The method of decontamination of solid surfaces
(57) Abstract:The inventive decontamination of solid surfaces is carried out by creating contaminated by radioactive substances layer mechanical stresses generated under the influence of a shock wave generated by the explosion of explosives, after surface treatment received radioactive waste is collected and transported for disposal. Removing the contaminated layer is produced by undermining elongated, elongated cumulative or sheet quasar-charges that are laid out store on several similar frames in a certain way. Then either fill the shell charges, or moisten them based liquid explosive, set explosives and transfer frames in the store. Next, distribute the assemblies, and fix them to be treated surfaces, organize electroexplosive chain and undermine the charges. The choice of the charge depends on the material of the surface being cleaned, its strength characteristics and the desired thickness of the removed layer. The advantages of the invention are simplicity of implementation, low cost and safety. 1. The technical field to which the invention relates
The invention odnovariantnaya materials, made mostly of concrete, cement and bricks, such as the ceiling, walls, floors, other construction, as well as natural structures.2. Art
Questions decontamination of various equipment and facilities considered in several works [1, 2].Various methods of decontamination, among which we should mention the following:
- decontamination of steam mixtures, including using preejection sprayers;
- blasting decontamination;
- ultrasonic decontamination;
- electrical methods of decontamination;
dry decontamination methods (pastes, powders, compositions, forming a polymer film);
- combination of different ways.To some extent, many methods assume the impact on polluted by radioactive substances layer solution of the reactants and removal of substances formed in the reaction. Range of reagents is very wide and many inventions describe their varieties. Most of the methods are related to the decontamination of metal surfaces and are connected with their clearance without destruction.The well-known  the method of decontamination equipment and weapons, which consists in removing the total radioactive nuclides material use a variety of clay, having the property when dry to absorb radioactive isotopes.A known method of purification from radioactive dust of the roof construction at the time of the Chernobyl accident, which is that on the roof surface was applied by pouring epoxy resin, which after polymerization was done together with the absorbed dust and sent for disposal.In  the principles of universal technology before dismantling decontamination of the ship's nuclear power plants, equipment which are made of carbon steel, chrome-Nickel steels and titanium alloys. Technology is "sequential processing contour systems deformiruemymi solutions oxidation-reduction actions applying the principle of chemical transformation."The deactivation of the production facilities, radioactive materials or waste considerable difficulties causes the cleaning of building or natural structures (floors, walls, ceilings) with deep pricefixing pollution caused by the diffusion of radioactive substances in materials of construction, their penetration into the micropores and microcracks surfaces, mechanically is selected and natural designs for their decontamination require other, than those mentioned above, the methods associated with the destruction and removal of the contaminated surface layer.The solution of this problem is possible by mechanical impact on the surface layer of the shearing tool, the simplest representative of which is the chisel. Known  the method of decontamination of solid surfaces on the basis of concrete with the use of chisels. When using this method, the decontamination factor of the infinite, however, its efficiency is very low and correspondingly large dose uptakes, as it is assumed manual labor.Known  the method of decontamination of solid surfaces processed objects by abrasive blowing. The essence of the method is based on the use of air jets after introducing the powder with abrasive action. The decontamination factor can reach 200-300. The disadvantages of the method is its low productivity (11 m2/h on concrete surfaces), the formation of secondary waste, heavy dusting, erosion damage to the surface.Known  the method of decontamination by paleotsunami. The essence of the method consists in machining decontaminated surface brush with ignoramii (60-3003/h).Among the disadvantages of the method should include the following: the complexity and danger of the method due to the constant driving of the suction device; deleted adhesion related contamination and adsorption-related and depth of contamination removal is not amenable; whence, very low coefficient of decontamination, not to exceed 20.Known [2, 6-8] several methods for cleaning hard surfaces by creating thermal stresses sufficient for the destruction and removal of the surface layer.Thus, in  described a method of disposal of asphalt coatings contaminated by radioactive substances. The method consists in the fact that the contaminated area on the glass cloth substrate is applied powder gomogenizirovannogo exothermic composition of a mixture of the ingredients, after which the composition is ignited, the plot is heated to soften and remove mechanically.Method  decontamination of solid non-combustible surfaces is that decontaminated on the