Method and device for encoding and decoding images in digital form

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention concerns a method and device for encoding and decoding images in digital form, the implementation of which produce a consistent form encoding conversion, in which when the intraframe encoding and interframe encoding produce consistent form of encoding conversion. First agreed on the form of the encoding conversion is made by intraframe coding, and when interframe coding produce a second consistent in form encoding conversion, different from the first agreed upon the form of the encoding conversion. The technical effect achieved in their implementation, is to improve the compression ratios of the image data. 4 C. and 12 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il.

Encoding video signals respectively to the coding standards of image N. 261, N. 263, MPEG1 and MPEG2 based on block-based discrete cosine transform (DCT). These methods mainly use the principle based on the blocks of the coded image.

Another approach for image coding is the so-called base the lead segmentation of the original images, respectively, available in the scene objects and a separate encoding of these objects.

In Fig.2 summarises the device for image encoding and decoding images.

In Fig. 2 shows the camera, which shoots pictures. The camera may be, for example, any analog camera that takes images of any scene, and the image is converted into digital form or in the camera To or transmitted in analog form to the first computing device R1, which are then processed image in digital form or analog image is converted into an image in digital form and processed images in digital form Century.

The camera may be a digital camera, which recorded images directly in digital form and bring to the first computing device R1 for further processing.

The first computing device R1 can also be constructed as separate devices, which are all described in the subsequent operations of the method, for example, in the form of a separate computer card that is built into the computing device.

The first computing device R1 contains the processing unit P which proizvodstenny unit P, for example, through the bus BU is connected with the storage device SP, in which the memorized image data.

In General described in the following methods can be implemented by means of software, so also by means of machine software or partly by means of software, and partly by means of machine software.

After the encoding of the image in the first computing device R1 and after the transfer of the compressed image data via the medium M to the second computing device R2 in the second computing device R2 to produce a decoded image.

The second computing device R2 may have the same design as the first computing device R1, that is, to have a storage device SP, which via the bus IN connected with the processor unit R.

In Fig. 3 in a more detailed form presents a possible device in the form of a principal block diagram for encoding images or, respectively, for decoding images, which can be applied in the framework based on the blocks of the image encoding and partly, as explained in the following, the formation of images digitized image usually divided into square blocks of size 88 picture elements BP or 1616 picture elements BP and lead to the device for encoding image.

The image element is usually uniquely assigned to the information encoding, for example, brightness information (luminance or color information (color values).

In based on the blocks of the encoding of images distinguish between different modes of encoding images.

In the so-called mode intraframe coding to encode and transmit, respectively, the entire image with all assigned to the elements of the image information encoding (1-image).

In the so-called mode interframe encoding encode and transmit only the difference information of two successive images (P-picture, b-picture).

To switch between work intraframe encoding image and interframe image coding, there are two switching unit SE. For the implementation of mode interframe coding of images includes a subtraction unit S, which form the difference information of the two images that follow one another In the images. The total coding of images managed by the managing unit of the coded image ST. the Loka coding with DCT transformation, which are assigned to the elements of the image information coding is subjected to encoding conversion, for example, discrete cosine transformation (DCT).

In General, however, you can perform any encoding conversion, for example, a discrete sine transform or discrete Fourier transform.

Formed by converting the encoded spectral coefficients in the block of quantization Q quantum and down to the (not shown) to the multiplexer coding of images, for example, channel coding and/or entropy encoding. In the inner loop of the reconstruction of the quantized spectral coefficients inverse quantum in inverse block quantization IQ and is subjected to inverse encoding conversion in the inverse block coding with transform IDCT.

Further, in the case of interframe coding of images in summing block AE adds the information of the previous time image. The reconstructed pictures are therefore remember in the storage device image SP. In the storage device image SP for simplicity, the image is symbolically represented by block for compensat the SP, and block subtraction S.

To a multiplexer for encoding images in addition to you want to send image data fail mode flag R, which indicates whether taken inside or interframe image coding.

Further to the multiplexer coding of images down the quantization indexes q for the spectral coefficients.

