Prefabricated element made of laminated wood, the manufacturing method and arrangement using precast element

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the construction and relates to prefabricated element made of laminated wood, containing at least three interconnected layers of wooden parts that are installed directly next to each other and made in the form of boards or racks, while the wooden parts of at least two layers have different directions. Provides for the connection of the individual layers dowels, penetrating layers of wooden parts. The technical result of the invention is to provide opportunities for the construction of wooden buildings is homogeneous. 3 S. and 9 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill.

The invention relates to a prefabricated element made of glued laminated wood.

In the construction of prefabricated elements used prefabricated elements made in the form of a wall and/or ceiling elements, mounted on the building site. It is known that such elements can be produced in the form of concrete mounting blocks. In addition, it is known that such items if they are intended for use as wall elements are in the form of light building boards made of wood wool, wood stoves, and cannot be used as structural components. Further known wall elements representing a frame closed by plates-shells and filled with an insulating material. These items are also not suitable for use as load-bearing elements.

In the construction of wooden houses known frame method, according to which of glued wooden trusses constructed framing walls, then fill materials are not capable or partially able to carry a load. The method of frame construction is not suitable for use in the construction of prefabricated elements.

Finally it is known modular construction, in which massive wooden beams horizontally stacked one on another in layers. Method of modular construction is also not suitable for the construction of prefabricated elements. The horizontal position of the beams can lead to different sediment and thus to the warping of the walls.

In addition, there are known various systems in which the load-bearing wall or ceiling elements made of glued or nailed together by nails layers of boards.

Known elements of glued laminated wood, for example coreboard, consist of several layers glued together sobo is imeneniya supplementary binders inevitably have radiation. In addition, a binder form a diffusion barrier, preventing or impeding moisture. Chemical binders such as synthetic glue, etc. also creates problems when removing the residual and used material, as by burning allocated harmful compounds. Another disadvantage is that there is not sufficient experience with respect to the elements of glued laminated wood, which makes it difficult to draw reliable conclusions about aging and qualitative changes after decades of their operation as the wall elements. Such elements are made of glued laminated wood is described, for example, in patents AU 80770/82 In, SU 1377352 And or EP 0194238 Century

The application is already in another context, the key itself is also known. For example, in the patent DE 727246 AND shows a corner connection for the manufacture of a torsionally rigid window frames, in which the connection between two structural elements in the tongue and groove is additionally fixed with a key. However, these gussets may be used only in certain cases and not suitable for the wall elements.

The basis of the invention is to eliminate these disadvantages and create ELEH the data Gvozdeva compounds. In addition, in the invention include provision of a wooden building structures and supporting structures, in particular houses, which would combine the advantages of monolithic construction with the advantages of the construction of prefabricated elements.

According to the invention this is achieved in that the connection of the individual layers is preferably carried out exclusively by the dowels passing through layers of wooden parts are essentially perpendicular. This creates the element of glued laminated wood, which can be completely made without the use of chemical or metal binders. A particularly good connection of the individual layers is achieved by placing dowels in the form of a raster grid. Preferably, the element made of glued laminated wood had completely homogeneous and was made entirely of wood. Waste and used items will be removed without problems.

In order to improve the static properties and the stiffness of the element of glued laminated wood it provides a minimum of three layers of wooden parts, and the wooden parts of at least one inner layer is preferably formed by hour the racks, preferably adjacent to each other. At least one outer layer of wooden elements can be formed boards.

To achieve good static properties and high load capacity element of glued laminated wood in the longitudinal direction is preferable that the thickness of layers of wooden parts was approximately from 8 to 120 mm, the Thickness of the individual layers is set in accordance with specific requirements, with the inner layers usually are calculated taking into account static and outer layers with regard to acoustic and thermal insulation properties. Therefore, the thickness of layers can be increased either from outside to inside or from inside to outside. Of course, you can also perform all layers of the same thickness. The width of individual wooden parts can be from 40 to 400 mm

In a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention to provide a connection between the dowels and wooden parts essentially force closure by increasing the volume keys in the alignment of moisture between the wood layers and wedges. In the manufacture of items made of glued laminated wood moisture content wedges red eye reduction is in wooden parts, moreover, the dimensions of the cross sections of the dowels and holes is chosen so that due to the volume expansion dowels in the humidity alignment between the wooden parts and the keys had any connection with the power circuit. For the purposeful use of different moisture content of the wood dowels and wooden parts of the individual layers is achieved particularly high quality connection. Pins respectively are dried to a greater extent than the Board, resulting after the formation of the keyway absorb water from the surrounding wood, aligning humidity. This causes a volumetric expansion and excellent jamming of the keys, and also increases their resistance to extraction. For more reliability and faster processing are provided with fixing pins by driving wedges from their ends. In the manufacture of the element of glued laminated wood full consolidation of the dowels cannot be achieved at once, because the alignment humidity requires a certain time. In the case of driving wedges into the key element of plywood, with the ultimate strength may be immediately removed from the press. This allows to speed up production is inev a suitable mixture of cottage cheese, lime and water, which, in particular, enhances the effect of swelling. Similar to the composition of many years ago was called casein glue and applied to wood connections.

