Method for the production of energy with high efficiency

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a method for the production of energy with high efficiency. The way of generating electricity by using system afterburning of exhaust gas, using at least the gas turbine, steam generator and steam turbine, in which the crude oil or heavy oil is subjected to distillation under reduced pressure, the electrical energy produced by use of the received light fraction of crude oil or heavy oil as fuel for the gas turbine and the use of heavy fractions of crude oil or heavy oil as fuel for the steam generator. The invention allows to increase the rate of energy production in relation to fuels and more efficient use of high-temperature thermal energy. 6 Il.

The invention relates to a method for the production of energy with high efficiency.

In recent years there has been studied the fractionated distillation of crude oil or heavy oil power plants and installations for electricity production. Light fraction oil (a component with a low boiling point) obtained episodics electricity. High-temperature exhaust gas resulting from combustion in the gas turbine is sent to the steam generator instead of air, the heavy fraction oil (a component with a high boiling point) is burned in the steam generator, while the steam turbine rotated by high-temperature high-pressure steam obtained in the steam generator, resulting in about exhausts electric power. In other words, a method in which electricity is produced at that time, as is the so-called overproduction of energy (repowering), in which the exhaust gas of the gas turbine is supplied to the steam generator and digiguide.

As a means for distillation of crude oil or heavy oil is usually applied atmospheric (open) distillation, which is the distillation of crude oil or heavy oil is heated to about 360oC. To achieve the above-mentioned heating temperature as a means of heating is commonly used heating furnace. In the heating furnace for heat energy fuel burns and heats the supply of oil by heat radiation, emitted from fuel combustion and convection of the combustion products.

The use of t is ako the use of such heating furnace entails problems such as the heat loss of exhaust gas, low heat output, the need for processing SOxand NOxin the exhaust gas.

The present invention was developed with consideration of the above situation, and accordingly, the present invention is to develop a method of production of energy with high efficiency, which does not use a heating furnace, and therefore solves the problem of heat loss of exhaust gas, added to the power generation system of the exhaust gas is no load to be processed SOxand NOx, resulting in additional increases in the energy performance of the entire system of post-combustion exhaust gas.

Accordingly, the present invention provides a method for the production of electricity with high efficiency using the system afterburning of exhaust gas, using at least the gas turbine, steam generator and steam turbine, including the operation of heating the crude oil or heavy oil by steam obtained in the steam generator; the distillation of crude oil or heavy oil under reduced pressure; and the production of electroanaesthesia heavy fractions of oil or oil as fuel for the steam generator.

According to the present invention, crude oil or heavy oil can be gently heated using the effective heat transfer between the crude oil or heavy oil and light fraction of crude oil or oil and/or heavy fraction of crude oil or of oil obtained in column stills.

In addition, according to the present invention as a means for lowering the pressure in the vacuum distillation can be used steam jet ejector.

The present invention provides a method for the production of energy with high efficiency, which does not use a heating furnace, and therefore solves the problem of heat loss of exhaust gas and there is no load to be processed SOxand NOxin the exhaust gas is added to the system energy production, resulting in additional increases in the energy performance of the entire system of post-combustion exhaust gas.

Next, with reference to the attached drawings will be described variants, corresponding to the present invention.

Fig.1 is a schematic depiction of a sketch of one embodiment of the system of separation by distillation of crude oil the CSOs activities system afterburning of exhaust gas according to the present invention.

Fig.2 is a graph showing a curve And evaporation of crude oil vacuum distillation column in the process of energy production with high efficiency according to the present invention in comparison with the curve And evaporation of crude oil in the well-known atmospheric (open) distillation columns.

Fig.3 is a graph which shows the curve In the evaporation of crude oil vacuum distillation column in the process of energy production with high efficiency according to the present invention in comparison with the curve In the evaporation of crude oil in the well-known atmospheric (open) distillation columns.

Fig.4 is a graph which shows the curve With the evaporation of crude oil vacuum distillation column with the method of energy production with high efficiency according to the present invention in comparison with the curve With the evaporation of crude oil in the well-known atmospheric (open) distillation columns.

Fig.5 is a graph which shows the curve D of the evaporation of crude oil vacuum distillation column when the implementation is Yu in comparison with the curve D of the evaporation of crude oil in the well-known atmospheric (open) distillation columns.

