The device for generation of soft x-rays
(57) Abstract:Application: radiation physics. The device can be used in the development of powerful large-aperture emitters of soft x-rays (MRI) quantum energy of 50 eV to 5 Kev for various scientific applications. The inventive device for generating MRI, containing consistently located the driver, optically thin target bremsstrahlung and reflector electrons, unlike the prototype driver made in the form of a radiation source hard-quanta. An additional difference may be that the reflector of the electrons is made in the form of a source of a magnetic field parallel to the surface of the target bremsstrahlung. The technical result is to increase power output device for generating MRI due to a driver of another type, not having restrictions on the amount of power. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il. The invention relates to radiation physics and can be used in the development of powerful large-aperture emitters soft x-ray study (MRI) quantum energy of 50 eV to 5 Kev for various scientific applications.A device for generating rentgenovskoj the se) and the magnetic system of the reversal of the beam  (Grishin, C. K., The Ishkhanov B. S., "an Efficient source of bremsstrahlung with multiple crossing a thin target electron beam", Vestnik MGU, ser. 3, 1996, 1, S. 83-86).A disadvantage of this device is the low yield of MRI.It is also known device for generating TECHNIQUES described in  (Sanford T. W. L, Halbein J. A., "Potential enhancement of warm X-ray dose from a reflexing bremsstrahluhg diode", IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 1995, v. 42, 6, p. 1902-1909). This device contains consistently located electronic diode as the driver, optically thin bremsstrahlung target (foil) and the reflector of the electrons in the form of additional electrode, providing a multiple passage of the electrons through the foil. This device is chosen for the prototype.However, the known device has a physical limit on power generation, since the use of electronic diode as the driver current, the latter cannot exceed the value defined limiting current Childe-Langmuir, therefore, claimed in  values of the current in the diode (60 MA) at an accelerating voltage of 5 MB) can hardly be achieved. Indicate that the increase of accelerating voltage in addition to increasing the current driver leads to a shift of the spectrum of x-rays in more than the invention is to eliminate restrictions on the amount of power the driver.The technical result consists in increasing the power output device for generating MRI due to a driver of another type, not having restrictions on the amount of power.This result is achieved by the fact that the device for generating MRI, containing consistently located the driver, optically thin target bremsstrahlung and reflector electrons, unlike the prototype driver made in the form of a radiation source hard-quanta. An additional difference may be that the reflector of the electrons is made in the form of a source of a magnetic field parallel to the surface of the target bremsstrahlung.The proposed device is based on the knocking hard-quanta driver from the target flows Compton electrons (KE) and electron-positron pair (e--e+-pairs) and ensuring their repeated passing through the target. While the target simultaneously with the role of source brake MRI plays a role-emitter CE and e--e+-pairs. In fact, the proposed device is a Converter-breeder hard radiation in MRI, as one of TBE or one e--e+couples can be a large number of quanta the ants do not apply any force, there is no physical limitations on the power driver, which explains the achievable technical result.To provide a multiple pass CE and e--e+-nap through the target it is convenient to use a device that creates a magnetic field near the target, parallel to her. Indeed, electrostatic reflective system, similar to , has overshadowed the target driver, and in addition, to reflect, say, electrons with an energy of 5 MeV would be required to apply for electrostatic reflectors potential value, lesser - 5 MB relative to the target, while the magnetic field, for example, only 1 kgf able to wrap such electrons only on the radius of a few centimetres. Thus, the magnetic system of the reflection of electrons and positrons to use preferably, however, the use of electrostatic or combined reflection is not excluded.The drawing represents an example of a circuit implementation device for generating MRI and explains how it works.In the drawing: 1 - driver, 2 - source of a magnetic field (shown closed magnetic field lines), 3 - target bremsstrahlung large the electron, e--e+- trajectory pair of electron and positron.Driver 1, which is the source of hard-quanta, can be performed, for example, in the form of a radioactive element, in the form of high-current electron accelerator operating in the mode of generation of bremsstrahlung radiation or nuclear explosive device, which is also a source of hard-quanta. The first example is possible if the proposed device for the generation of MRI is to be used in continuous mode, the last two examples refer pulse mode operation.The source of the magnetic field 2 may be made in the form of permanent magnets for continuous operation or in the form of a solenoid, as shown in the drawing, for pulse mode operation. To power the solenoid need a power supply, which can be used in the capacitor Bank with the managed switching (not shown).As optically thin target 3 bremsstrahlung using a metal foil made of a material with high atomic number, such as tantalum. The foil thickness is chosen according to the desired size lower bounds in the spectrum of MRI.Devices the static current in the solenoid 2, exciting magnetic field parallel to the target 3. After reaching the magnetic field values required for reversal of charged particles start driver 1 which emits a pulse hard-quanta.Hard-quanta knock from the target 3, the flow of charged particles in the form of EC and e--e+-pairs. These particles are wrapped by the magnetic field of the solenoid 2, repeatedly passing through the target 3 and generating multiple MRI. 1. The device for generation of soft x-ray radiation, containing consistently located the driver, optically thin target bremsstrahlung and reflector electrons, characterized in that the driver is made in the form of source hard-quanta.2. The device under item 1, characterized in that the reflector electrons in the form of source magnetic field parallel to the surface of the optically thin target bremsstrahlung.