Also, the motion vector v is assigned respectively to block images and/or macroblock that contains, for example, 4 of the block image, and lead to the multiplexer coding of images.

Next provided information specifying f relative to activate or deactivate the loop filter LF.

After information transfer images through the medium M in the second computing device R2 may decode the transmitted data. To do this, in the second computing device R2 a block decoding images, which has, for example, the design loop reconstruction device shown in Fig.2.

In the case based on the object of the encoding of images, each image object of nachal the th rezultirase of image blocks is completely inside the object image. This situation is shown in Fig. 4. The image contains at least one object image IN which fringed the edge of the object OK image object. Below are image blocks BB with 8x8 image elements BP. Image blocks BB, which contain at least part of the edge of the object OK, denoted in the following as the regional image blocks RBB.

Image blocks BB, which after decomposition are completely inside the object image IN may in the approximation to the above, based on the blocks of the encoding method of the image to be encoded normal based on the blocks of discrete cosine transform. Regional image blocks RBB, however, partially filled with information and images must be encoded in a special way.

To encode the boundary of image blocks RBB there are still two main approaches.

From the document [1] is known, to Supplement information image of the object image IN the inside edge of the block image RBB appropriate way of extrapolating information encoding to square full marginal block of image RBB. This way is denoted as padding. Update: this PC from documents [1] and [2] you know, the object image IN the transform separately rows and columns. This way is designated as a consistent form encoding conversion, in case of applying discrete cosine transform (DCT) as agreed in the form of DCT. Assigned to the object image IN the DCT-coefficients are determined so that the picture elements BP of the regional unit of the image RBB, which do not belong to the object image, are suppressed. The remaining picture elements BP initially applied line-by-line conversion, the length of which corresponds to the remaining number of image elements in that row. Rezultiruja coefficients are oriented horizontally, and finally subjected to a further one-dimensional DCT in the vertical direction with a corresponding length. As for intraframe encoding image and interframe image coding is used the same way.

The known method adaptive in shape encoding transformation that has been described above, has among others, the disadvantage that it can only be achieved relatively poor compression ratio subject to compression of the image data.

conversion comes from the transformation matrix with the following structure:

< / BR>
The value for the case p=0 and =1 for all other cases.

While N denotes the value you want to convert vector image, which contains all the converted image elements.

denotes the transformation matrix, the value of NN.

R, k denote the indices p, k [0, N-1].

According to the well-known manner agreed on the form of the discrete cosine transform DCT segment image is determined by the fact that in the beginning of each column segment vertically transform according to the rule

< / BR>
and then the same rule (2) apply to resultwise data in the horizontal direction. The rule according to the formula (2), however, is not optimal for image coding of prediction errors.

From the document [3] known basis based on the blocks of the coded image.

The basis of the invention lies thus the task is to specify methods for image encoding and decoding of images and devices for image encoding and decoding images, which ensures the consistent form encoding conversion with improved compression ratio for the data in the formula of the invention and the device according to p. 11 claims.

In the method according to p. 1 claims for coding image digitally encoding the image produced in the operation mode intraframe encoding image, or in the mode of interframe coding of the image. In operation intraframe encoding image convert image information of the image elements, and in the mode of interframe coding image transform differential information of the images of two consecutive images. In the mode of interframe image coding produced the first coherent form encoding conversion and mode intraframe coding produce a second consistent in form encoding conversion, different from the first agreed upon the form of the encoding conversion.

Preferred in this manner is, in particular, that it allows through the use of two different coding with transform, the quantization error in the subsequent quantization rezultirase by transforming the spectral coefficients is evenly distributed over all elements of Eugenia 88.

This method is particularly suitable for encoding of edge blocks of the image segment of the image.

In General, due to the way it turns out is significantly improved coding efficiency, i.e. at the same speed of data transmission increases the achieved image quality. As described in the following in comparison with the known manner, whereby when intraframe encoding image and interframe coding of images with a consistent shape coding of images used the same conversion is achievable without additional computational effort significantly improved ratio of signal and noise in the order of one dB.