Fig.6 is a graph which shows the curve E is the evaporation of crude oil vacuum distillation column in the process of energy production with high efficiency according to the present invention in comparison with the curve E is the evaporation of crude oil in the well-known atmospheric (open) distillation columns.

Next, with reference to the attached drawings will be described by way of producing energy with high efficiency according to the present invention.

In Fig.1 schematically shows a sketch of a variant of the system of separation by distillation of crude oil or heavy oil systems for implementing the method of energy production with high efficiency according to the present invention using the system of the afterburning of the exhaust gas.

Distillation apparatus according to this variant contains a heater 1, a vacuum distillation column 2 and steam jet ejector 3.

The heater 1 is the means for heating the crude oil or heavy oil by heat exchange between the vapor and the crude oil or heavy oil. Steam is supplied from a steam generator (not shown). The water vapor produced in the steam generator, supravaginal 1, is steam, which was used to rotate a steam turbine to produce electricity. Usually the steam turbine is fed with steam having a temperature of about 600oWith, and after generation of its pressure and temperature is about 20 kg/cm2G and from about 200 to about 230oS, respectively. The heater 1 is powered by steam having a pressure of about 20 kg/cm2G and a temperature of about 200-230oC.

Vacuum distillation column 2 is the apparatus for distillation of crude oil or heavy oil under reduced pressure. Vacuum distillation column 2 is usually stacked plate, and light and heavy fractions of crude oil or heavy oil accumulated in the upper and lower parts, respectively.

Steam jet ejector 3, which is a device for reducing the pressure in the vacuum distillation column 2, sucks gas from the distillation column, causing the steam to flow at high speed, causing the pressure in the vacuum distillation column 2 is reduced to a value below atmospheric.

Next will be described variant of the method of production of electricity with high efficiency according to the present invention using option sist the station, pass through the heater 1 through the supply pipe L1 and served in a vacuum distillation column 2. As described above, the heater 1 is powered by steam, which was used to rotate a steam turbine to generate electricity. This steam having a pressure of about 20 kg/cm2G and a temperature of about 200-230oWith that heats the crude oil or heavy oil, the current in the heater 1, to a temperature of about 200oC.

The pressure in the inner cavity of the vacuum distillation column 2 is reduced by the suction action of the steam jet ejector 3. In the vacuum distillation column 2, the pressure is reduced (50 mm Od), crude oil or heavy oil is subjected to distillation, and the light fraction of crude oil or heavy oil effectively evaporates even at a temperature of approximately 200oC. Light and heavy fractions of crude oil or heavy oil is separated from the upper and lower parts of the vacuum distillation column 2, respectively.

As can be seen from the graphs of Fig. 2-6, which shows curves of evaporation of crude oil a-E (a-E indicate the classification of production areas, giving crude oil), the boiling point of the component is reduced under reduced pressure, and evaporation curves are shifted from (A) to Naya distillation.

Sodium, vanadium, potassium and other components that have a damaging effect on the gas turbine, of course, must be removed from the light fraction of crude oil or heavy oil. As shown by the present invention, components such as sodium, vanadium and potassium do not evaporate when the distillation of crude oil or heavy oil, because it is not present in the light fraction. Therefore, a light oil fraction can be a high quality fuel for gas turbines.

Light fraction of crude oil or heavy oil is fed into the separation tank so that it can be absorbed steam jet ejector 3, and is separated in the separation tank 4 on gaseous and liquid components. The liquid component, which is a light fraction of crude oil or heavy oil is supplied from the lower part of the separation tank 4 by the pump 7. Part of it circulates in the upper part of the vacuum distillation column 2, the rest of it accumulates in the storage tank 5. The gas component is withdrawn from the upper part of the separation tank 4. Light fraction is subjected to heat exchange with the crude oil or heavy oil in the heat exchanger 6 during the time period when she sucked pirastro is from the bottom of the vacuum distillation column 2 by the pump 8 and accumulates in the storage tank 10 for the heavy fraction. Pumped heavy fraction passes through the heat exchanger 9 towards cumulative Baku 10, which results in heat transfer between the heavy fraction and the crude oil or heavy oil and heat the oil or butter.