surface of the applied layer (thickness of 5 to 15 mm) powdered exothermic mixtures of the described composition, light and subsequently mechanically remove brasoveanu, concrete, asbestos and brick is achieved at temperatures above 1000oC.Method  offers thermal stress in the surface layer to create an exposed surface exposed (located in a row) oxy-fuel torches in the zone of maximum temperature, floating along the surface with a certain velocity. Fixed: performance (23,7 m2/h) and the decontamination factor (123).A number of inventions [9-11] propose for this problem to affect the surface layer of the shock wave (HC) generated upon excitation of the explosion. Due to exposure to UV narrowing of the contaminated outer surface layer and its shedding. Crumbled mass is then collected and removed. The decontamination factor approaches infinity.Thus, in  shock wave is formed in the explosion are in contact with the cleaned surface charge of condensed explosives (he). The method has serious drawbacks , which is expressed in the limited operational capabilities. So, you want expensive organization of work associated with special storage, protection and transportation charges CC ka surfaces, especially curved; the explosion of condensed EXPLOSIVES formed chemically aggressive and highly toxic gases; possible denial of undermining part of the charge and the dam collapsed material; subsequent movement and evacuation of material possible accidental explosions with tragic consequences.Method  and device  that implement this method, as CENTURIES suggest the use of a combustible gas mixture at the point of use mixing in vzryvosposobnosti the ratio of fuel gas and gas-oxidant.Method , we adopted for the prototype has a number of advantages in comparison with the method . So, cooking vzryvopodobnoe gas mixture is performed at the point of application; preparation of a mixture, as well as shipping and storage components are relatively safe procedures. Flammable gases have a relatively low cost, environmentally sound, characterized by high efficiency and productivity.However, it has several disadvantages, among which we should mention the following: to implement the method requires a large number of different devices (booster pump, gas ventila spark plug), materials (radio frequency cable, durotomy and other hoses, localizing screen devices for sealing and fastening, balloons, glue); the complexity of installing screens and storage tanks, etc.Method  describes the possibility of using technical explosions to minimize the amount of waste in the destruction of contaminated concrete equipment.3. The invention
The essence of the invention is that the removal of the contaminated layer from hard surfaces is proposed to hold an explosive way using various quasar-charges, including extra long quasar-charges, a special case of which is detonating cord quasar-LH  , extra long cumulative quasar-charges (UCCS) [14-16] and leaf the quasar-charges.The proposed method of decontaminating solid surfaces (walls, ceiling, floor, building or natural structures of stores, consisting in the removal of radioactively contaminated layer by a mechanical stress, the impact generated by the explosion of the explosive shock wave, the collection of radioactive waste, its transportation and disposal differs in that the removal of the ZAT on the choose source data required to complete the charge of certain shape and size, outside the store on several similar frames (substrates, substrates, assemblies) laid out a certain way and fix empty shell (main body) quasar-charge, fill shell (elongated or oblong shaped quasar-charges) or wet (soaked) base (sheet quasar-charges) liquid explosive (Kvazar-BB or WIMI on THE 7276-001-17582644-93), set explosives, carry frame store, distribute and fix them to be treated surfaces, organize electroexplosive chain and undermine the charges.In the source data, which can select a desired charge, should be called the material of the surface being cleaned, its strength characteristics and the desired thickness of the removable layer.The number of similar frames (substrates, Assembly) is determined by the size of the store; the size and weight of frame - comfort carry and install in a particular store.The form of charges: KS-at (Kvazar-charge extended) - cylindrical;
UCCS (extended cumulative quasar-charge) is cylindrical with shaped notch or tolkova;
KS-l (Kvazar-charge sheet) list the specified form;
Quasar-RTA (detonating cord) - what is the thickness.Empty shell quasar-charges laid on the frames in a certain way that ensures the task of removing the surface layer of a specified thickness all over the surface being cleaned, for example, in the form of a coil with a set spacing between parallel branches.Frame (substrate, a base Assembly) can be collected from any material at hand, for example, from wood or plastic slats, metal corners, fabric material, etc.Fixing the frames in the store to be cleaned surfaces is carried out, for example, by hanging on a pre-sealed in the walls and ceiling mounting elements, for example, hooks or nails.If necessary, installed on the frames charges can be combined into a single charge.At the same time undermining the mass of WIMI may not exceed the estimated mass is defined for this store maximum permissible explosive charge.As blasting agents may use as a standard means of blasting and explosion-proof tools pullout quasar-SV.Among the advantages of the proposed method include the following:
- easy, low cost and also if necessary, the charges of small diameters;
- WIMI (in contrast to the known solid industrial EXPLOSIVES) do not form in the atmosphere of radioactive aerosols, leading to the exposure of personnel;
- WIMI - HV liquid, produced by the use of two separately explosion-proof components;
- ability to cover all the surface of the vault;
- Assembly frames, layout and pinning empty shells quasar-charges, as well as sealing fasteners in ceilings and walls can lead not trained explosives workers;
- the possibility of reducing the time spent by the personnel in the hazardous area and thereby reduce the doses.4. Information confirming the possibility of carrying out the invention
Work longer and longer cumulative quasar-charges repeatedly tested under production conditions, including, for the purpose of cutting metal.Sources of information
1. Swedes B. N., Sedov C. M., Rybalchenko, I. L., I. Vlasov, N. Nuclear technology. Atomizdat, M., 1979, S. 336.2. Simon A. D., Pikalov C. K., Decontamination. Atomizdat, M., 1994.3. A. C. the USSR 1752119, G 21 F 9/34, 1990.4. Konstantinov, E. A., Mochanov M. I., Normalization of the radiation situation in the reactor compartments atom of the volumes of decommissioning and disposal of nuclear submarines", 19-22 June 1995, M., 1995, S. 61.5. A. C. the USSR 1538800, G 21 F 9/34, 1988.6. RF patent 2086022, G 21 F 9/28, 1995.7. RF patent 2114470, G 21 F 9/28, 1997.8. RF patent 2025802, G 21 F 9/34, 1991.9. The application of Germany 2745458, F 42 D 3/00, 1/08, F 42 1/02, G 21 F 9/00, publ. 1980.10. RF patent 2146841, G 21 F 9/28, 9/34, F 42 D 3/00, 1998 prototype.11. RF patent 2152094, G 21 F 9/34, 1998.12. RF patent 2144707, G 21 F 9/00, B 09 At 3/00; F 42 D 3/00.13. RF patent 2151758, 06, 5/04, F 42 3/087, 1998.14. RF patent 2065559, F 42 1/02, 1993.15. RF patent 2084806, F 42 1/02, F 42 D 3/00, 1995.16. RF patent 2094741, F 42 1/02, 1995. The method of decontamination of solid surfaces radioactive materials, consisting in removing the contaminated layer by a mechanical stress impact generated during the explosion of the explosive shock wave, the collection of radioactive waste, its transportation and disposal, characterized in that the removal of the contaminated layer is produced by undermining elongated, elongated cumulative or sheet quasar-charges, while depending on the material of the surface being cleaned, its strength characteristics and the desired thickness of the removed layer, select the shape and size of the charge, outside craniopathy based liquid explosive, WIMI, set explosive transfer Assembly in the store, distribute and strengthen them to be treated surfaces, organize electroexplosive chain and undermine the charges.
FIELD: nuclear power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: compaction involves cutting members into fragments using electroerosive destruction of member wall by pulse spark-arch discharges emerging between member and electrode. In addition, high-temperature treatment in oxidizing medium, in particular vapor formed, is carried out. Cutting and heat treatment are accomplished in water.
EFFECT: simplified procedure and increased safety.
FIELD: decontamination engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes treatment of circuit coolant with acid solutions and washing. In the process treatment with acid solutions is made by chemical loosening for 2-10 h. Dynamic loosening is effected prior to chemical loosening and then coolant temperature is periodically raised in reactor core to 150-200 °C.
EFFECT: reduced time and enhanced effectiveness of decontamination treatment process.
2 cl, 5 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: rare, dispersed and radioactive metal metallurgy, in particular hydrometallurgy.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method for reprocessing of polymetal, multicomponent, thorium-containing radwastes, formed when reprocessing of various mineral, containing rare-earth elements, Nb, Ta, To, V, Zr, Hf, W, U, etc. Method includes treatment of solution and/or slurry with alkaline agent; introducing of sulfate-containing inorganic compound solution and barium chloride; treatment of obtained hydrate-sulfate slurry with iron chloride-containing solution, and separation of radioactive precipitate from solution by filtration. As alkali agent magnesia milk containing 50-200 g/dm2 of MgO is used; treatment is carried out up to pH 8-10; sodium sulfate in amount of 6-9 g Na2SO4/dm2 is introduced as solution of sulfate-containing inorganic compound; barium chloride solution is introduced in slurry in amount of 1.5-3 g BaCl2/dm2. Hydrate-sulfate slurry is treated with solution and/or slurry containing 0.8-16 Fe3+/dm2 (as referred to startingsolution) of iron chloride, followed by treatment with high molecular flocculating agent and holding without agitation for 0.5-2 h. Radioactive precipitate is separated from mother liquor, washed with water in volume ratio of 0.5-2:1; then washed with sodium chloride-containing solution and/or slurry in volume ratio of 0.5-2:1; radioactive precipitate is removed from filter and mixed with mineral oxides in amount of 0.5-0.8 kg MgO to 1 kg of precipitate. Formed pasty composition is fed in forms and/or lingots and presses with simultaneous heating up to 80-1200C.
EFFECT: filtrate with reduced radioactivity due to increased codeposition coefficient of natural Th-232-group radioactive nuclide, in particular Ra-224 and Ra-228, with radioactive precipitates.