In the method according to p. 6 claims decoding mode intraframe coding produce a first inverse consistent in form encoding conversion. In the mode of intra-frame coding to produce a second inverted agreed on the form of the encoding conversion. The first inverse consistent in form encoding conversion and the second inverse consistent in form encoding conversion Aleutskaya images.

In the device according to p. 11 claims for implementing the method includes a coding block with conversion to a consistent form encoding conversion and/or block decoding with a transform for the inverse agreed on the form of the encoding conversion. Block encoding conversion or, respectively, the block decoding conversion is performed so that the operation mode is intra-frame coded image is first agreed on the form of the encoding conversion or, respectively, the first inverse consistent in form encoding conversion. In the mode of interframe image coding is the second in a consistent form encoding conversion or the second inverse consistent in form encoding conversion. First agreed on the form of the encoding conversion or, respectively, the first inverse consistent in form encoding conversion and the second coherent form encoding conversion or the second inverse consistent in form encoding conversion are different.

In the form of further development of the method it is preferred that at least one of the agreed form of coding conversion or, respectively, at least one of the inverse agreed on the form of the coding conversion occurs so that the energy signals are converted image elements in the local area is approximately equal to the energy of the signals are converted to image elements in the frequency domain.

In other words, it means that the corresponding consistent form coding with transform or inverse consistent in form encoding conversion orthonormal. Preferred in this manner is, in particular, that the quantization error in the subsequent quantization rezultirase by transforming the spectral coefficients distributed in all elements of the image and the quantization error has the same average value as in the case of a normal block image 88.

In the form of further development of the method for coding image next is preferred to form transform coefficients subject p is the vector converting video image, contains the converted image elements,

means the transformation matrix of size NN

R, k denote the indices p, k [0, N-1].

As you can see from rule (3), a significant improvement is achieved only due to the different scale conversion rules for comparison with the known course of action.

The above described form of development for encoding images is provided as form of development for decoding images, and the rule for the inverse of the encoding conversion with respectively the inverse rule.

Shape the further development of the methods are also preferred forms of execution of a block for encoding conversion device for encoding images.

These methods are incidentally suitable for encoding or decoding of the marginal blocks of the image segment of the image.

The drawings show an exemplary embodiment of the invention, which is subsequently explained in more detail.

In the drawings shown:

Fig. 1 - precedence diagram in which are symbolically represented by a separate operation sposoby one transmission medium;

Fig. 3 - sketch of conventional devices based on block coding of images;

Fig. 4 - (symbolically) the representation of the image with the object image and the image blocks and edge blocks of the image.

In the framework based on object-based image coding is the segmentation of the image in digital form In accordance with the existing scene objects image and separate coding object image.

For each image object IN the first conventional image is decomposed into blocks of image CC constant value, for example 88 picture elements BP. After decomposition part rezultirase of image blocks BB is completely inside the object image. These blocks BB in approaching cited above explained methods can be encoded normal-based block coding with transform.

As described above, the regional image blocks RBB is only partially filled with information and images must be encoded in a special way.

Preferably in the method in the first computing device R1 regional image blocks RBB in the first operation 101 is led to the block coders symbolically represented in Fig. 3 modules.

In the second operation 102 for each regional block image RBB for information encoding picture elements BP of the respective territorial unit of the image RBB form transform coefficients are converted image elements according to the following rule:

< / BR>
where N specifies the value you want to convert image vector, which contains the converted image elements, and

means the transformation matrix of size NN

R, k denote the indices p, k [0, N-1].

The rule for transformation and coding (3) clearly means that the signal energy information coding will be transformed image elements in the local area is approximately equal to the energy of the signals are converted to image elements in the frequency domain.

As agreed by the shape encoding conversion is used preferably agreed on the form of the discrete cosine transform.

Rule (3) for encoding conversion is used preferably, if the image coding occurs in the mode of interframe coding.

