The method of hardening of tools and parts and installation for implementing the method

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of engineering, in particular to metal. The technical result of the invention is to improve the wear resistance of cutting tools and parts due to changes in the internal structure of dislocation structures in metal. Drill steel R6M5 heated in a furnace up to 270oWith, place them in cassettes, which are secured to opposite side walls of the resonance chamber using tape suspensions and immersed in oil with ultrafine powder of natural minerals and mixtures thereof from the group of mineral silicates, various structural modifications of the composition of Mg3[Si2O5] (OH)4. Through the slot receiver is blown into the resonant chamber compressed air, creating pulses of sound pressure, and with the help of wedge carry out the regulation of the frequency of acoustic oscillations. The frequency of acoustic oscillations varied in the range 500-1500 Hz when the thickness of the acoustic oscillations 140-160 dB. The tool and parts affected in the nodal zone of the longitudinal vibrations of the acoustic power pulses and excited bending mechanical oscillations with a resonance chamber, which create the stress gradient and the deformation gradient throughout the volume. Due to the combined effect is an increase in the density of defects in the crystal structure, and rearrangement of the dislocation structure, which results in changes in the mechanical properties, increased hardness, wear resistance and ductility of the instrument and details in General. 2 S. and 2 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il.

The invention relates to metal working and can be used in engineering to improve wear resistance of machine parts and tools.

There is a method of hardening products of high speed steel (see Y. A. Geller, 1975, Tool steel, Moscow, metallurgy, pages 427-437), including hardening and tempering according to the standard mode, providing the steel hardness of not less than 63 HRC.

A known method of thermal hardening (see R. J. Razin, 1978, Heat treatment chrome-plated steel, Moscow, pp. 238-240), based on heating the workpiece to a temperature of austenization are determined, quenching in a cooling medium at a temperature of bainite transformation, cooling and dispensing.

However, the constant increase in the intensity of the processes in the Metalworking place new demands on the quality of the cutting tool.

Investitori blows fraction causes plastic deformation of the workpiece surface, creating a surface hardening.

The known method of heat treatment (see M. A. Cristal, 1973, Structure and properties of alloys, processing of laser radiation, Moscow, PP 90-92) by exposure to radiation of the laser in free-running mode with a certain duration and pulse energy on the surface of the metal and alloys.

There is a method of enhancing products mainly from low-carbon low-alloyed iron-based alloys (see B. C. Biron, 1977, Application of ultrasound during thermal processing of metals, Moscow, metallurgy, pages 91-92), including quenching and acoustic effects at the set of acoustic parameters, temperature and time.

The use of ultrasound in the treatment of the material of the cutting tool can improve its durability, reduce internal residual stress, improves durability and reliability, and also provides savings of high-alloyed material.

Famous sound generator (see AC SU N 402399 IPC 01/18 06, 1971), comprising a housing, a nozzle and resonator.

A device for strengthening the incisors (see AC SU N 1502632 IPC C 21 D 07/00, 1989), including heating and exposure shot, causing PLA is ETANA fraction does not allow to use widely known technical solution.

In the technique known operation, consisting in the change of the surface layers of metal by heating using laser beam or electron beam and the self-cooling using the cooling water, oil, air, therefore, due to local heating of the metal to the temperature of its transformation and rapid cooling can increase the strength of the heated part of the metal that change the composition of the alloys, the change of crystallization structure.

Known use as solid lubricants materials having a layered lattice structures, in which the communication between the layers is weak, and within a layer is strong enough, and such structures have some sulfides, nitrides, selenides, tellurides and other heavy metal compounds, also known use as solid lubricants: boron oxide, silicates, phosphates (see Proceedings of international scientific conference, 1985, so 2, Moscow, page 348, Friction, wear and lubrication materials; D. Klaman, 1988, Lubricants and related products, Moscow, Chemistry, page 488; Tribology: research and applications: the experience of the US and countries of the CIS, 1993, Under. editor C. A. White, Moscow, Mashinostroenie, page 454).

A known method of forming a protective H parts friction, includes the manufacturer of the repair composition (primary care), which is an alloy containing sodium and lithium, and tin, antimony or bismuth, and the alloy grind, introducing lubricant together with halides and serves on the friction surface, then the process operation details the coating is formed, chemically active components of the alloy (sodium and lithium) interact with water part of the lubrication and destroy the second component of the alloy (tin, antimony or bismuth), fine particles which are transferred to the rubbing surfaces, pre-proreagirovali with halogen, while on the friction surfaces melkodispersionnyy halogen tin, antimony or bismuth due to the large pressure of the oil wedge is diffused into the wear surface and restore it, forming a thin, elastic, wear-resistant layer of soft metal.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is way thermoacoustic processing tool and parts (see patent RU N 2040551 IPC C 21 D 01/04, 25.07.95), comprising heating to a temperature tempering and hardening, which is carried out in the resonator for 5-10 min in a sound field with the frequency of vibration of 24 kHz.

atent EN N 2040551 IPC C 21 D 01/04, 25.07.95) containing the site of heat, made in the form of a furnace, and the deformation is realized in the form of a system of generating a sound field having a receiver cavity with a vibrating wedge and the compressed air, while the receiver is made in the form of a metal box with a slit on the wall with the regulatory gap in the range of 1-2 mm, resonator mounted on the wall box with the slit, and the vibrating wedge set at the level of the crack.

The disadvantage of the invention is not efficient enough to increase operational properties voiced tools and parts.

