The method of biological treatment of aqueous solutions
(57) Abstract:The invention is intended for biological treatment of aqueous solutions. The method consists in the processing of aqueous solutions of strain of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris IFR N s-W at a load of 107-109CL/L. the Invention allows to purify aqueous solutions of impurities of different origin. table 2. The invention is intended for the purification of aqueous solutions of domestic and industrial wastewater (SW).There is a method of biological treatment of organic solifidian compounds by treatment of wastewater at pH~7 green algae, obtained by mechanical disruption and destruction of the walls of the latter (DE 3713882 A1, 03.11.1988).This method allows the treatment of wastewater from organic solifidian connections.There is a method of biological wastewater treatment by their strain of Chlorella vulgaris BM-A-10 (SU 1560487, from 30.04.1990). In this way are only clean from pesticides.The closest in technical essence is a method of biological treatment of industrial wastewater, including the processing strain of algae Chlorella vulgaris at pH=7,0-7,5, temperature 20-30oWith that source the water of 0.8-1 m/s (SU 835973 from 10.06.81). This method is difficult to conduct due to the maintenance of many parameters.Object of the invention is the simplification of the process and a comprehensive treatment of aqueous solutions of impurities of different origin.This object is achieved by a method of biological purification of aqueous solutions by treatment with a strain of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris IFR N s-W at a load of 107-109CL/L.This strain was previously used as a producer of biomass and described in SU 1751981 from 10.02.1977.Studies on hygienic assessment of the effectiveness of treatment of domestic wastewater (SW) using the sample water suspensions of strain of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris IFR N-sh was carried out under laboratory conditions using cooked on deklarirovannoe tap water unclarified (without sedimentation and filtration) imitate ST. Imitat ST included the faeces and urine of man and anionic synthetic surface-active agents (detergents-"Ariel"), i.e. organic constituents normally present in the household of ST.Experimental studies were conducted in 5 standard round glass aquariums (reactors), volume 20 R N s-W and had the following characteristics.Control
1. With "small" load of organic matter (a mixture of faeces and urine) + 8.0 mg/l detergents (by calculation).2. With the "big" load of organic matter (a mixture of faeces and urine) + 8.0 mg/l detergents (by calculation).Experience
1. With "small" load of organic matter (a mixture of faeces and urine) + 8.0 mg/l detergents (calculation + strain of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris IFR N s-W at the rate of 107cells/L.2. With the "big "load of organic matter (a mixture of faeces and urine) + 8.0 mg/l detergents (by calculation) + strain of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris IFR N s-W at the rate of 107cells/L.3. With the "big" load of organic matter (a mixture of faeces and urine) + 8.0 mg/l detergents (by calculation) + strain of microalgae Chlorella vulgaris IFR N s-W at the rate of 109cells/L.The load of organic substances (made by volume of homogenate uterine imitate SW) were selected on the basis of its own studies on the hygienic efficiency of equipment for treatment of domestic army and the study of the effect of chemical substances on the BOD at their hygienic rationing in water of water bodies. The estimated differences between small and large load of organic matter (by volume uterine imitate SW) was taken 1:5 which of the waves on the hygienic assessment of the effectiveness of systems for treatment of domestic ST.Required estimated work volume of the aqueous suspension of the strain of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris IFR N s-W 107-109CL/l for inclusion in imitat SV was determined on the basis of a preliminary visual (under the microscope) to quantify the microalgae cells in the cell Goryaeva of the submitted test sample.All control and experimental aquariums with a volume of imitate 10-15 l were placed on a laboratory table with round during the experiment, fluorescent light and at room temperature 202oC.The duration of the experiment data in the closed system, without forced aeration and water circulation, approximately simulating biological pond (BP), was 6 days, which was determined on the basis of the results of research and practical observations.It should be emphasized agregirovannosti or the creation of hard experimental conditions used in this method, determined by using a pre-unclarified (without sedimentation or filtration) imitate ST.After making imitate ST. calculation of quantities of detergents all resulting mixture was thoroughly mixed and the hour (before treatment) were selected the AV indicators according to the requirements (Sanitary Rules and norms "Protection of surface waters against pollution", San Pin 2.1.5 980-00.Organoleptic characteristics: odor, color, foaming and floating impurities were determined in accordance with the requirements (guidelines for "Substantiation of hygienic standards for chemical substances in water of water bodies of drinking and cultural of reverse water use", M. At 220.127.116.110-98, and sanitary chemicals - ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, BOD, permanganate oxidizability and anionic detergents according to the methods outlined in Lurie Y. Y. Standardized methods of analysis of water quality. M.: Chemistry, 1971, S. 115-120.Of the studies are presented in table. 