If the encoding of the image is s picture elements formed according to the following rule:

< / BR>
After the transfer of the coded information of the image (operation 105), that is, after quantization (operation 103), may produce entropy encoding (operation 104) of the transferred image data, for example, by the method described in document [1] , through the medium M in the second computing device R2 to produce a decoded image.

When decoding images in the first operation 106 produce entropy decoding and the second operation 107 - the inverse quantization of the quantized spectral coefficients. The spectral coefficients are then supplied to the inverse agreed on the form of encoding transform (IDCT). Accordingly, the method for coding image for decoding images again produce a consistent form encoding conversion so that the energy of signals encoding the transformed image elements in the frequency domain is approximately equal to the energy of the signals of the encoding picture elements in the local area.

For the inverse consistent in form encoding conversion form the picture elements of the spectral coefficients of the transformation of the sector of the image, contains the converted image elements,

means the transformation matrix of size NN

R, k denote the indices p, k [0, N-1] and

()-1means the inversion of the matrix.

Inverse consistent form coding with transform according to the rule (4) is produced preferably within the image decoding mode interframe decoding images.

In operation intraframe decoding images preferably produce a consistent form inverse encoding conversion according to the following rule:

< / BR>
A device for encoding images in a block coding with DCT transformation for the agreed form encoding conversion picture elements BP. Block coding with DCT transformation is performed so that the energy of the signal information coding will be transformed image elements in the local area is approximately equal to the energy of the signals encoding the transformed image elements in the frequency domain.

Block encoding conversion is performed preferably in such a way that in blogerati way. The method can be implemented, of course, the device also means software that is processed by the processor P.

The same is true for a device for decoding image that contains the inverse of the coding block-converting IDCT. Accordingly inverse block coding with transform IDCT is performed in such a way that implements the operation method for decoding images, in particular, for the inverse of the agreed form of the encoding conversion.

As well as the way the devices are preferably applicable to edge blocks of the image RBB image objects IN the image in digital form Century.

Clearly means that when intraframe encoding image and interframe coding of images produce consistent form of encoding conversion. First agreed on the form of the encoding conversion is carried out at the intraframe coding of images and excellent relative to the first coherent form encoding to convert the second agreed on the form of the encoding conversion produce popolzuyutsya further within the coding of the image converted image elements, that is, the spectral coefficients, that is kind of quantization, entropy coding or channel coding.

Sources of information

1. ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11, MPEG-4 Video Verification Model Version 5/0 Doc. N 1469, November 1996, pp. 55-59.

2. I. Sikora and B. Makai, Shape Adaptive DCT for Generic Coding of Video, IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, so 5, pages 59-62, February 1995.

3. A. K. Jain, " Image Data Compression: A Review, Proceedings of the IEEE, I. 69, N 3, pp. 349-389, March 1981.

1. The method of encoding images in digital form, which contains objects with any number of elements, characterized in that the coding is performed in mode intraframe coding or interframe coding and intraframe coding mode transform the information elements of the image, interframe transform coding the difference information of two successive images, and interframe coding produced the first coherent form transformation, and in the intraframe coding mode to produce a second consistent form conversion, different from the first conversion, the coefficients of the conversion converted by the first conversion elements Sobra conversion elements of the image x is formed by the following rule:

< / BR>
where N is the value you want to convert image vector, which contains the converted image elements;

the transformation matrix of size NXN;

p, k - indices with R, k [0, N-1] .

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the first agreed on the form of the conversion use the option agreed in the form of discrete cosine transform, as well as a second coherent form transformations use a consistent form of discrete cosine transformation.

3. The method according to one of paragraphs. 1 or 2, characterized in that the first agreed on the form of the conversion and/or the second agreed on the form of the transformation is produced in such a way that the signal energy of the image elements in the local area is approximately equal to the signal energy of the converted image elements in the frequency domain.

4. The method according to any of paragraphs. 1-3, characterized in that the first agreed on the form of the transformation is applied only at the boundary blocks of the image.