10 cl, 1 ex
FIELD: chemical technology; deactivation and decontamination of radioactive industrial products and/or wastes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method designed for deactivation and decontamination of radioactive industrial products and/or production wastes incorporating Th-232 and its daughter decay products (Ra-228, Ra-224), as well as rare-earth elements, Fe, Cr, Mn, Al, Ti, Zr, Nb, Ta, Ca, Mg, Na, K, and the like and that ensures high degree of coprecipitation of natural radionuclides of filtrates, confining of radioactive metals, and their conversion to environmentally safe form (non-dusting water-insoluble solid state) includes dissolution of wastes, their treatment with barium chloride, sulfuric acid, and lime milk, and separation of sediment from solution. Lime milk treatment is conducted to pH = 9-10 in the amount of 120-150% of that stoichiometrically required for precipitation of total content of metal oxyhydrate; then pulp is filtered and barium chloride is injected in filtrate in the amount of 0.4 - 1.8 kg of BaCl2 per 1 kg of CaCl2 contained in source solution or in pulp and pre-dissolved in sulfuric acid of chlorine compressors spent 5-20 times in the amount of 0.5 - 2.5 kg of H2SO4 per 1 kg of BaCl2. Then lime milk is added up to pH = 11 - 12 and acid chloride wash effluents of equipment and production floors are alternately introduced in sulfate pulp formed in the process at pulp-to-effluents ratio of 1 : (2-3) to pH = 6.5 - 8.5. Filtrate pulp produced in this way is filtered, decontaminated solution is discharged to sewerage system, sediment of barium and calcium sulfates and iron oxysulfate are mixed up with oxyhydrate sediment formed in source pulp neutralization, inert filler and 0.5 - 2 parts by weight of calcium sulfate are introduced in pasty mixture while continuously stirring them. Compound obtained in the process is placed in molds, held therein at temperature of 20 - 50 oC for 12 - 36 h, and compacted in blocks whose surfaces are treated with water-repelling material.
EFFECT: reduced radioactivity of filtrates upon separation of radioactive cakes.
8 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: decontamination engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device incorporates provision for admission to inner space of container through hole. This facility is, essentially, vehicle moved by drive. Vehicle traveling gear is free to move from pulled-in quiescent position to working position having large track width (B).
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and safety in operation.
12 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: decontamination engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed pump has housing, pulse line, inlet ball-and-socket valve with ball lift limiter, delivery pipeline with outlet ball-and-socket valve, and control system. Housing communicates with bottom nozzles through pipe and bottom-nozzles chamber that accommodates shaft provided with flap. Shaft is coupled through movable bearing assembly, gear wheel, and toothed rack with turn and immersion depth control actuator of bottom nozzles. Bottom end of inlet ball-and-socket valve seat has slots and mounts in addition spring with movable perforated rack. In addition housing may accommodate top pipe for its communication through ball-and-socket check valve with washing head that has nozzle and pipe union. Stop is mounted in bottom end of pipe union coaxially with respect to hole in check-valve ball lift limiter. Top part of washing head is joined with aid of actuating shaft through movable bearing assembly, gear wheel, and toothed rack with turn and angle-of-tilt control actuators of top nozzle.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and safety in operation.
8 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: decontaminating metal wastes by way of their remelting.]
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes delivery of metal to be decontaminated to water-cooled ingot-forming equipment and decontamination of melt using refining slag. Refining slag in the form of melt is first to be fed to ingot-forming equipment. Then pre-melted radioactive metal wastes are fed at speed affording maintenance of permanent level of molten refining slag within current-conducting section of ingot-forming equipment at which metal ingot decontaminated from radionuclides in the course of remelting can be drawn out.
EFFECT: enhanced economic efficiency of method.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves use of alkali solutions containing excess of oxidant, namely alkali metal metaperiodates, at temperature 70-80є.
EFFECT: enabled dissolution of alloy.
FIELD: immobilization of heterogeneous radioactive wastes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes production of dehydrated radioactive sediment and filtrate on filtering centrifuge; heating of dehydrated radioactive sediment at 500 - 600 °C; crushing of products of heating into fragments measuring maximum 30 mm; case-hardening of crushed fragments with high-penetration cement solution which is, essentially, mixture of cement having specific surfaced area of minimum 8000 cm2/g and liquid phase at liquid phase-to-cement mass proportion of 0.6 - 1.4; for the final procedure mixture obtained is cooled down.
EFFECT: reduced amount of radioactive wastes, enhanced radiation safety, and reduced power requirement.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: decontamination engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device has side pipe connection, working liquid feed chamber, drive shaft, and washing head with nozzle. Working liquid feed chamber that has drive shaft and washing head pipe union, both passed therein through packing assemblies, is mounted directly inside storage tank by means of pipeline joined with side pipe connection. Drive shaft is coupled through movable bearing assembly with nozzle tilt angle varying mechanism. It is also coupled through slotted joint, toothed gear, and toothed rack with nozzle turning mechanism mounted on washing head axle and through hinged link ,to external adjustable ring of bearing disposed on packing assembly.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and safety in operation.
3 cl, 3 dwg