with PM wheels. Using the same numbering as in the previous figures, the rods and cables 8e, 8about, 9e, 9aboutconnected with the axes 15e, 15about, 16eand 16aboutrespectively. Communication is carried out using the gear in the case of rigid rods and using chains and chain wheels in the case of flexible cables, which reported the initial stretch to secure the transfer of both compression and tension. These axes are connected with the fly wheel 17e, 17about, 18eand 18aboutthat rotate with the frequency of movement of the subsystems. These large flywheel are connected through a gear with a set of primaries wheels smaller radius is a multiple of the frequency of the subsystem. To move the wheels of smaller diameter attached additional mass 21e, 21about, 22eand 22aboutattached to the shoulders 23e, 23about, 24eand 24aboutthat increases the inertia of the system and whose position along the shoulder can be chosen in such a way as to ensure optimal inertia subsystems. The base frame and the other, if any exist, the wings are not shown to focus on the connection flight wheels.Fig. 8 shows a combination of primaries wheels and masses described in Fig. 7 in detail, in the case of ribs of attack even wings subsystem. The axis 15edrives great the flywheel 17ethat, in turn, through gear drives low the flywheel 19emass 21emounted on the shoulder 23e. Great the flywheel in this constructive variant is also connected with the lever mechanism 25ewith the aid of a pin 27e. Connecting the shoulder, in turn, rotates the crankshaft 29eand drives the generator 31e. This combination is repeated for the case of edges attacks odd wings subsystem, the edges of the gathering even wings subsystem and edges vanishing odd krynychky mechanism in the case of a rigid rod 8econnecting the even-numbered ribs of attack of the wings, connected by a pin 33ewith the second rod 35ethat, in turn, rotates the crankshaft 29ethat, in turn, rotates the generator 31eto move the wheel e on the same crankshaft. In this figure the flywheel is located within the generator for clarity. Typically, the flywheel is located in front of the generator.The following constructive version CECO with the same numbering, denoting the same elements shown in Fig.10. If in the previous embodiments, the wings could freely move around the transverse axis and make a forward movement, in this embodiment, the wings can move freely around the transverse axis, while the flaps 391, 392, 393and so on, by means of hinges attached to the wings 21, 22, 23and so on, in order to provide a second degree of freedom. Each wing is provided with pins 401, 402, 403in the middle and 411, 412, 413at the far end of the wing to strengthen the wing inside the supporting structure 1. These pins allow the wing to carry out a rotary movement and at the same time prevent poviats under the action of dynamic forces thread when the wings oscillate around a transverse axis. The set of rods 8eand 8about, 9eand 9aboutattached to the ribs attacks and gathering, odd and even wings, respectively, connects the subsystem. In Fig. 11 depicts a cross-section of the wing.Fig. 12 illustrates another structural variant of the invention with the same numbering for the respective elements. In previous versions sfec included two subsystems wings, who moved out of phase by 180 degrees. It can be shown that one wing located at the same distance between the two plates, while in the equilibrium state, behaves as an infinite cascade, as two subsystems, oscillating 180 degrees out of phase, in which the adjacent wings are located at a distance s from each other, will have the undisturbed flow at a distance s/2 by symmetry. The same type of flow will be observed if instead of a cascade of wings, at a distance s/2 from one of the wing top and bottom to put the flat plate. This conclusion follows from the next.In the case of two subsystems, the oscillating out of phase by 180 degrees, the adjacent wings which are at a distance s from each other, unexcited paydates, if instead of a cascade of wings at a distance s/2 from one of the wing top and bottom to put the flat plate. Thus, in Fig.12 shows a cascade of wings, located at a distance s/2 from the support frame and at a distance s from each other. Wings, pins, rods, cables, frames, etc. are numbered in accordance with the numbering used above. However, a thin flat plate 431, 432, 433, etc. are located in the middle between the wings (at rest), i.e., at a distance s/2 from the wing. The plates have holes 44 so that the rods and cables can pass through the plate without crushing. Obviously, each limited by the wing plates will behave as an infinite cascade, i.e. for a given set of parameters, the critical speed for such a wing is the least. In addition, because each subsystem defined by the rods, the energy absorbed by each wing of each subsystem can be connected to the device for dissipating energy, which may consist of two generator systems, one for the edges of the attack, the other to the edges of the gathering to provide a way of monitoring the movement by changing the impedance of the respective generator systems.In addition, you need unpredictable in combination with wings, who can freely move around the transverse axis and to make the progressive movement, which will allow CECO to have three degrees of freedom.In practice, CECO is located in the liquid flow. Therefore, depending on the fluid velocity all system parameters are adjusted so that the speed of the liquid was critical velocity for the system. Then at least one wing is mechanically in the perturbed state, which leads to harmonic oscillations in a system and device for diversion of energy uses the energy from the stream and converts it into useful work, for example, for the production of electric energy or for oscillations (pulsations). Due to the existence of the control system changes the speed of the fluid will be detected and the system will automatically tuned in such a way that the prevailing speed provided harmonic oscillations due to the phenomenon of flutter.Thus, the phenomenon has been disclosed as including a cascade of wings, driven only by the flow of fluid to produce useful work. However, the cascade can also be brought into the oscillatory motion of the mechanical ways is to pointed out due to the oscillations of one wing in the air stream occurs negative pitch. In Fig.13 depicts a graph illustrating this phenomenon. The ordinate axis shows the ratio of the average work done per unit time (V), to the average work done per unit of time W to maintain the oscillations, dempfirovany aerodynamic forces and torque. The ordinate axis shows the dimensionless ratio V/(Wb), where W is the frequency of oscillation around a transverse axis and b the radius of the wing.Curve 104 represents the results of research Garrigue for one wing, making only translational motion, where S/C tends to infinity. Results for cascade wings, where S/C is equal to 1/3, represented by the curve 105. For example, V=10 ft./c, b=l/2 ft., W=40 rad/s and the