Device for producing alcohol
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to a distillation installations periodic actions designed to produce ethyl alcohol from the alcohol-containing raw materials. The installation includes evaporative cube, distillation column, reflux condenser, refrigerator, controller reflux ratio and distillate weighing device functionally associated with the regulator reflux ratio. The invention enables the automatic and optimal throttling applied to the irrigation of the distillation column of phlegmy depending on changes in the content of alcohol in nawalka during rectification. 1 Il. The invention relates to a distillation installations periodic actions designed to produce ethyl alcohol from the alcohol-containing raw materials.Known distillation plant for distillation of binary mixtures (A. N. Plonowski, C. M. Ramm, S. H. Kagan. The processes and apparatuses of chemical technology. -M.: Goskomizdat, 1962, page 683), consisting of heated water vapor evaporative cube, distillation column, cooled with running water reflux condenser, connecting pipelines, Raspletina rectification, leaving Cuba couples increasingly enriched high-boiling component and for separating it from the vapor amount of phlegmy should be increased. If the number of phlegmy to keep constant, will increase the content of high-boiling component in the distillate, i.e., in relation to the process of alcohol production, this would mean a deterioration of its quality. Similar in principle of operation, also called kovovymi settings described in the literature: P. S. Tsygankov. A distillation unit of the alcohol industry. -M: Light and food industry, 1984, page 27; Klimovsky D. N., Smirnov, C. A., PR Century. N. The technology of alcohol. -M.: Food industry, 1967, page 345.The closest to the essential features analogue (prototype) of the invention is a device, scheme and described in the source: A. Kasatkin, the Basic processes and apparatus of chemical technology. -M. : Chemistry, 1973, p 485. The installation consists of heated water vapor evaporative cube, distillation column, reflux condenser, regulator reflux ratio on line selection of distillate, refrigerator and tanks for the selection of the distillate fractions. The feed regulation phlegmy on Rosetta the main body to control the process, because the regulation applied to the cube of heat in the apparatus of periodic action, as a rule, is not provided. During the rectification, with the objective of ensuring the composition of the distillate is manual feed regulation phlegmy and reflux ratio in the direction of increasing, as the depletion of the alcohol content in nawalka, and criterion for correction are the results of chemical analyses taken during the process, samples of the distillate. Thus, the management mode of operation the bottom of a distillation unit is a complex, time-consuming manual process, in conditions where the system response is significantly delayed with respect to the regulatory impact that requires high skill of the operator and through the subjective factor affects the quality of the product. These features of operation of the prototype are his weaknesses.The invention solves the problem of reducing the complexity of obtaining alcohol and stability of its quality.The technical result to be obtained from use of the invention is to provide automatic and optimal regulation of the amount fed to the and in nawalka during rectification.This technical result is achieved in that the device for producing alcohol, including evaporative cube, distillation column, reflux condenser, refrigerator and regulator reflux ratio, added distillate weighing device functionally associated with the regulator reflux ratio. During the rectification is reduced alcohol content in nawalka that the explicit dependence due to the increase in weight of the final product distillate. Weighing distillate device via a functional link shall activate controller reflux ratio, which leads to changes in the reflux ratio in accordance with the estimated optimal dependence.The drawing shows a diagram of a bottom of a distillation unit periodic action.The installation includes a heated evaporative cube 1, distillation column 2, column 3, the controller reflux ratio 4 fridge 5, the lever mechanism 6, the adjustment screw 7, distillate weighing device 8, the collected distillate 9.The device operates as follows. After a delay and sampling head afuraldehyde faction begins the selection of ethyl alcohol by grade. what about during the rectification in-one correspondence with the reduction of alcohol content in nawalka, increases the weight of the distillate in books 9 and via a lever mechanism 6 connecting distillate weighing device 8 with the regulator reflux ratio of 4, the activation of the regulator 4, which reduces, in accordance with the optimal design dependence, selection of distillate and increases the flow of phlegmy for irrigation of the distillation column, which is required to achieve the stated technical result.In the above example of the claimed plant for producing alcohol as functional relationships used a lever mechanism (mechanical means) that connect a distillate weighing device with controller reflux ratio. As a regulator reflux ratio can be used regulator reflux ratio, which is described in patent RU 2060770 C1. This control reflux ratio consists of a cover, needle stem. Needle rod can drop by screwing the cover on the ledge of the reflux condenser. This reduces the selection condensation and reflux increases the number.The functional relationship between the regulator reflux ratio 4 is on the cover of the regulator and thrown through the block. The functional relationship between the regulator reflux ratio and distillate weighing device can be implemented using synchronous electric transmission consisting of two induction motors with wound rotor, plugged in AC and United by chains rotors (in. A. Moskalenko. Electric drive. -M.: Higher school, 1991, page 196, Fig.7.6). The shafts of the setting and the slave electric motor provided with a friction (or gears), respectively, which come into contact with a movable weighing platform distillate device and lid knob. This solution is an Electromechanical means for implementing characteristic functionally related.. .".All the above options provide various means of functional connectivity between distillate weighing device and the controller reflux ratio, resulting in a certain number of selected distillate (and, therefore, a certain concentration of alcohol in nawalka) corresponds to a certain reflux number. This is inventive concept, reflected in the claims. It should be noted that all three proposed options above, as well as the first variant is to be non-linear (optimal link is). And then as part of implementing the sign may include non-linear elements (for example, a profiled Cam, if transmission). Device for producing alcohol, including evaporative cube, distillation column, reflux condenser, refrigerator and regulator reflux ratio, characterized in that the design is additionally introduced distillate weighing device functionally associated with the regulator reflux ratio.
FIELD: cryogenic engineering, in particular, devices for separation of crypton-xenon concentrate obtained at air-separating installations.
SUBSTANCE: the mass-transfer apparatus has a contact device including the concentration and exhausting sections filled with packings, inlet chamber, condenser-evaporator, still with an electric heater and evaporator, still with an electric heater and evaporator. In addition, the inlet chamber of the feed flow of the mass-transfer apparatus (rectifying column) has a packing section with a specific surface less than the specific surface of the packing of the concentration section, is provided with a heater and a thermal converter, and the feed flow branch pipe- with a thermal bridge. The concentration and exhausting sections have different dimensions of the free cross-sectional areas, have reflux distributors and redistributors spaced in height at distance L=(150 to 300)d equiv; where d equiv. - the equivalent diameter of the packing, perforated tubular vertical inserts are additionally installed in the drain holes of the bottoms of the reflux distributors and redistributors. The straight-tubular tube still of the condenser of the intermediate heat-transfer agent has at least one duct, whose cross-sectional area is commensurable with the total area of the flow areas of the heat-transfer tubes, and the still electric heater - the heat-transfer base with an electric heating element packed and covered with heat-transfer powder and pressed to the still bottom by pull rods provided with springs.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of the mass-transfer apparatus and reduced specific amount of metal per structure.