Multilayer-composite wear-resistant coating

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention can be used in machining industries to obtain a wear-resistant coatings on the working surfaces of the products in the form of cutting and stamping tools, as well as friction pairs. The coating contains adhesive sublayer, transient and alternating layers of refractory compounds. The adhesion underlayer contains at least one element from the composition of the material and/or its connection and one element of the composition transition layer coating and/or its connection. The transition layer contains a refractory metal compounds IV and/or V and/or VI groups. First of alternating layers contains a refractory metal compounds IV and/or V and/or VI groups doped with aluminum, and the second refractory metal compounds mentioned groups. Adhesive sublayer may optionally contain active metals from a number of Ti and/or Zr and/or V and/or Cr and/or Al, restored from oxides in the environment of hydrogen, in the amount of 5-30 wt.%. The total coating thickness is selected depending on the type of instrument. Between the coating and the material of the product may be further performed hardening sublayer. The invention improves the durability and reliability p of the second modification of surface properties of various products and in particular, wear-resistant coatings mainly for products in the form of cutting and stamping tools, as well as the friction pairs, which can be synthesized by ion-plasma methods. Such coatings can be used in engineering and, in particular, in the machining industries.

Art

Known multilayer wear resistant coatings on machine parts and/or cutting tool carbide (application France 2576668, 1987).

The coating is applied at high temperatures and contains layers of zirconium, chromium, titanium, tantalum, Nickel, followed by the application of nitride layers of the elements of the sublayer. The disadvantage of this wear-resistant coating is high temperature synthesis, which does not allow to obtain a coating on the material from poltalloch and instrumental and heat resistant structural steels, having a temperature of vacation considerably below the temperature of fusion of the coating, in addition due to the relatively high adhesive activity and low strength of the coating chances are it intensive destruction, especially under the influence of high thermo-mechanical loads during operation of the product.

A disadvantage of the known technical solution is relatively low wear resistance of products with similar coverage under the action of high performance thermo-mechanical stresses, especially if they are cyclic in nature, due to the high tendency of the coatings to the intensive micro and/or macro-failure in the zones of contact with the processed material (cutting and stamping tool) or the counterbody (pair thorns). Specified caused by the presence in the lower layer coating only compounds of refractory metals of the IV, V and VI groups of the Periodic table of elements that do not provide sufficient adhesion strength between the materials of the lower layer of coating material especially if the value of the Isobaric potential reactions between them has a positive value when the temperature of the synthesis and coating. In addition, the high probability of critical tensile stresses at the boundaries of the section "coating-product" sledy) coating on the limits of the section. Intensive destruction of the coating may occur and result in loss of shape of the cutting tool, resulting from more intensive reduction of the length of contact, compared with a decrease of the normal stress, resulting in increased contact stresses and displacement plots the maximum temperature for cutting edges, which leads to mikropascal material directly under the coating and, consequently, the destruction of the fragile coating. In addition, due to the emergence of "edge effects" associated with the formation of the critical stress fracture on radial sections of the cutting edges of the tool when there is too much difference in the coefficients of thermal conductivity of the coating materials and products and sub-optimal ratio of coating thickness and the radius of the rounding of the edges, the probability of complete detachment of the coating in these areas.

These fundamental shortcomings can be eliminated when applying the product multi-layer composite coating, providing a more favorable combination of crystal-chemical, physico-mechanical and thermo-physical properties of the coating layers and the material of the products, as well as with the introduction of the operational thermomechanical stresses. The product with a similar design multi-layer composite coating will be longer to resist the macro - and microfracture due to longer time of operation of the coating, reducing thermo-mechanical loads on the workpiece material, and the latter creates more favorable conditions of work the floor because of better resistance to mikropascal and plastic deformation.

The essence of the invention.

The present invention is the improvement of the performance characteristics of products and, in particular, its durability (resistance) and the reliability of the operation - time-to-failure at a given its probability

In this proposal the solution of the stated problem is achieved by using multi-layer composite coating that is applied to surfaces of various products and contains adhesive sub-layer adjacent the transition layer of refractory compounds and alternating layers of refractory compounds, characterized in that the adhesion underlayer contains at least one element from the material composition of the product and/or its connection and one element of the composition transition layer coating alternating layers, one of which contains a mixture of refractory metal compounds IV and/or V and/or VI groups, alloyed aluminum, other refractory metal compounds IV, V and VI groups.