Light and heavy fractions of crude oil or heavy oil accumulated in the accumulation tanks 5 and 10, respectively, optionally selected for use as fuel. In some systems, light and heavy fraction of crude oil or heavy oil can be sent directly to the next stage of the process of energy production without passing through the storage tank.

Light fraction of crude oil or heavy oil is used as fuel for the gas turbine, and the heavy fraction is used as fuel for the steam generator. The combustion exhaust gas of the gas turbine as fuel for the steam generator, which is about 13% vol. or more oxygen, does not cause any obstacles to its combustion in the steam generator. Because the steam generator can be used effectively high temperature thermal energy of about 580oWith which the exhaust gas of a gas turbine, you can save lichen ratio of energy production in relation to the fuel. There may be overproduction of energy (repowering).

In addition, according to this variant of the method of production of energy can be used effectively couples, originally present in the plant, with no heat loss of exhaust gas in addition to the burden of processing SOxand NOxin the exhaust gas, because it is not used heating furnace. That is, in other words, the efficiency of energy production in the system of post-combustion exhaust gas can be further increased.

Although the present invention is described with reference to the variant shown in Fig.1, it is not limited to this option. All modifications, changes and additions that can easily be carried out by specialists in this field, within the scope of the present invention. In the preferred embodiment shown in Fig.1, a vacuum distillation column has a reduced pressure of 50 mm Hg. However, this negative pressure can vary from 30 mm Hg to 500 mm Hg, depending on conditions.

Method for the production of energy with high efficiency, designed for developing electrical energy the generator and the steam turbine, includes heating the crude oil or heavy oil by steam derived from a steam generator, conducting the distillation of crude oil or heavy oil under reduced pressure and the exercise of power generation by use of the received light fraction of crude oil or heavy oil as fuel for the gas turbine and through the use of heavy fractions of crude oil or heavy oil as fuel for the steam generator, the implementation of heat exchange between the crude oil or heavy oil, and either a light fraction of crude oil or heavy oil, or a heavy fraction of crude oil or heavy oil, resulting mentioned crude oil or heavy oil is heated, thus as a means for lowering the pressure in the vacuum distillation using steam jet ejector.

 

Same patents:

The invention relates to methods of producing oxidation products and electricity generation using solid electrolytic an ion-conductive membrane or membranes with mixed conductivity, combined with a gas turbine

The invention relates to the oil and gas industry, where there are explosive objects, and can be used in process operations and emergency situations to fill and purge cavities neutral (inert) gas

The invention relates to gas turbine units (GTU), and in particular, implementing waste heat of exhaust gases using thermochemical reactor for the conversion of fuel

The invention relates to gas turbine engines and installations for various purposes and can be used in the aviation, transport, marine, locomotive and stationary power plants

The invention relates to a burner, in particular for a gas turbine with a catalytic combustor

The invention relates to a gas turbine for burning combustible gas

The invention relates to the oil and gas industry, where there are explosive objects, and can be used in process operations and emergency situations to fill and purge cavities neutral (inert) gas

The invention relates to gas turbine engines, using cryogenic fuels: liquefied natural gas or liquid hydrogen

The invention relates to the field of gas and can be used to create installations for fire fighting, including forestry, oil and gas, fires in high-rise buildings, libraries, museums

Power plant // 2190104
The invention relates to a power system, in particular to energy plants

Unit // 2174611
The invention relates to power units of thermal power plants (TPP), vehicles and is used for generation of electricity and thermal energy

The invention relates to power engineering, transport engineering, engine

The invention relates to a power system

The invention relates to energy, transport, mechanical engineering and can be used as a transport and stationary internal combustion engines

Combi boiler // 2115000

FIELD: heat power and chemical industries, applicable in production of ammonia.

SUBSTANCE: in the method for steam generation at production of ammonia from hydrocarbon gases, saturation of the hydrocarbon gas after desulfurization and/or process air fed to the secondary reforming is effected due to the use of the flue gas of a tube furnace at a temperature of 160 to 580C, preferably within 220 to 480C, by means of water recirculation.

EFFECT: reduced consumption of energy due to reduction of the total amount of generated steam, reduced consumption of feed water, and recovered gases dissolved in the process condensate.

4 cl, 1 dwg

Up!