5. The method of decoding images in digital form, which contains objects with any number of points in the image, wherein the decoding patrikarakos decoding transform information of the picture elements, in the interframe mode decoding transform the differential information of two successive images, as well as in the interframe mode decode produce a first inverse consistent in shape conversion, and intra-frame decoding produce a second inverse consistent form conversion, different from the first inverse transformation, when converted at the first inverse agreed on the form of the conversion elements of the image x is formed from the coefficients of the transformation according to the following rule:

< / BR>
and converting the second inverse agreed on the form of the conversion elements of the image x form of the transform coefficients according to the following rule:

< / BR>
where N is the value you want to convert image vector, which contains the converted image elements;

the transformation matrix size N N;

p, k - indices with R, k [0, N-1] ;

( )-1- inversion of the matrix.

6. The method according to p. 5, wherein the first inverse agreed on the form of the conversion use the option agreed on the form of the inverse discrete cosine conversions the bath in the form of the discrete cosine transform.

7. The method according to one of the p. 5 or 6, characterized in that the first inverse consistent form conversion and/or the second inverse agreed on the form of the transformation is produced in such a way that the signal energy of the image elements in the local area is approximately equal to the signal energy of the converted image elements in the frequency domain.

8. The method according to one of paragraphs. 5-7, characterized in that the first inverse consistent in form, the transformation is applied only at the boundary blocks of the image.

9. Device for encoding image in digital form, which contains objects with any number of image elements, characterized in that it comprises a processing unit, configured to encode image mode intraframe coding or interframe mode encoding conversion information of the image elements in the intraframe coding mode, the conversion difference of two successive images in interframe coding, in the mode of interframe coding is first agreed on the form of the transformation, in the intraframe coding mode is the second obrazovannyh on the first conversion elements of the image x is formed by the following rule:

< / BR>
and the conversion by the second conversion elements of the image x is formed by the following rule:

< / BR>
where N is the value you want to convert image vector, which contains the converted image elements;

the transformation matrix size N N;

p, k - indices with R, k [0, N-1] .

10. The device according to p. 9, wherein the processing unit is designed so that as the first agreed on the form of the conversion use the option agreed in the form of discrete cosine transform, as well as a second coherent form transformations use a consistent form of discrete cosine transformation.

11. Device according to one of p. 9 or 10, characterized in that the processing unit is designed in such a way that the first agreed on the form of the conversion and/or the second agreed on the form of the transformation occurs so that the energy of the signals of picture elements in the local area is approximately equal to the signal energy of the converted image elements in the frequency domain.

12. Device according to any one of paragraphs. 9-11, characterized in that the processing unit o blocks of the image.

13. The device decoding the image in digital form, which contains objects with any number of image elements, characterized in that it comprises a processing unit, configured to decode the image in the intraframe mode decoding mode or interframe decoding, conversion information of the image elements in the intraframe mode decoding, conversion difference of two successive images in interframe decoding, in the mode of interframe decoding is first inverted agreed on the form of the transformation in the mode of intra-frame decoding is the second inverse consistent form conversion, different from the first inverse transformation, converted at the first inverse agreed on the form of the conversion elements of the image x is formed from the coefficients of the transformation according to the following rule:

< / BR>
and converting the second inverse agreed on the form of the conversion elements of the image x is formed from the conversion factors according to the following rule:

< / BR>
where N specifies the value to be PR transformation matrix value NN;

p, k - mean indexes p, k [0, N-1] ;

( )-1means the inversion of the matrix.

14. The device according to p. 13, wherein the processing unit is made so that as the first inverse agreed on the form of the conversion option is used agreed on the form of the inverse discrete cosine transform, as well as a second inverse consistent in shape transformations applied inverse agreed on the form of the discrete cosine transform.

15. The device under item 13 or 14, characterized in that the processing unit is performed so that the first inverse consistent form conversion and/or the second inverse agreed on the form of the transformation is produced in such a way that the energy of the signals of picture elements in the local area about equal to the energy of the signals are converted to image elements in the frequency domain.

16. Device according to any one of paragraphs. 13-15, characterized in that the processing unit is performed so that the first inverse consistent in form, the transformation is applied only at the boundary blocks of the image.

 

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