The drawing shows the floor with a serial arrangement of layers according to the present invention.

Multi-layer composite coating consists of alternating 1, 2 and the transition layer 3, the adhesive 4 and hardening 5 sublayers applied to the material.

Composite adhesive sublayer 4, with crystal-chemical similarity of the structures of the product material and the adjacent layer of the coating, provides a strong adhesive bond between them, thus slozhnosokrashchennoe composition has a high thermodynamic stability and has a small difference in the physico-mechanical and thermal properties relative to the properties of the reinforcing substrate 5, materials, articles 6 and the transition of the coating layer 3. When forming the adhesive sub-layer 4, having a maximum crystal-chemical compatibility with the material of the product dramatically reduces the probability of formation of the critical tensile stresses at the boundaries of the section "coating - material products is stalagmites compatibility of the adhesive 4, transitional 3 and alternating functional layers 1, 2 coating significantly reduced the main sources of generation of dislocations and other defects, creating a barrier to the motion of cracks and dislocations.

To increase the hardness and thermodynamic stability at the optimum combination of strength and hardness, as well as reduce the physical-chemical activity in relation to the external environment 7 (counterbody for friction pairs or processed material for cutting and stamping tools) in the composition of the alternating layer 2 adjacent to the transitional layer 3, insert of refractory metal compounds IV and/or V and/or VI groups doped with aluminum. The formation of the special properties of one of the alternating layers of 2 (functional layer) coating allows not only to increase the durability of the product, but also to ensure high reliability of its operation due to the barrier function, preventing the flow of heat into the product and reduce the intensity interdiffusion processes between the crystal structures of the workpiece and tool materials. Introduction aluminum in the composition of the functional layer leads to the formation of multicomponent compounds of transition metals of IV-VI is of type sp3and s2p6giving the crystal lattice high hardness and rigidity, as well as extremely high resistance to wear. The introduction of more plastic layer 1 having a high thermodynamic stability when exposed to operational termomekhanicheskikh stress, reduces the probability of brittle fracture of a hard, wear-resistant, but relatively brittle layer 2. The alloying metal compounds of group IV and V metals of group VI leads to the creation of heterophase structures and further reduce the physico-chemical activity of the layer 1 with respect to the external environment 7.

Finally, the introduction of the reinforcing substrate 5 between the coating and the material of the product, which can be formed by additional physico-mechanical impact on the surface structure of the material, increases its rigidity, resistance mikropascal, thermoplastic deformation, thereby increasing durability of the coating and increase the efficiency of the product. Reinforcing layer can be formed by additional ion impact on the surface structure of the workpiece material (for example, by nitriding, stimulated electron is visionnage sublayer 4, transitional 3 and alternating layers 1, 2, reinforcing substrate 5 containing multicomponent system connections, in the aggregate, have a high wear resistance and durability, low chemical activity in relation to the contact material 7 in combination with high levels of thermal stability, corrosion resistance, adhesion strength relative to the material 6 and cohesive strength between the coating layers 1, 2, 3, 4. These properties are realized only when combined layers in different operating conditions of the products offered mnogosloino-composite wear-resistant coating.

The maximum efficiency of the product with the proposed coverage is provided only when the thickness of multi-layer composite coating, which depends on the magnitude of the radius of rounding of the cutting edges in the cutting tool, the technological cutting and varies from 0.1 to 0.7 on the radius of the rounding of the cutting edges of the tool for operations continuous cutting (turning, drilling, and other). For interrupted cutting operations (milling, planing and other) total coating thickness is reduced by 20-40%. The effectiveness of the instrument Cecilia in the form of an instrument applicable for continuous cutting operations, is provided when the thickness of the reinforcing substrate within 5-10 of the total thickness of the coating for continuous cutting operations and reduced by 10-20% for interrupted cutting operations.