1. Values coli-index all imitate SV was not determined by a range of organisational and technical reasons.After 6 days of incubation (after cleaning) imitates household army and the strain of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris IFR N-sh, including the control, was re-conducted to determine the same parameters and advanced - coli-index, the results of which are presented in table. 1.In table. 2 shows the summarized results of experiment with calculation of efficiency (in percent) cleaning imitates household SAINT in this way.As follows from the obtained data, all original imitate (control and OA on this indicator between "large" and "low" load almost expected, which, however, is not always correlated to the ratio of permanganate oxidation. This also applies to the actual concentrations of detergents, which are 1.5-2 times higher than estimated. These discrepancies are associated with the heterogeneity of the fallopian imitate household SV for work imitates and errors when calculating the required insertion amount of detergents due to their higher actual content in washing powder Ariel.In addition, working imitate ST. characterized by typical fecal odor intensity 5 points, floating impurities (organic inclusions) and rich brown color, high dilutions (especially under high load of organic matter) to achieve target values for these indicators according to the requirements. Imitate SV low organic load on most indicators, with the exception of BOD values generally correspond to the composition and properties of household SAINT, usually delivered to treatment facilities, and high - were much focused.After 6 days of cleaning imitate ST., both in the control and the experience has been a slight decrease in pH values, which, however, had not gone beyond remetee in the presence of the strain of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris IFR N-sh (experiment 1 and 2) and is especially pronounced in the experimental reactor 3 in comparison with the corresponding control reaching 99.91 per cent or at an actual dilution ratio of 1: 2 to achieve odor intensity 1 point (before cleaning 1: 2048). In the control imitated ST. 1 and 2, despite the high percentage reduction in odor intensity, the actual dilution ratio remained higher than in the experimental reactors.Also visually noted more meaningful clarification of imitative ST. with a decrease in the intensity of their staining in all experimental reactors compared to the control. In addition, in the experimental reactor 3 through 4 days was observed the appearance of a pronounced green color (effect of "flowering") and intensive parietal plenkoobrazovatel the growth of microalgae (boonratana), which apparently resulted in the reduction of its content in the water column by 3 orders. In experienced imitated 1 and 2 similar effect but was observed, probably due to lower by 2 orders of magnitude, initial insertion amount of Chlorella vulgaris IFR N-W.The intensity of paroobrazovaniya in control and experimental 1 imitate SV decreased from 50 to 75%, and experienced 2 and 3 remained at the original level (table. 2).Coarse floating impurities on the surface of all control and test imitate ST. at the end of the experiment but was observed as compared is entered from the air.The most informative for assessing the effectiveness of biological treatment of SV are indicators 1st phase of mineralization of organic matter - the content of ammonia nitrogen, nitrites and nitrates.The most informative for assessing the effectiveness of biological treatment of SV are indicators 1st phase of mineralization of organic matter - the content of ammonia nitrogen, nitrites and nitrates.There has been a marked decrease in the content of ammonia in the experimental reactor 3 to 70,6% and insignificant in the control 1 - to 13.4%. Conversely, a significant increase in the experimental reactor 1 and subtle - in the pilot reactor 2 and control 2 (PL.2).The nitrite content in the control reactors 6 days increased slightly to 17.65% in the reactor 2. A different picture was observed in the experimental reactors. So, in reactors 1 and 3 was determined by reducing nitrite to 98,9 and 23.8%, and in the reactor 2, on the contrary, an increase of 76.5% (table. 