The technical result of the invention is to increase the wear resistance of tools and parts due to changes in the internal structure of dislocation structures in metal. The technical result is achieved in that in the method of hardening of tools and parts, comprising heating to a temperature of vacation and acoustic effects at the set of acoustic parameters, and the time, tools and parts are placed in the resonant chamber containing oil with ultrafine powder of natural mineral or a mixture of natural minerals, selected from a series of layered silicates, including different is th acoustic pulses and excited bending mechanical oscillations with a resonance chamber, causing changes in the level of stress of the dislocation structure of the internal structure of the tools and components by creating a gradient of the stress and the deformation gradient throughout the volume of tools and parts.

The content of natural mineral oil ranges from 0.005 to 0.02 g/L.

Acoustic effects govern in the frequency range 500-1500 Hz and the power of sound 140-160 dB.

In the peening tools and parts, containing the node heat, made in the form of the furnace, the resonant chamber with a wedge, a source of compressed gas, a receiver with slot nozzle located opposite the wedge to create sound waves in the chamber on the side opposite walls of the resonance chamber on the tape suspensions fixed cassette with tools and parts immersed in the resonant chamber with oil and ultrafine powder of natural mineral or a mixture of natural minerals, selected from a series of layered silicates, including various structural modifications of the composition of Mg3[Si205] (OH)4in the nodal zone of the plane of the longitudinal vibrations of the acoustic pulses and excited bending mechanical oscillations of the camera.

The essence of the proposed Ani (sound, ultrasonic, laser) with dislocation structure of the metal associated with the ability of dislocations (see TSB, 1976, T. 25, pages 54-56) to perceive the energy of the oscillatory motion applied from the outside that causes the metal structure the flow of irreversible processes (see also Ultrasonic methods dislocation, 1963, translated from English. M: Foreign literature, S. 376) causing the development of dislocation rearrangement (by moving dislocations), which results in a significant change in mechanical properties (wear resistance).

Cause hardening can be considered the formation of high density fixed q in the metal structure after the acoustic impact and interaction of dislocations with fine particles of carbides and nitrides, released by prior natural aging, and improved plastic properties.

The use of oil, which is the medium of delivery of the solid phase in natural minerals and mixtures thereof from the group of mineral silicates subclass containing amorphous silicon dioxide (ultra-fine powder), carries out the healing mesh surface cracking of metal tools and parts.

The essence of the proposed technical solution will be clear from the following description and the attached graphic material.

In Fig.1 shows an installation of the invention in Fig.2 section a-a of Fig.1.

Installation for implementing the method of hardening tools and parts, containing the node heat 1 made in the form of furnace 2, and a source of compressed gas or air 3, the receiver 4 with slot nozzle 5 located opposite the wedge 6, to create sound waves in the resonance chamber 7, and on the side opposite walls 8 fixed cassette 9, which posted the tools and parts 10, based on the tape of the suspension 11, immersed in a base oil 12 together with the ultrafine powder 13, and 14 gauge, mounted on the receiver, and the bracket 15, which is fixed to the wedge 6.

An example implementation of the proposed technical solutions.

Pre-fat drill 7 mm of steel R6M5 subjected to heating in a furnace to a temperature of 270-300oC for 5-10 min, at the end of the process cartridge 9 with drills placed on opposite side walls 8 a resonance chamber 7, is Ino preheated 200oC ultradispersed powder 13 (gospelcity to a size commensurate with the dimensions of the elementary crystals less than 1 mm) from natural minerals and mixtures thereof from the group of mineral silicates subclass, including various structural modifications of the composition of Mg3[Si205](OH)4containing amorphous silica. Then served compressed air 3, which through the gap 5 is injected into the resonant chamber 7, creating pulses of sound pressure, the wedge 6 carry out the regulation of the frequency of acoustic oscillations, the pressure in the receiver 4 is controlled by the pressure gauge 14, and the processing time is 5-10 minutes

To change the frequency of acoustic oscillations 500-1500 Hz when the thickness of the acoustic oscillations ~ 140-160 dB, which improves the wear resistance of 1.5 times or higher.

The introduction of natural minerals and mixtures thereof from the group of mineral silicates subclass, including various structural modifications of the composition of Mg3[Si205](OH)4containing amorphous silicon dioxide, which perform the role of a "third" environment between the instrumental and the material to be processed, thus improving operational characterised in the slots of the kinks.

The invention provides improved wear resistance due to a change in density of the dislocation structure of metal tools and parts throughout its volume.

1. The method of hardening of tools and parts, comprising heating to a temperature of vacation and acoustic impact for the given parameters and time, characterized in that the tools and parts are placed in the resonant chamber containing oil with ultrafine powder of natural mineral or a mixture of natural minerals selected from a number of layered silicates, including various structural modifications of the composition of Mg3[Si2O5] (OH)4in the nodal zone of the longitudinal vibrations of the acoustic power pulses and excited bending mechanical oscillations with a resonance chamber, causing changes in the level of stress of the dislocation structure of the internal structure of the tools and components by creating a gradient of the stress and the deformation gradient throughout the volume of tools and parts.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the content of natural mineral oil ranges from 0.005 to 0.02 g/L.

3. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that the acoustic impact regulate in the range containing the node, heating, made in the form of furnace, the resonant chamber with a wedge, a source of compressed gas, a receiver with slot nozzle located opposite the wedge to create sound waves in the chamber, characterized in that, on the side opposite walls of the resonance chamber on the tape suspensions fixed cassette with tools and parts immersed in the resonant chamber with oil, and ultrafine powder of natural mineral or a mixture of natural minerals, selected from a series of layered silicates, including various structural modifications of the composition of Mg3[Si2O5] (OH)4in the nodal zone of the plane of the longitudinal vibrations of the acoustic pulses and excited bending mechanical oscillations of the camera.

 

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