FIELD: flaw inspections, customs examination equipment, medicine, and roentgen diagnosing spectroscopic installations.
SUBSTANCE: proposed X-ray tube has vacuum envelope accommodating anode, X-ray output aperture, cathode assembly incorporating field-radiating cathode in the form of bundle of carbon fibers placed in conducting or semiconducting shell, contact assembly of field-radiating cathode, and cap that functions as control electrode. In order to prevent stray surface electric conductance caused by sputtering of field-radiating cathode material on structural components of X-ray tube, dielectric washer is inserted in this tube wherein during X-ray tube assembly annular cavity is formed between inner hole of washer, field-radiating cathode shell, and upper end of field-radiating cathode contact assembly. Cavity provided in dielectric washer and also its slots prevent formation of solid conducting and semiconducting films which enhances stability of electrical and radiating characteristics of tube. For raising electric strength of tube and excluding breakdown of its envelope cap is installed on dielectric washer that functions as control electrode. Cap is installed so that axis of carbon fiber bundle is aligned with that of optoelectronic system of X-ray tube and symmetry axis of cap.
EFFECT: enhanced operating stability, electric strength, reliability, and service life of X-ray tubes with field-radiating cathode.
1 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: roentgen engineering; producing roentgenograms, for instance in medicine.
SUBSTANCE: proposed X-ray source module has X-ray tube incorporating body, cathode and anode assemblies, as well as generator unit incorporating high-rating voltage divider whose high-voltage lead is connected to one of tube assemblies; X-ray tube body is made in the form of metal cylinder accommodating sectionalized cylindrical high-voltage insulator. One of its ends is connected through vacuum-tight joint to one of body ends and other end mounts cathode assembly. Anode assembly is disposed on other end of body and is made in the form of anode tube brought outside the body that carries target on its loose end. Generator unit is disposed inside cylindrical high-voltage insulator whose inner space is filled with oil. Side surface of insulator functions as high-rating voltage divider.
EFFECT: reduced mass and size of module.
1 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: roentgen engineering, in particular, engineering of x-ray emitters, possible use in high energy industrial x-ray devices, and also in customs browsing complexes.
SUBSTANCE: x-ray emitter contains, positioned coaxially, vacuumized semi-wave coaxial resonator, tetrode cannon with radial anode, connection element of generator with resonator in form of anchor ring shaped head and a target. First and second hollow internal semiconductors of resonator are positioned coaxially and separated from each other by high frequency gap. In first internal conductor on the side of its free end injector of electrons is positioned, cathode of which is directed towards the target. Base of second internal conductor is connected to first end wall of resonator. Tetrode cannon and radial anode are positioned between first internal conductor and second end wall of resonator. First internal conductor is connected to radial anode and rigidly connected to external conductor of resonator by means of supporting dielectric isolator positioned between them. The target is positioned in the hollow of second internal conductor or in vacuumized hollow of span tube, positioned outside the resonator coaxially to second internal conductor.
EFFECT: generation of high energy (over 400 keV) flow of electrons with efficiency not less than 30% at working frequency ≈ 300 MHz, increased electric durability, reliability and lifetime.
8 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: physics; X-ray inspection.