Using this proposed according to the invention the elements of the glued laminated wood in building construction in many cases it is necessary for the perception of building the forces of the wind to provide high resistance of the cutting elements to the efforts in the plane of the structural element. In the walls of rectangular structures in the wind load may experience shear forces, oriented parallel to the direction of the wind, which, with the lack of resistance can cause parallelogrammatic deformation elements of glued laminated wood. In normal circumstances, this deformation is prevented by the friction between the individual layers of wood. Because calculation of friction forces in some cases is difficult, provides a layer of diagonally oriented wooden parts. This will allow you to easily provide the appropriate strength characteristics, including the emergence of large wind effort.

This sbobetonline nodes, in particular, in wall, ceiling and roof elements, and the connection is preferably in the tongue and groove, a cutting creeping in, in the form of a dovetail and/or bolts.

The idea of this method of wood construction consists in the manufacture of wall, ceiling and roof elements from different layers of boards or wooden racks, and individual parts are arranged in the plane of the element in different directions. The connection of the individual layers between them is done using wooden dowels placed in a raster grid. Static requirements for the particular item based on its use as a wall, ceiling or roofing element and depending on the static load is performed by appropriate choice of the dimensions (thickness) of the individual layers.

Achieved thereby static properties and stiffness of the individual elements are given the opportunity to build a multi-storey building structure without an additional frame of the load-bearing beams or other materials.

Wall items upright inside the layered bandaging element, fastened with wooden dowels, perceived effort due to their are layers of boards and racks in the longitudinal direction, respectively, ceiling or roof span.

Due to the mutual offset of the wood fibers in the elements and vertical to the direction of wood fibers in the walls of sediment latter is not happening, which ensures long-term sustainability of the buildings.

The fact that the elements are made entirely of wood, gives erected of these beautiful buildings construction and physiological properties. The walls are completely open to diffusion, which allows moisture to diffuse into them. Radiation emanating from synthetic glue, are excluded. In addition, this method of construction allows the use of wall structures of any thickness, resulting in structures having an appropriate thickness, provided excellent value To (coefficients Fikentscher) without additional insulating material. Elements of solid wood for walls and ceilings give a very good sound and due to the production solely of wood perfectly meet all environmental requirements.

Walls and ceilings made of such elements of solid wood, are handled very simply and efficiently. For laying of pipelines and cables can be a simple way wireservice edenia nails in the walls, screws or dowels. In addition, due to the target passes the individual layers of racks or boards during manufacturing and at the expense of the free installation of the neighboring wooden elements, as well as by milling openings can be created in advance in the elements of the system cable mines.

Previously in the manufacture or subsequently at the construction elements can accommodate a variety of insulation systems, such as full thermal protection, a base for plaster and vented from the back side facades.

The invention is explained in more detail below using examples of execution represented in the drawings, on which:

Fig.1 shows schematically a perspective view of an element of glued laminated wood according to the invention;

Fig. 2 - the image according to Fig.1, showing a slightly modified element of glued laminated wood;

Fig.3 is a schematic partial cross-section of the element of glued laminated wood according to the invention.

Element 1 made of glued laminated wood consists of several layers 2A, 2b, 2C, 2d, 2E and 2f wooden parts 3A, 3b, 3C, 3d, 3e and 3f. While the wooden parts 3A, 3b and 3C or 3d, 3E and 3f adjacent layers matched the us in the form of equally oriented racks. The thickness of the siwooden parts 3C, 3d of the inner layers 2C and 2d is larger than the thickness saand smwooden parts 2A, 2b or 2E and 2f, respectively, of the outer layers 3A, 3b or 3E and 3f.

Layers 2A-2f are connected by pins 4, which are inserted into the wooden parts 3A-3f approximately perpendicular to the layers 2A-2f. The pins 4 are in the form of a raster grid.

