The method of defoliation crops

 

(57) Abstract:

Describes how defoliation crops, including its treatment in an aqueous solution of a mixture of chlorine-containing compounds with high molecular weight, as chlorinated compounds using organic or inorganic chlorinated compound, and as a high-molecular compounds using oxygen - or nitrogen-containing polymers. The technical result is to extend the scope of application of defoliants and increase crop yields. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 3 tables.

The invention relates to agriculture, in particular to the defoliation and desiccation of crops.

Known method of cotton defoliation, which as a defoliant use a mixture of chlorate and calcium chloride, chlorates sodium, magnesium chlorates [N. A. Aliyev. The defoliants and desicant cotton Handbook "FANT", Tashkent, 1990, S. 36-41].

The disadvantages of this method are the high consumption of drugs per unit area - 8-18 kg/ha Large expenditure norms lead to severe contamination of the soil. In addition, chlorates drugs are harsh actions, cccii cotton which is used as a defoliant polycomplex teleproductions of the active substance with the polymer - polyhexamethylene guanidine or polyethylenimine.

The structural formula of it is

< / BR>
n, m=1, 2

and(or) with polyethylenimine (PAYS):

< / BR>
n=20-27090; n,m=1, 2

(RF patent 2079512, CL 08 F 8/40, BI, 14, 1997).

The drugs stimulate the falling leaves and the opening of the bolls. The use of drugs it is possible to increase the yield and grade of cotton, reduces the time of mechanized harvesting, allows disposable machinery cleaning plantations. Drugs are water soluble, easy to use.

The disadvantages of this method include the fact that polyethylenimine is difficult component.

The technical problem solved by this invention is to extend the scope of application of defoliants and increase crop yields.

The technical problem is solved by a method of defoliation crops, including its handling of 0.5% aqueous solution of biologically active substances, as biologically active substances are used Horst mesh monochloracetic acid with potassium hydroxide at a ratio of 1/0,6-1/1, or perchlorate of sodium, with a high-molecular compound: polyhexamethylene guanidine chloride, or polyvinyl alcohol, or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose at equimolar ratio of chlorine-containing compounds and high molecular compounds.

As crops use cotton, or soybeans, or sunflower seeds.

The method consists in spraying agricultural crops (cotton, soybean, sunflower) 0,4-0,6% aqueous solutions of complex defoliant representing mixtures of biologically active substances with high molecular weight compounds. As macromolecular compounds used polyhexamethylene guanidine (phmg), or polyoxyalkylene (POAG) with the following degrees of polymerization:

< / BR>
n=4-50;

< / BR>
n=4-20, A=Cl; 1/2 H3PO4< / BR>
R=~(CH2)3O(CH2)2O(CH2)3~, (CH2)3O(CH2)4O(CH2)3~,

polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with molecular weight of 7104;

polyethylenimine (PAYS) of molecular weight 1104-1,2105;

carboxylmethylcellulose (CMC) molecular weight 5104-1,5105,

WITH6H7O2(OH)3 the major intervals of the molecular masses of the polymers provide education on the plant surface film, containing active ingredients.

As the active substance use 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (HFC), monochloracetic acid, sodium perchlorate. The ratio of the macromolecular substance and the active substance 0,5-1 of monomer units per mole of the active substance. Potassium hydroxide is added to monochloracetic acid to obtain the salt, which is active and low-risk. The addition of potassium hydroxide to JFK and 2-chloroethylthio increases their activity.

All source materials are industrial products. PVA is non-toxic which is a wide and diverse applications in medicine and food industry [S. N.Ushakov. Polyvinyl alcohol and its derivatives", an SSSR, M.-L., 1960, T. II, S. 781-790].

PAYS low toxicity, widely used in paper production, including food packaging [A. Gembicki and other Polyethylenimine. - M.: Nauka, 1971, S. 188-192; A. Gembicki and other Chemistry ethylenimine. - M.: Nauka, 1966, S. 200-232].

CMC is non-toxic. Produced by the industry on a large scale. Widely used in textile industry, food industry and pharmacy [G. A. Peter and Paul. Hydrophilic justicesawrie cellulose ethers and their modificatory cellulose, M.: Chemistry, 1967, S. 138, 140, 160-164].

The sodium perchlorate is non-toxic. For long-standing practice of obtaining perchlorate in an industrial scale is not known a single case of poisoning them [I. Schumacher. Perchlorate, properties, production and application. - M.: State. the scientific. technology. published in chem. literature, 1963, S. 195].

HFC - solid crystalline substance, soluble in water. LD50for different species of animals 3000-4200 mg/kg [N.A. Aliyev. The defoliants and desicant cotton. Reference "FANT", Tashkent, 1990, S. 36-41].