SUBSTANCE: X-ray generator includes high DC voltage generator, X-ray tube in the form of a metallic enclosure, anode assembly with a target anode and window for the X-ray radiation output, cathode assembly in the form of a cathode with a filament and a cathode insulator, cathode filament power supply unit; the high DC voltage generator and the cathode filament power supply unit are located in the internal cavity of the cathode insulator, filled with dielectric material.
EFFECT: decrease in dimensions and weight and increase in reliability of device as whole.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: sources of X-ray radiation.
SUBSTANCE: X-ray tube of permanent radiation, consists of cylindrical anode, annular cathode, which consists of several glow threads, focusing electrode, windows for withdrawal of X-ray radiation and leak-tight casing. Annular cathode, which consists of two and more glow threads, is isolated from tube casing and focusing electrode, which allows to change size of focal spot by means of control voltage supply on cathode in regard to casing and focusing electrode. Anode is made in the form of massive copper cylinder, to the end of which target is fixed by means of soldering or welding, made of material that is necessary for generation of corresponding X-ray radiation. Focusing electrode is installed so that products of cathode evaporation would not get to anode end surface. Internal part of tube casing is additional element of focusing, configuration of internal surface of tube casing that faces cathode and focusing electrode is designed to provide focusing of electrons on anode surface. Output collimator is added in tube design, and its dimensions are selected so that cathode evaporation products would not get on the surface of output window.
EFFECT: simplification of design, reduction of dimensions, increase of tube operation resource, possibility of focal spot regulation by means of cathode potential change in regard to focusing electrode.
SUBSTANCE: method of making a through-type target of pulse-type X-ray tube involves using metal foil made from a high-atomic number metal. Elements are made on the surface of the foil, which can be stretched or compressed due to flexural deformation of the foil. In the target of the X-ray tube made of high-atomic number metal foil on the area of the surface of the foil lying in the zone of the focal spot, there are drop-forged protrusions, the height and maximum dimension in the cross-section of which do not exceed 0.2S and 0.3d, respectively, where S is the size of the gap between the cathode and the target, d is the diameter of the focal spot of the tube, wherein the distance between protrusions does not exceed 0.3d or the foil is divided into corrugated strips mounted on a substrate made from low-atomic number material; strips in the plane of the substrate lie tightly against each other; the height and spacing of the corrugations do not exceed 0.2S and 0.2d, respectively, where S is the size of the gap between the cathode and the target, d is the diameter of the focal spot of the tube; the width of the strips does not exceed 2 mm.
EFFECT: reduced mechanical stress in the material of the target.
3 cl, 4 dwg, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: plasma generator of deceleration radiation has a microwave resonator placed in a magnetostatic field with a plug configuration with a small plug ratio and excited by a microwave generator. Pulse-forming magnetic coils are placed on the microwave resonator in the interpole space of an electromagnet; the resonator is connected to a pulse gas valve which enables to form a powerful gas jet directed into the region of generating a bunch of accelerated electrons. A solid-state target is placed in the resonator outside the heating zone.
EFFECT: high radiation intensity, clear radiation pattern, which widens the spectral range of radiation in the region of hard X-rays.
SUBSTANCE: in device and method for generation of emission from discharge plasma there performed is laser-induced discharge between the first and the second electrodes with energy input of pulse power source to discharge plasma and generation from discharge plasma of emission together with by-product in the form of neutral and charged debris. Based on selection of irradiation point of electrode with laser beam, geometry of electrodes and discharge outline, there formed is asymmetric discharge of mainly bent/banana shape, the own magnetic field of which has gradient immediately near discharge, which determines direction of predominant movement of discharge plasma flow from electrodes to area of less strong magnetic field.
EFFECT: increasing optic emission beam power.
8 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: portable X-ray system (200) has sensing means for detecting whether an anti-scatter grid (230) is attached to a portable detector (240) or not. The system is able to automatically change the default exposure settings (265a, 265b, 265c, 265d), when the grid (230) is removed or attached to the portable detector (240).
EFFECT: reducing the risk of under- or over-exposure of the image.
16 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: X-ray tube with modulated radiation has a vacuum envelope with an output window which is transparent for X-ray radiation and, inside the vacuum envelope, an electron source, an electron focusing system and an anode whose surface is coated with a layer of the target metal. The electron source used in the disclosed invention is a microchannel plate at the input of which UV radiation of a semiconductor photodiode or laser is transmitted.
EFFECT: enabling modulation of radiation of an X-ray tube.
FIELD: production of extreme ultraviolet irradiation, lithography.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of using at least one solid target that irradiates extreme ultraviolet at interaction with laser beam focused on target surface turned to laser. Such target is capable to irradiate part of irradiation from second surface. Said irradiation part is collected and transmitted for usage.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of ultraviolet irradiation source.
11 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: high-energy ultraviolet and roentgen radiation sources.
SUBSTANCE: high-energy photon source has electrode pair 8 for producing plasma pinch disposed in vacuum chamber of plasma pinch generating device 2. Chamber holds working gas incorporating noble cushion gas and active gas chosen to afford generation of desired spectral line. Switching-mode power supply 10 generates electric pulses of sufficiently high voltage to build up electrical discharge between electrodes. This discharge produces high-temperature plasma pinches of high density in working gas which generate radiation in spectral line of power supply. Electrodes are of coaxial configuration with anode on axis. Active gas is introduced through hollow anode.
EFFECT: ability of optimizing spectral line of source and optimizing the latter separately with respect to cushion gas.
22 cl, 17 dwg
FIELD: technologies for generation of short-pulse x-ray and corpuscular emission during transformation of substance to extreme state under conditions of decreased voltage use.
SUBSTANCE: new method for generation of short-pulse x-ray and corpuscular (electrons, multi-charge ions) emission during transformation of substance to extreme states, on basis of dense plasma use, includes forming plasma during initiation (with use of focused laser pulses or electro-explosions of micro-conductors) of vacuum-spark and arc charges with lowered applied voltages (12-300 V) in micro-gaps ( with inter-electrode distances 50-100 mcm). Method allows to produce pulses ( with picosecond and nanosecond duration) of isotropic and sharp-directed (with angular divergence 10-4 radians) of x-ray emission.
EFFECT: compact devices with increased safety degree, using lower applied voltage.
4 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: technology for producing extreme ultraviolet radiation from gas-discharge plasma.
SUBSTANCE: as electrodes, two disk-shaped elements are utilized, central symmetry axes of which are combined with axis of shaft, peripheral portion of surface of at least one of electrodes is covered by later of low melting-point metal, and also provided is a system for feeding low-melting point metal onto surface of at least one of aforementioned electrodes, and as system for initiation of discharge device for forming steam channel in peripheral area of inter-electrode gap is utilized.
EFFECT: increased frequency of movement of pulses, increased average power of extreme ultraviolet emission of gas-discharge plasma while providing for small dimensions thereof, increased lifetime and increased efficiency of extreme ultraviolet source, high stability of emission from pulse to pulse.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: technology for producing soft roentgen radiation.
SUBSTANCE: anode target of roentgen tube is affected by beam of electrons, emitted by cathode, simultaneously with aforementioned effect anode target is additionally irradiated by intensive laser radiation with density of energy in impulse, selected on basis of condition of providing for possible ionization of atoms of anode target material by removing electrons from up to electron covers, to which maximum of recombination radiation is applied, lying within necessary range of wave lengths. Aforementioned beam of electrons, emitted by cathode, is utilized for removal of recombining electrons from aforementioned covers and for providing for possible repeated participation of electrons in process of recombination onto these covers.
EFFECT: possible production of soft roentgen radiation by means of new method using roentgen tube.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns a method of effective reception of short-wave, in particular, extreme ultra-violet (EUV) radiation from plasma of pulsing vacuum discharges preferentially with rotating electrodes. The invention can be used for EUV lithography, in particular, at the wave length of λ =13.5 nanometers corresponding to effective reflexion of mirror Mo/Si of optics. The way of reception of short-wave radiation from plasma of the vacuum discharge consists in an irradiation of one of the electrodes, coated with a plasma-supporting substance using a focused laser beam and realisation of the basic discharge between electrodes by means of the pulsing power supply. The basic discharge is carried out with time delay after laser beam action, and during time delay the auxiliary discharge between electrodes is formed by means of the auxiliary pulsing power supply, and an auxiliary pulsing discharge is carried out using current with direction to an opposite direction of basic discharge current, with energy deposition, smaller in comparison with energy deposition in the basic discharge.
EFFECT: magnification of electrical energy transformation efficiency enclosed in the discharge in energy of short-wave radiation, increase of spatial and energy stability of radiating plasma, and also reduction of its effective size.