The proposed multi-layer composite wear-resistant coating contribute to strengthening the resilience of the products in the form of cutting tools of different kinds of wear corrosion-oxidation, adhesion fatigue and diffusion, which is the main cause of increasing the longevity and reliability of the products. In particular, products in the form of cutting and stamping tools have increased the time-to-failure with a high probability of trouble-free operation especially when intermittent contact in terms of material processing with low technological properties (special materials), and if necessary, re-sharpening tool on one of the working surfaces during operation. In addition, when using cutting or punching tools with the proposed coating with very low physical-chemical activity in relation to the processed material, significantly increasing the Oia, reduce friction and shear stresses in the immediate area of the surface of the workpiece.

The proposed solution is implemented as follows.

The product is manufactured in the form of a cutting tool with a carefully prepared surface is cleaned, placed in the chamber of the vacuum-arc installation, which was carried out by the synthesis process of the multi-layer composite coating by the method of condensation of matter from the plasma phase with pre ion bombardment method (CIB). The plant is equipped with three evaporators, which can operate simultaneously, special gazeteciler, allowing you to enter into the chamber up to 3 gases simultaneously with tight regulation of their number that gave the opportunity to synthesize various compounds of refractory metals, carbides, nitrides, carbonitrides, oxides and others ). The speed of rotation of the tool in the camera in the process of cleaning products and synthesis of coatings on their surfaces is 2.5-50 rpm

The technological process of synthesis of multi-layer composite coatings was carried out according to the following scheme.

Option 1. Multilayer-composite snootie ISO) after placement in the chamber of the ion-vacuum unit. Established three cathode of titanium, chromium and aluminum.

Next produced the formation of the adhesion sublayer adjacent and alternating layers of the coating at a bias voltage to the cleaning processes and thermo-activation in the range of 0.8-1.0 kV, and the processes of synthesis of 0.15-0.2 kV. Cleaning and thermal activation of the surface produced at a pressure of 10-3PA, and the deposition of the adhesion sublayer and the coating layers at a pressure of reactive gas (nitrogen) in the range of 10-1-10-2PA at the arc current of 80-120 A. the Process is carried out at a temperature of 700oC.

Adhesive sublayer formed when two evaporators - titanium and chromium, the transition layer during the evaporation of titanium, chromium and the flow of nitrogen, the first of alternating layers with the inclusion of three evaporators (titanium, chromium, aluminum) and the supply of nitrogen, the second of alternating layers formed during operation of titanium evaporator and the flow of nitrogen. The thickness of the coating and adhesion sublayer depends on the technological cutting the processed material, the geometry and shape of the cutting part of the tool. In our case, the total thickness of the coating was 2-12 μm when the thickness of the adhesive sublayer of about 0.8 μm, when the value of the carbide inserts VC-HOM (2% GHS, 88% WC, 10% Co) of the same shape as in embodiment 1. Established three cathode of zirconium, niobium and aluminum.

The formation of the reinforcing substrate (IA) was produced as follows. After preliminary evacuation chamber to a pressure of p=10-2PA in the installation was filled with a neutral gas (such as argon) to a pressure of 210-1PA, and then spent thermal activation carbide inserts by exposure to electron beam, auctioning from plasma sustained gas discharge to temperatures of 600-650oWhen the electron current density of 0.01 A/cm2. Then conducted preliminary cleaning of the plates when the voltage bias of 0.8-1.2 kV, a current density of 0.05-of 0.11 A/cm2and it's time to clean 3-7 minutes. The temperature of the plates is increased to 700-720oC. Then made direct formation of hardening sublayer (IA) at a voltage of 0.2-0.3 kV and 1-3 nitrogen pressure PA within 20-60 minutes

Next process was performed similarly to option 1.

Adhesive sublayer formed when two evaporators zirconium and niobium, the transition layer by evaporation of zirconium and niobium and the flow of nitrogen, the first of alternating layers with the inclusion of three evaporators feeding nitrogen.

For plates with a radius of 20-30 μm, the total thickness of the coating was 2-12 μm when the thickness of the adhesive sublayer is about 0.3-0.8 μm and the thickness of the reinforcing substrate (IA) of about 10-100 microns.