In aqueous solutions are stable at pH<4,5. At higher pH values it decomposes with evolution of ethylene [N. F. Zubkov and other Application and action features of desiccants and defoliants. "Agrochemistry", 1991, 8, S. 127-129, 132, 133]. The product is a 50% aqueous solution.

Monochloracetic acid in the form of potassium salts of low hazard. It is a solid crystalline substance, soluble in water and stable in aqueous solutions.

Macromolecular defoliants more effective than low molecular weight substances due to prolonged action of the biologically active component mounted on the plant polymer film. In addition, they malotki razvivat new salt with the active components of the mixture, for example pgmg and POAG 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid, monochloracetic acid or sodium perchlorate.

The proposed method of defoliation is as follows.

To a water solution of high-molecular compounds with stirring an aqueous solution of biologically active substances at the rate of 0.5-1 mol of a monomer of the polymer and the resulting solution sprayed agricultural crops. The rate of flow of complex defoliant (macromolecular compound plus active substance) 5 kg/ha, the working solution concentration of 0.4-0.6%.

Examples of specific performance.

Example 1.

To 2,065 kg PAYS in the form of a 20% aqueous solution was added with stirring 2,935 kg of sodium perchlorate dissolved in 10 l of water. To obtain a 0.5% solution add 974 l of water. The resulting solution sprayed the bushes cotton by standard methods on an area of 1 ha

Example 2.

According to the standard procedure of example 1 is sprayed in the bushes cotton 0.5% solution consisting of 1,894 PVA, 0.12 kg of potassium hydroxide and 3.1 kg 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid.

Example 3.

According to the method of example 1 are sprayed bushes cotton 0.5% solution="ptx2">

According to the method of example 1 are sprayed bushes cotton 0.5% solution consisting of 3,395 kg CMC and 1,604 kg of sodium perchlorate.

Example 5.

According to the method of example 1 are sprayed soybean crops 0.5% solution consisting of at 1,865 kg PAYS, 0.12 kg of potassium hydroxide and 3.1 kg 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid.

Example 6.

According to the method of example 1 are sprayed soybean crops 0.5% solution consisting of 2,71 kg guanidine chloride, 0,853 kg of potassium hydroxide and 1.44 kg monochloracetic acid.

Example 7.

According to the method of example 1 are sprayed soybean crops 0.5% solution consisting of 1,847 kg PVA, 1.98 kg monochloracetic acid and 1.1 kg of potassium hydroxide.

Example 8.

According to the method of example 1 are sprayed soybean crops 0.5% solution consisting of 2,356 kg guanidine chloride, 0,74 kg of potassium hydroxide and 1,916 kg 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid.

Example 9.

According to the method of example 1 are sprayed crops sunflower 0.5% solution consisting of 1,816 kg PAYS, 1,997 kg monochloracetic acid and 0,683 kg of potassium hydroxide.

Example 10.

According to the method of example 1 are sprayed crops sunflower 0.5% solution consisting of 3,162 kg CMC, 1,154 kg monochloroacetic sunflower 0.5% solution, consisting of 2,678 kg guanidine chloride and 2,322 kg of sodium perchlorate.

Example 12.

According to the method of example 1 are sprayed crops sunflower 0.5% solution consisting of 2,093 kg PVA and 2,907 kg of sodium perchlorate.

After spraying on 6 and 12 day determine the percentage of leaves falling and the percentage of opening of cotton bolls. Research depolymerase activity of the preparations was carried out as in model plants grown in natural conditions and in field plots. Testing of cotton were carried out on medium staple varieties "Bukhara-6", "Namangan-1", "Yulduz". Served as control untreated plants. The repeatability of the experiments three times. All experiments yielded a positive result compared with the known compounds.

The results of tests of new defoliaria drugs are presented in tables 1, 2 and 3.

The test results of the method of defoliation showed its high efficiency. Observed acceleration Boll maturation in the absence of negative effects on the growth and development of plants. Polymeric compositions more active than low-molecular substances due to prolonged and mild fixed on the formation of the separating layer, leading to falling leaves and disclosure Boll. The proposed method reduces mechanical harvesting, allows for one-time cleaning fee of plantations. Through the application of the method increases crop yields and improves the quality of agricultural products. Drugs are water soluble, easy to use, environmentally safe.

1. The method of defoliation crops, including its treatment with 0.5% aqueous solution of biologically active substances, characterized in that the biologically active substances are used chlorinated compound is a mixture of 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid with potassium hydroxide at a molar ratio of 1/10, or a mixture of monochloracetic acid with potassium hydroxide at a ratio of 1/0,6-1/1, or sodium perchlorate with high-molecular compound is polyhexamethylene guanidine chloride, or polyvinyl alcohol, or sodium carboxymethyl cellulose at equimolar ratio of chlorine-containing compounds and high molecular compounds.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that as crops use cotton, or soybeans, or sunflower.

 

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