The energy-storage method of braking a vehicle
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to a controlled brake systems of vehicles to electric traction. To the motor and actuating mechanism of the vehicle is attached to the flywheel by means of the differential gear. The braking process is carried out in two stages. At the first stage rastormazivate the flywheel and give him some of the kinetic energy of the vehicle, the other part of energy Recuperat in the network, which transfer the electric motor in the generator mode. In the second stage, after stopping the motor it reversiruyut, reporting speed in the direction of rotation of the flywheel, and transferring energy from the motor vehicle to the flywheel to a complete stop the vehicle. This method is characterized by a maximum use of the kinetic energy of the vehicle in a controlled braking. 4 Il. The invention relates to energy-storage technology and is designed for controlled brake systems of vehicles to electric traction.There is a method of energy-storage of braking applied by the regenerative brake Weights the second planetary gearbox, connected to the small sun wheel with the engine, a planet carrier with the propeller shaft, and a large sun wheel and flywheel; is that when braking transmit the kinetic energy of the vehicle and the energy of the engine to the flywheel, which reduce the fuel supply to the engine, creating on its shaft braking torque, and the change gear ratio of the gearbox for matching the velocities of the elements of the differential mechanism; when overclocking, increase fuel supply, the change gear ratio of the gearbox for matching the velocities of the elements of the differential mechanism and transmit the energy from the flywheel and the engine on acceleration of the vehicle.The disadvantage of this method is a step change gear ratio, which cause dynamic loads, and operation of the engine is in transient mode.There is a method of energy-storage deceleration of the vehicle, taken as a prototype [application of Germany OS 3031232, 1982, MKI F 16 H 33/00], is that transferable or accumulate rotational energy is supplied through the shaft to the gear wheel of the differential gear, while the other gear wheel is connected via a second shaft with a rotating mass is RME oil pressure or extracts from the hydraulic accumulator of energy consumption, moreover, the electrical and hydraulic control determines how much energy the rotation is transmitted, stored or given.The disadvantages of this method are: relatively low efficiency and the ability to apply only to machines equipped with hydraulic drive.The invention is aimed at maximum utilization of the kinetic energy of the vehicle in a controlled braking, which is achieved due to the fact that when braking the vehicle accelerates the flywheel attached to the motor and actuating mechanism of the vehicle through a differential gear, adjust the torque generated by the motor; characterized in that the braking process of the vehicle is carried out in two stages: the first stage rastormazivate the flywheel and give him some of the kinetic energy of the vehicle, the other part of energy Recuperat in the network, which transfer the electric motor in the generator mode; in the second stage, after stopping the motor it reversiruyut, reporting speed in the direction of rotation of the flywheel, and transferring energy from the motor vehicle to the flywheel to a complete stop A Electromechanical transmission at the first stage of braking, in Fig.2 - speeds of the elements of the differential mechanism of the Electromechanical transmission at the second stage of braking.The proposed method is energy-storage braking may be performed using the device shown in Fig.3.The device consists of a system of controlled Electromechanical actuator, which consists of: four-quadrant control system 6 connected to the network; an electric motor 5; a differential gear 4 with the carrier 2, the small sun wheel 1, the large sun wheel 3; flywheel 7; reverser 8; wheels 9; brake elements 10, 11; tachogenerators 12, 13, 14.To carry out the proposed energy-storage method of braking an electric motor 5 connected to the planet carrier 2 of the differential gear 4, the flywheel 7 with a large sun wheel 3, and a small sun wheel 1 with the leading wheels 9 of the vehicle.Before beginning the first stage of braking, the electric motor 5 operates in motor mode (line 1-2 of Fig.4) and transmits torque through the differential gear 4, the reverse gear 8 to the drive wheels 9 of the vehicle. The shaft 15 of the flywheel 7 is braked by the brake 10 and the flywheel 7 does not rotate VM=0. The control system shall ulozhenie 2 in the engine and from position 2 to position 3 in generator mode (Fig.4). Thus, the first stage of the braking control system 6 after receiving a command for braking removes power from the motor 5 (point 2 in Fig.4), and then puts it in the generator mode, creating on its shaft braking torque MT(point 3 in Fig. 4). Simultaneously, the control system 6 sends a signal to the braking element 10, which restorative shaft 15 of the flywheel 7.At the initial braking (Fig.1) the angular velocity of the electric motor corresponds to the linear speed of the carrier of Vd; the angular velocity of the flywheel corresponds to the linear velocity of the large sun wheel Vmthat in this initial moment is equal to zero; the angular velocity of the wheels of the vehicle corresponds to the initial linear velocity of the small sun wheel Vabout.The energy of the TC comes with wheels 9 via the reverse gear 8 on the flywheel 7 by a large sun wheel 3 and is accumulated there, and with the help of led 2 is transmitted to the motor shaft 5, which converts it into electric and management system 6 transmits to the network. At the first stage of braking, the speed of the motor 5 is reduced to zero.The first stage of braking continues until a complete stop velocity Vmp(Fig.1), and the speed of the small sun wheel 1 is reduced to Vop.The second phase of the braking starts automatically when the control system 6 is supplied from the tachometer 12 is a signal to stop the engined= 0. At this point, the control system switches the electric motor 5 in the motor mode and changes the direction of its rotation to the opposite. The kinetic energy EaboutVehicle and motor Edtransmitted to the flywheel so that Em= Eabout+Fd. Thus, in the second stage of braking, the electric motor 5 operates in the area between the dots 4-5 in Fig.4 in the motor mode. The second phase of the braking continues until the complete stop of the vehicle Vo=0 (Fig 2). Thus, the flywheel 7 is accelerated to a velocity Vmtoand the motor 5 to the velocity Vd(point 5 in Fig.4). When the control system 6 receives from the Tacho-generator 14 a signal to stop CUo= 0, it sends a signal to the braking element 11, which slows the shaft 16 of the small sun wheel 1. The control system 6 removes power from the motor 5, and he during the whole period of Parking works in run-on mode (point 6 in Fig.4) together with the flywheel 7.Atletica on a similar scheme in reverse order. The way energy-storage deceleration of the vehicle, namely, that when braking the vehicle accelerates the flywheel attached to the motor and actuating mechanism of the vehicle through a differential gear, adjust the torque generated by the electric motor, characterized in that the braking process of the vehicle is carried out in two stages: the first stage rastormazivate the flywheel and give him some of the kinetic energy of the vehicle, the other part of energy Recuperat in the network, which transfer the electric motor in the generator mode; in the second stage, after stopping the motor it reversiruyut, reporting speed in the direction of rotation of the flywheel, and transferring energy from the motor vehicle to the flywheel to a complete stop the vehicle.
SUBSTANCE: set of inventions relates to estimation of friction on the surface of contact between vehicle wheel and soil or adhesion between wheels and road surface. Envisaged are module (or step) of first input, module (or step) of second input and module (or step) of output. Module of first input sets first input that represents ratio between first force acting on wheel on soil contact surface in first direction and first degree of wheel skid. Module of second input sets second input that represents ratio between second force acting on wheel on soil contact surface in second direction and second degree of wheel skid. Module of output derives output from first and second inputs that makes parameter describing adhesion of transport facility wheel.
EFFECT: high accuracy of estimation.
56 cl, 78 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to device that controls transport regenerative braking. Proposed method consists in calculating the braking force whereat vehicle main brakes act at vehicles. Preset braking force whereat engine acts at wheels is defined proceeding from the brake pedal position function and minimum force developed by the engine at undepressed pedal and maximum level of regenerative braking in absolute magnitude.
EFFECT: efficient regenerative braking.
16 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed plant comprises mobile running gear and drive hardware not including the ICE. Drive hardware comprises drive motor, elements to transfer power between drive motor and drive wheel, electrical system, pressurised working fluid system, jib moving along running gear and equipped with rock drilling machine and control unit. Control unit incorporates systems control algorithm. Drive motor serves as the generator and the main brake at long-term motion over the slope. Control unit can control electrical system and electric power generated at downslope motion for charging of storage battery. Proposed method consists in plant braking at long-term motion over the slope by drive motor solely. Storage battery is charged. Electric power is converted to pressure energy in response to demand in excess power, increasing the plant maximum speed at downslope motion.
EFFECT: efficient distribution of electric power at downslope motion.
15 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of main motor braking and reverse control consists in alternate regenerative braking of the ship engines. The regeneration of the braking energy is carried out through the DC link by controlling the connection of the links by means of signals from the upper level system depending on the ship speed and the amount of recovered energy of the main motors. A uniform transfer of recuperative braking energy is made through the DC link of each electric motor between all the electric motors of the ship. With the help of the predictive model of the braking and reversing mode of the main motors of the ship, taking into account the current and predicted parameters of the ship's motion and the elements of the unified electric power system, the optimal braking parameters are determined: braking sequence, start time and speed of braking and acceleration of main motors, parameters of generator sets of the power plant.
EFFECT: optimisation of the ship braking with two or more adjustable main motors of the ship.
FIELD: power engineering; buffer energy accumulators; transport systems, emergency power supply units, wind-power and solar stations.
SUBSTANCE: proposed accumulator has flywheel and drive with supports located in evacuated chambers having different levels of vacuum and separated from each other; evacuated chambers are filled with rarefied gas; electric drive is located in one of them at low level of vacuum; flywheel is located in other chamber at increased level of vacuum of 0.1 to 0.01 Pa; turbo-molecular pump mounted on flywheel shaft is used for maintenance of increased vacuum in chamber by pumping the gas from this chamber to chamber of drive. At least one chamber is used for drives and supports which is separated from flywheel chamber by seals; they are hermetic during working rotational speeds of flywheel.
EFFECT: low aerodynamic losses in flywheel chamber; enhanced cooling efficiency without availability separate cooling systems.
7 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: transmission comprises housing (1), axially aligned driving (2) and driven (3) shafts, driving (4) and driven (5) central gear wheels, central conical thrust gear wheel (10), carrier (6) with radial axles provided with main satellites (7) and (8) and additional satellites (9), bearing shaft (11) with two cylindrical gear wheels (12) and (13), and intermediate shaft (16). Driving wheel (4), driven wheel (5), and two main satellites (7) and (8) are made of cylindrical gear wheels. Driving wheel (4) and driven wheel (5) are arranged on opposite sides of radial axles of carrier (6). The two wheels of main satellites (7) and (8) are rigidly interconnected through shaft (17) of main satellites to form a single unit. The unit is mounted for permitting rotation on one of the axles of carrier (6) parallel to the axis of the transmission.
EFFECT: simplified design and reduced labor consumption in manufacturing.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises pumping wheel secured with the driving shaft of an actuator, turbine wheel secured to the driving shaft, at lest one reactor interposed between the pumping and turbine wheels, at least one casing, and at least one damper of torsional vibrations acting between the driving shaft and input shaft. The torsional vibration damper is mounted between the driving shaft and pumping wheel. The pumping and turbine wheels are mounted inside the casing.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of damping and simplified design of the device.
22 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: transmission comprises housing (14), axially aligned input (1) and output (2) shafts, central conical driving (3) and driven (4) gear wheels, carrier (5) with radial axles and satellites made of wheels (6) and (7), basic, additional (8), and auxiliary (9) satellites which are in engagement with driving (3), driven (4) and additional bearing (11) and auxiliary bearing (10) central conical gear wheels, respectively. Additional (11) and auxiliary (10) bearing wheels are mounted on additional (12) and auxiliary (15) hollow intermediate shafts mounted coaxially with respect to input (1) and output (2) shafts, respectively, and connected with them through drives made of gear wheels and shafts (13) and (16).
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
7 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; automotive industry; machine-tool building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed transmission contains carrier 1 with main planet pinions 6, 7 and additional planet pinion 9, driving central wheel 2 and driven central wheel 3, support wheel 8, input shaft 4 and output shaft 5. Solid planet pinions can play the part of flywheels. Support wheel 8 is secured on hollow intermediate shaft 10 coaxial to input shaft and is coupled with drive of support wheel 8 consisting of three gear wheels 11, 12 and 13. Wheel 13 is intermediate one, being placed between said two wheels, and its axle 14 is installed in transmission housing 15. Two radial axles of carrier 1 are located on one line of axes 01-01 and they carry main and additional planet pinions installed for independent rotation in opposite directions. Line of axis 0-0 of transmission and lines of radial axes 01-01 of carrier intersect in central point 01 relative to which planet pinions rotate.
EFFECT: simplified design, reduced mass of transmission, provision of possibility of automatically changing of torque depending on load on output shaft.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; automotive industry; machine-tool building.
SUBSTANCE: proposed transmission contains coaxial input shaft 1 and out-put shaft 2, bevel driving wheel 3 and driven wheel 4, additional support central bevel gear 11 and auxiliary support central bevel gear 10, carrier 5 with radial axles on which main planet pinion made up of two wheels 6 and 7, additional planet pinion 8 and auxiliary plant pinion 9 are mounted. Additional support and auxiliary support wheels 11, 10 are secured on their additional hollow intermediate shaft 12 and auxiliary hollow intermediate shaft 18, respectively. Shafts 12 and 18 are installed coaxially to shafts 1 and 2, being connected to them by drives. Transmission and conversion of torque at all duties is provided by braking carrier 5 caused by change of direction of vectors of angular momentum of planer pinions of larger mass at rotation relative to central point 01 of intersection of line O-O of transmission and radial axes 01-01 of carrier 5.
EFFECT: improved reliability of power coupling of input and output shafts with conversion of value of torque and speed depending on value of load applied to shaft.
10 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; drives.
SUBSTANCE: proposed drive has drum 1, shaft 2 on which planetary gear trains are installed parallel to each other. Each planetary gear train, 3 and 4, respectively, consists of sun gear 5, 6, idler gear 7, 8 and crown gear 9, 10 made in form of toothed rims, one of which is connected to inner surface of drum, and the other, to fixed frame 17. Carrier 11 connected to idler gears 7, 8 interacts with shaft 2, being installed for rotation around shaft. Device providing power action on drum 1 is made in form of weight 15 connected through wire rope to drum 1 or, in form of spring 16, connected by one end to outer surface of drum 1 and by other end, to fixed object. Flow of gravitational or potential energy gets partially to first planetary gear train 3, and partially, through carrier 11, to second planetary gear train 4 and then to drive shaft 2, thus creating excess torque and increasing effectiveness of drive.
EFFECT: increased effectiveness of drive at enlarged area of its application.
2 cl, 2 dwg