Option 3. The coating was applied on twist drills f=6 mm, of high speed steel R6M5 (6% W 5% Mo) with geometric parameters of the cutting part =11o, =55o, 2=118o. Established three cathode zirconium, chromium and aluminum. The process of forming the reinforcing layer was carried out as follows. After preliminary evacuation chamber to a pressure of p=5,010-2PA in the vacuum chamber was filled with a neutral gas (such as argon) to a pressure of 110-1-310-1PA and spent thermoactivation working surfaces drills by exposure to electron beam, auctioning from plasma sustained gas discharge temperature 420-480oWith the following values of the parameters of the technological process: the electron current density of 0.01 A/cm2; the pressure in the chamber is 0.5-10 PA; the bias potential of the tool 40 In; the time of thermo-activation 10-12 minutes Technological process of forming a multilayer composite coating was carried out under option 1, however, the temperature of the process is Vuh evaporators - titanium and chromium, the transition layer during the evaporation of titanium, chromium and the flow of nitrogen, the first of alternating layers enabling evaporation of titanium and aluminum and the flow of nitrogen, the second of alternating layers by evaporation of titanium and feeding nitrogen. For drills having a radius in the range of 5-6 microns, the total coating thickness was 2.0 to 3.5 μm when the thickness of the adhesion and hardening of sublayers, respectively, of 0.5 μm and 15 to 35 microns.

Then cutting tools were subjected to tests in the identification of key indicators of efficiency average values of resistance and coefficient of variation of resistance.

The tests were carried out when turning steel 45 HB 180 (v = 200 m/min; S=0.3 mm/min; t= 1.0 mm) cutters with inserts MS with the control and the proposed coatings, turning chromium-Nickel alloy HNTR (v=30 m/min; S=0.15 mm/Rev, t=1 mm) cutters with inserts UK-XOM with mechanical fastening removable multi-faceted plates control and the proposed coatings on machine K, as well as the machining of holes in workpieces of steel 40X HB 200 drills in steel R6M5, with the proposed control and coating machine N (v=30 m/min; S=0,3 rpm I=30 mm), symmetrical face milling of steel 40X HB 200 cutters, Oh (v=170 m/min; In=140 mm; t=2 mm; S2=0.3 mm/tooth).

In the process of testing the tool with the proposed control and coatings produced periodic measurement of tool wear on the contact surfaces depending on the length of the path of the cutting tool microscope MBS-2. As a criterion of tool life took limiting value of chamfer wear a back surface of 0.5 mm, which was estimated mean time between failure (resistance) on the graph of h3=f (). Produced statistical processing of the obtained data to estimate average values of resistance and coefficient of its variations. The rate of increase of resistance was estimated as the ratio of the resistance to the accepted criteria of wear of coated tools offer and control (in accordance with the provisions of the prototype) composition and uncoated.

The results of comparative life tests are presented in the table.

Comparative analysis of the data given in the table shows that the tool life of the proposed multi-layer composite coating was 2.5-3.0 times higher tool life control coverage offered in the prototype, and the ratio VA is

1. Multilayer-composite wear-resistant coating applied to surfaces of various products containing adhesive sublayer, transient and alternating layers of refractory compounds, characterized in that the adhesion underlayer contains at least one element from the material composition of the product and/or its connection and one element of the composition transition layer coating and/or its connection, with the transition layer contains a refractory metal compounds IV and/or V and/or VI groups, the first of alternating layers contains a refractory metal compounds IV and/or V, and/or VI groups doped with aluminum, and the second refractory metal compounds IV and/or V and/or VI groups.

2. The floor under item 1, characterized in that the adhesive sublayer further comprises an active metal from a number of Ti and/or Zr and/or V and/or CR and/or Al, restored from oxides in the environment of hydrogen, in the amount of 5-30 wt.%.

3. The floor under item 1, characterized in that the total thickness of the coating is 0.1-0.7 of the radius of the cutting edge products in the form of instrument used for continuous cutting operations, and 20-40% below the tool used for interrupted cutting operations.

4. Poke sublayer, the thickness of which is 5 to 10 times more than the total thickness of the coating for the product in the form of instrument used for continuous cutting operations, and 10-20% below the tool used for interrupted cutting operations.

 

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