ratio V/(W b)=l/2.It is evident from Fig.13 you can see that one of the wing (S/C = ), (V)/W=0,53, and cascade (S/C-1/3), (V)/W=0,9. Thus, due to the oscillatory motion of the cascade wings in the fluid flow efficiency of the driving energy is approximately 1.7 times greater than the efficiency of the driving energy for the case of one wing. This increased efficiency can be achieved when the cascade performs an oscillatory motion around the transverse axis as versadrill in combination with rotational and/or translational motion of the wing. Since the cascade is used to increase the driving force of the fluid, the flow of which it is placed, the flutter oscillations and critical speed are not important factors in this aspect.Fig. 14 and 15 illustrate structural variants of the present invention to increase the driving force of the driving flow. In Fig.14 shows a cascade of wings 451, 452, 453and so on, organized in two subsystems (odd and even) within the fluid stream 46, which is pumped through the discharge pipe 47. The subsystem is contained in translational oscillatory movement occurring out of phase by 180 degrees, the two mechanical springs 481, 482. Sources driving, can be of any type, including some of the CECO. Thus, the use of cascade-driven fluid flow in a state of flutter for a message of mechanical motion of oscillating wings, is within the present invention. In this design the first stage is placed in the first fluid flow, the speed of which is maintained at the critical speed, and is used to bring in an oscillatory movement of the second cascade to increase dvizheniya driving force of the moving stream. In accordance with the preceding figures of the liquid stream 46 is pumped through the discharge pipe 47 and the wings are arranged so that they form two subsystems, each associated with one of the two sources of mechanical drive system 481, 482working out of phase (180 degrees). In this constructive version of each subsystem performs a rotational movement around a transverse axis and translational motion.Since, as mentioned above, one wing, located at the same distance from the opposite wall, in the case of a limited volume of fluid behaves as an infinite cascade, one wing may be provided in an oscillatory movement to increase the driving force. Despite the fact that the cascade of the wings shown in Fig.14 and 15 is in the closed volume of fluid within the present invention it is also possible to use such a cascade in existing in nature is unlimited in the amount of liquid flows, for example in a river or air currents.After describing thus the invention and its improvements with bringing the preferred options for professionals in the field to which the present invention is Yu may be made without deviating from the invention, determined in accordance with the attached claims. 1. A way of transforming the kinetic energy of the gas or fluid stream into useful work, which is placed in a moving fluid or gas flow set of wings, strengthened so that they had at least two degrees of freedom for movement, provide critical speed of the specified stream, sufficient to establish the flutter oscillations of the wings, and then use the resulting oscillations to produce useful work, characterized in that the inertia of a specified set of wings to increase the stabilization and preservation of the specified flutter oscillations.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that to increase the inertia of a specified set of wings add tools like flight of the wheels, minimizing the variation in these flutter oscillations.3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that through these wings send additional flow to increase the velocity and mass of the specified stream, acting on the wings.4. The method according to p. 3, characterized in that the direction of additional flow set deflecting wall in the specified thread in place, prinicipality of liquid or gas into useful work, includes a set of wings, devices for fastening these wings so that they had at least two degrees of freedom, and guides the flow devices installed for the specified direction of flow through a specified set of wings for the purpose of initiating the flutter oscillations, characterized in that it further comprises means attached to the specified set of wings to increase their inertia with the aim of preserving these flutter oscillations.6. The device under item 5, characterized in that the said means of increasing the inertia of a specified set of wings include tools like flight of wheels attached to said wings to minimize these variations flutter oscillations.7. The device according to p. 6, characterized in that it comprises a means of partition type, located upstream from the said wings to increase the amount and speed of the specified stream, using these wings.8. The device according to p. 7, characterized in that the specified tool type flywheel consists of a gear train connected with these wings, and the means by which these gears are rotated oscilla partition type, located upstream from the said wings, to increase the amount and speed of the specified stream, using these wings.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to non-conventional power sources, and it can be used in plants using energy of wind, river, deep sea and other currents. Proposed plant contains one or several vertical shafts and horizontal rods with blades. Said hollow rods are installed on shafts for limited turning relative to their axes. Opposite blades of each rod are rigidly secured on rod square to each other and eccentrically relative to axis of rod. Shafts adjacent in horizontal direction are made for rotation in opposite directions.
EFFECT: provision of simple ecologically safe device operating at any direction of current in liquid and gaseous medium and at medium interface.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device is designed for converting kinetic energy of small and medium rivers into elastic energy. Proposed hydraulic unit contains hydraulic turbine installed on frame with bearings on its shaft, generator mechanically coupled with hydraulic turbine, stream shaper and device in form of plates to protect hydraulic unit from floating debris. Hydraulic unit has intermediate vertically and horizontally installed shafts with bearings interconnected by conical gears. Vertical shaft is arranged in well built near bank and communicating with river by channel made under level of maximum possible thickness of ice cover. Part of horizontal shaft connected with hydraulic turbine is arranged in said channel. Upper end of vertical shaft is connected with generator through ground horizontal shaft and step-up reduction unit. Stream shaper is made in form of flaps installed on shaft for turning to direct water stream of river to its central part between which turnable gate is installed for contacting with one of flaps to direct water stream to right-hand or left-hand side of hydraulic turbine.
EFFECT: provision of reliable operation all year round.
3 cl, 2 dwg