2).All control and test reactors before cleaning showed the absence of nitrate. However, after 6 days of incubation in the experimental reactors 2 and 3 and their content was determined at the level of 2.0 mg/l, and 1 - 1.0 mg/l In the control imitated ST. their pavlinjane ammonia, nitrites and nitrates in imitate ST. and after purification, namely reducing the level of ammonia and the increase of nitrite and nitrate indicate severe processes of the 1st phase of mineralization of organic matter in experimental reactors, increasing in the following sequence: 3> 2> 1. However, the content of ammonia after treatment remained at a high level and ten times exceed the maximum allowable concentration in water (2.0 mg/l). Control imitates only in the reactor 1 was observed low-intensity processes of mineralization of organic matter.Content of detergents in all control and test reactors after purification was determined approximately at the same level from 10.0 to 14.2 mg/l, but the percentage reduction/removal was slightly higher in the control reactors.The values of BOD6in the control reactors 1 and 2 through 6 days of incubation imitate ST. declined to 14.9 and 27,0% and remained at a very high level - 1000 and 4050 mg O2/l, respectively. On the contrary, in all experimental reactor lower values of BOD5it was more pronounced and amplified in the following sequence: 1> 2> 3, remaining however at a high level 300-2700 mg O2/l, which, as in the control, due to the very high initial load reactors 1, 2 and 3 explained the research results. It was found that the proportion MIC, COD and total nitrogen per algae from BPS (filtered and unfiltered samples SW), reached more than 50%, and the percentage of the total phosphate was less than 25%. Thus, a lower percentage reduction in the value of BOD5in the experimental reactor 3 in comparison with the test 1 and 2 due to the initial higher biomass in imitate ST. 3, contribute to BOD.Also important and informative indicator for assessing the effectiveness of biological treatment of domestic SV values are oxidation permanganate, characterizing the presence of oxidizable organic contaminants. The highest percentage of clean imitates ST this indicator was achieved in the experimental reactors 3 and 1 (82,6 and 75.5%, respectively), less - control reactors (to 57.7%) and lowest in the pilot reactor 2 (39,6%). The remaining high magnitude oxidation in all experimental reactors is as BOD, the presence of the biomass of the strain of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris IFR N-W. At the end of the experiment, the coliform index was detected in all control and test reactors. Evaluation of cleaning efficiency for this indicator were conducted in a comparative manner between the control and test them with the t to decrease the amount of if-indexa was determined from experimental reactors 3 and 1 of 85.2 and 50.0, respectively, however, the absolute value of the metric in these experimental conditions remained very high until 3,7106in the experimental reactor 3.It is shown that chemical coagulation is an effective process additional cleaning to remove algae and improve the quality of SV after BP. The most effective of the tested coagulants is aluminum sulfate with an optimal operating a dose of 75-100 mg/L.Analysis of all the obtained laboratory results, given the very hard, agregirovannykh experimental conditions - high load of organic substances and detergents, allows positively to evaluate the independent and effective ability of the test sample of Chlorella vulgaris IFR N C-W in the quality of bioculture for cleaning household SAINT.This invention allows to achieve:
reduce the intensity of the smell of the household to ST. 99.91 per cent,
reduce the intensity of the painting to 96.9%,
reducing the amount of ammonia to 70,6%,
initiation 1-phase organic matter mineralization ST., reduction of anionic detergents to 10%,
reduce BOD to 46.5%,
reduce the number of index up to 85.2%,
reduction of permanganate oxidation up to 85.2%.
FIELD: water treatment and radiation safety.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods and means for treatment of large volumes of seawater to remove man-caused radionuclides contained in relatively low concentrations, which nevertheless exceed maximum permissible concentration thereof near the stationing zones of ships including those with nuclear-energetic installations and over the seabed radioactive waste disposal zones. Treatment is accomplished owing to high absorption capacities of some seaweeds cultivated in water-permissible biological container, which is freely inserted inside floating pontoon or surge-proof platform. The entire system is mounted over the liquid radioactive waste emission zones for a period of 20 to 40 days until biocontainer is completely filled with seaweeds. Container is then taken away and held to allow water to flow down. Radioactive seaweeds are dried and burned to give ash residue, which is buried.
EFFECT: prevented pollution of water with harmful chemical and radioactive wastes.
3 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex