Method for heat and electric energy

 

(57) Abstract:

The way to obtain heat and electricity involves the flow of air in the gas turbine installation, its compression in the compressor. From the compressor the air is directed into the combustion chamber, further expanding in the turbine, operate the compressor and generator. The exhaust turbine gases are passed as a heating medium through the heat exchanger. Part decompressing air in an amount of 0.1-20% perepuskat for entry into the compressor, throttling return the fulfilled decompressing air is carried out in dependence on the temperature of the atmospheric air and the air in the beginning of the heating season. The invention improves the efficiency and reliability due to temperature control at the inlet to the compressor and increases thermal efficiency with ambient temperatures below the temperature of the air in the beginning of the heating season. 1 Il.

The invention relates to methods of producing heat and electricity using a gas turbine cogeneration power plants based on high-temperature aircraft engine converted for ground application.

Known for the new energy or to maintain it at a constant level at low temperature atmospheric air leaving the turbine of a gas turbine engine, the additional gas is heated by the combustion of additional fuel, and then the heated gas is directed in heat boiler where it gives up its thermal energy [1] .

The disadvantage of this method is the reduced thermal efficiency, because the heat energy obtained by burning fuel in a turbine, not "moved" in the turbine. Furthermore, additional hardware is required for burning fuel in a turbine, which reduces the reliability and efficiency of this method.

Closest to the claimed is a method for thermal and electric energy, including air flow at the entrance of the gas turbine installation, its compression in the compressor, from which the air is directed into the combustion chamber, further expanding in the turbine, operate the compressor and the generator, then in the turbine exhaust gases are passed as a heating medium through the heat exchanger, and heated in the heat exchanger the air is directed to the engine inlet [2].

However, the known method does not have sufficient reliability and efficiency, because it requires the use of additional heat exchanger for heating atmospheric air, and the heat coming from the gas turbine is not fully used for district heating.

Technical teratory inlet air into the compressor and increasing thermal efficiency of the installation.

The invention consists in that in a method of producing thermal and electric energy, including the air in the gas turbine installation, its compression in the compressor, from which the air is directed into the combustion chamber, further expand in the turbine operate the compressor and the generator, then in the turbine exhaust gases are passed as a heating medium through the heat exchanger according to the invention, part decompressing air in an amount of 0.1-20% perepuskat for entry into the compressor, and the flow decompressing air is determined by the formula:

G=K (- T),

where Tn is the temperature of the atmospheric air inlet to the compressor,oC;

The air temperature at the beginning of the heating season,oC;

K - coefficient of proportionality, depending on the parameters of the specific unit.

This method allows for constant power on the shaft of the gas turbine engine to generate electricity in case of lowering the temperature of the atmospheric air inlet to the compressor to maintain a constant heat capacity of a gas turbine or her to increase with increasing thermal efficiency.

Maintaining constant power to the shaft (the country: Russia the em reliability of the installation and the method in General.

Improved thermal efficiency in comparison with the prototype is due to the fact that all of the gas from the turbine passes through a heat exchanger-the heat exchanger, giving up its heat to the consumer. The increase of heat capacity (or keep it constant when the temperature of atmospheric air) is due to increase or maintain a constant gas temperature at the outlet of the turbine as due to the preheating of inlet air into the compressor, and by improving the mode of operation of the engine to compensate for power loss on the selected compression for the air compressor.

For reliable and efficient operation of the heat exchanger it is necessary that the flow rate and the gas temperature at the inlet was kept constant for all modes of plant operation and when any change in the temperature of the surrounding atmospheric air. The inventive method provides this continuity through the bypass decompressing air to enter the compressor. When this air flow is changed from 0.1% when bypass up to 20%. At the rate of more than 20% of possible damage to the compressor due to vibration of the blades, and damage to the turbine due to high gas temperature in front of her.

Regulation return the fulfilled air done is depending on the atmospheric temperature and parameters of the specific unit.

The drawing shows a diagram of the gas turbine power cogeneration installation, carrying out the inventive method.

Installation 1 consists of a gas turbine engine 2, gear 3, the generator 4 and a heat exchanger-the heat exchanger 5, which is located in the output shaft 6. Gas turbine engine 1 comprises a compressor 7, the combustion chamber 8, the high-pressure turbine 9, which causes the rotation of the compressor 7 through the shaft 10 and the power turbine 11, which through shaft 12 through the gear 3 rotates the generator 4.

At the output 13 of the compressor 7 gets hot decompressing the air and through line 14, valve 15 and the reservoir 16 to the input shaft 17 is fed to the input 20 of the compressor 7 of the gas turbine engine 2. At the exit of the gas engine 2 21 passes through the heat exchanger-recuperator 5, giving up its heat to heat water 22.

The method is as follows.

With the onset of the heating season, i.e. when the air temperature drops to +5oWith, for example, reliable and economical operation of the exchanger-recuperator 5 is provided in the case, when the temperature and the gas flow 21 in the exhaust from the turbine 11 will be constant when Postoj">

The air 19 serves in the input shaft 17 installation 1, then it is fed to the input 20 of the compressor 7 of the gas turbine engine 2. At the output 13 of the compressor 7 part of the hot decompressing air 18 through the pipeline 14 with a valve 15 and the reservoir 16 flows back into the shaft 17 where it is mixed with atmospheric air 19, heating it. The number of hot decompressing air is controlled by valve 15 to maintain a constant gas temperature of 21 at the outlet of the turbine 11, i.e. at the inlet of the heat exchanger-the heat exchanger 5. At the exit of the gas engine 2 21 passes through the heat exchanger-recuperator 5, giving up its heat to heat water 22.

The consumption of gas at the outlet of the turbine 11 remains unchanged when the temperature of atmospheric air 19 at the entrance to the shaft 17. The gas temperature at the exit of the combustion chamber 8 or in front of the high-pressure turbine 9 also remains unchanged and is lower than when the engine 2 to the nominal mode in standard conditions (+15oC).

Resource hot part of the engine 2 in this case is spent slightly, especially for high temperature aircraft engine, converted option which ispolzovat, pages 15, 16, Fig.7, 8.

2. RF patent 2125171, F 02 1/05,1997

Method for heat and electric energy, including the air in the gas turbine installation, its compression in the compressor, from which the air is directed into the combustion chamber, further expanding in the turbine, operate the compressor and the generator, then in the turbine exhaust gases are passed as a heating medium through the heat exchanger, characterized in that the part decompressing air in an amount of 0.1 - 20% perepuskat at the entrance to the compressor and the throttling return the fulfilled decompressing air is realized depending on the atmospheric temperature at the beginning of the heating season.

 

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