The thickness of the si, sa, smlayers 2A-2f can, depending on the destination and the static requirements to vary in the range from 8 mm to 120 mm and freely combined. The special quality of the connection between the individual layers 2A-2f and dowels 4 is achieved by targeted use of different wood moisture of 4 dowels and wooden parts 3A-3f. Pins 4 dried respectively stronger than the wooden parts 3A-3f, resulting after the formation of the keyway, they absorb water from the surrounding wood, aligning humidity. This causes a volumetric expansion dowels 4, their excellent jamming and the strength of the recovery. The diameters of dowels 4 depending on the thickness and application conditions can range from 8 to 40 mm Length of pins varies from the thickness of the individual layers 2A-2f to the thickness of the whole taken with each other in the usual way in the tongue and groove milling notches for signature or in the dovetail. Similarly, you can implement and corner joints. For corner joints additionally apply large dowels thickness up to 100 mm according to the above principle, the strategic use of different wood moisture.

The element of laminated wood according to Fig.2 largely corresponds to the element of Fig.1. The same parts are marked in the same positions. The only difference is that the layer 2E' consists of wooden parts 3E' installed approximately 45ocompared to other wooden parts. The direction of the passage of these wooden parts 3E' is shown in broken lines.

In Fig.3 in an enlarged scale shows the key 4, penetrating the layers 2A-2f. On each end side in the key 4 hammered the wedge 5 with the aim of fixing it before happens alignment humidity.

Using elements 1 made of laminated wood can be built multi-storey buildings without additional supporting forests on the principle of construction of prefabricated elements. This can be made a separate walls in the floor or modular constructive is gcih elements 1 made of laminated wood in the ceiling or roof elements could overlap along the length field of the load between the two legs. Similarly, this method can be performed in-ceiling or roof elements at the full length of the floor, and, of course, consider the static requirements.

Clearly it is possible to arbitrarily vary the number of layers, and the ratio between the layers with vertical boards and layers with horizontal or diagonally spaced boards.

1. Prefabricated element 1 made of laminated wood, containing at least three interconnected layers 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e, 2f wooden parts 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, 3e, 3f, installed directly next to each other and made in the form of boards or racks, and the wooden parts 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, 3e, 3f at least two adjacent layers 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e, 2f have different directions, characterized in that what element 1 made of laminated wood is an element of homogeneous composition and is made only from wood, and the connection of the individual layers 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e, 2f is performed by the keys 4, penetrating the layers 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e, 2f wooden parts 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, 3e, 3f.

2. Prefabricated element 1 made of laminated wood under item 1, characterized in that the pins 4 are placed in a raster grid.

3. Prefabricated element 1 made of laminated wood under item 1 or 2, characterized in that h is 3d, 3E, made in the form of racks, and that the rack is displaced in width relative to one another.

4. Prefabricated element 1 made of laminated wood on one of the PP.1-3, characterized in that at least one outer layer 2a, 2f wooden parts 3a, 3f formed boards.

5. Prefabricated element 1 made of laminated wood on one of the PP.1-4, characterized in that the thickness of the sa, sm, silayers 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e, 2f wooden parts 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, 3e, 3f increases from outside to inside, the thickness of the sa, sm, silayers 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e, 2f is preferably from about 8 to 120 mm

6. Prefabricated element 1 made of laminated wood on one of the PP.1-4, characterized in that the thickness of the sa, sm, silayers 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e, 2f wooden parts 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, 3e, 3f increases from the inside to the outside, the thickness of the sa, sm, silayers 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e, 2f is preferably from about 8 to 120 mm

7. Prefabricated element 1 made of laminated wood on one of the PP.1-6, characterized in that at least one layer 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e, 2f has pasofino the recess, and the recess is formed preferably by milling or free installation of the neighboring wooden parts 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, 3e, 3f.

9. Prefabricated element 1 made of laminated wood on one of the PP.1-8, characterized in that the pins 4 on the ends of the fixed wedges 5.

10. Prefabricated element 1 made of laminated wood on one of the PP.1-9, characterized in that, along with parallel or perpendicular to each other layers 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2f provides an extra layer 2e' wooden parts 3e', situated obliquely with respect to the other layers 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2f.

11. A method of manufacturing a prefabricated element 1 made of laminated wood on one of the PP.1-10, characterized in that the moisture content of the veneer 4 is reduced in relation to the moisture content of wooden parts 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, 3e, 3f layers 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e, 2f and dry the pins 4 are placed in the holes of the layers 2a, 2b, 2c, 2d, 2e, 2f wooden parts 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, 3e, 3f, and the sizes of cross-sections of 4 dowels and holes are chosen so that due to the volume expansion dowels 4 due to the humidity alignment between the wooden parts 3a, 3b, 3c, 3d, 3e, 3f and 4 dowels carried out the connection with the power zamacueca fact, several prefabricated elements 1 made of laminated wood combine in large sites, in particular in the wall, ceiling and roof elements, and the connection is preferably by way of a tongue and groove, a cutting creeping in, in the form of a dovetail and/or bolts.

 

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