The way of the rotary-screw amphibian on land and device for its implementation
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to transport machinery and relates to a technology of operation of a rotary screw amphibians. The way of the rotary-screw amphibian on land involves pumping water from the front along the cavities of the rotor propulsion before landfall and pumping the remaining water in cavities after the release of the amphibian on land. At partial output rotors on land water from the rear along the cavities pumped and simultaneously pumped in the front along the cavity. It is advisable during the implementation of this method in a partial release of the rotors on land water from the rear along the cavity to pump in the front along the cavity. A device for implementing this method includes a housing, a rotary-screw propulsion, at least with front and rear cavities of the rotor and the hydraulic system with intake and discharge pipelines. The hydraulic system reports mentioned cavity with the ends of the intake and discharge lines. The hydraulic system provided with a device for pumping water between the front and rear cavities of the rotor. The technical result of the implementation of a group of inventions is United by a technical plan, is to improve technical and exploitative pumping water in position amphibians with a rake of keel to the stern of the rear cavities in the front cavity of the rotor, which increases coupling mass of the front parts of the rotors with the edge of land while reducing the mass of the submerged rear rotors. 2 S. and 1 C.p. f-crystals, 5 Il. The invention relates to a transport machine-building, specifically for amphibians with rotary-screw propulsion.A known way of a rotary screw amphibian on land, at which amphibians set the trim to the stern through the device, which includes installed in the bow of the special wodoslawsky tank and legionarie brackets .The disadvantages of such devices and, accordingly, the method should be attributed as nonoptimality of the mode of movement afloat and nonoptimality of landfall.The closest in purpose and essential features of the claimed method is a method of the output rotary screw amphibian on land, including pumping water from the front along the cavities of the rotor propulsion before landfall and pumping the remaining water in cavities after the release of the amphibian on land .For amphibians characterized by three basic States:
movement afloat without trim when filled with sea water the front and rear cavities of the rotor sections rotors);
the spines of the rotors (sections rotors);
movement on land with empty front and rear cavities of the rotor sections of the rotors).The closest in purpose and essential structural features of the claimed device is amphibious to implement the above method, comprising a housing, a rotary-screw propulsion with front and rear cavities of the rotor (in this case, the cavities of the front and rear sections of the rotors, respectively) and the hydraulic system with intake and discharge lines, informing mentioned cavity with the ends of the intake and discharge of highways .However, the known device is not quite perfectly, because in the process of entering the amphibian on land interaction of the front parts (sections) of the rotors with the ground (soil, sand, ice, snow, and so on) is characterized by a relatively small hitch weight that caused not only by the angle of attack (pitch amphibians on the stern, but the emptiness of the front cavities of the rotor. Moreover, the presence of water in the rear cavities still "hanging" in the water, not interacting with the ground of the rear parts (sections) of the rotors causes additional resistance to movement (the effect of "wet tail"). In the result of adhesion forces may be insufficient for successful entry amatuzio: under certain combinations of the coast relief (primarily when a gentle slope) and the geometry of amphibians increased weight of the rear part (section) of the rotor will facilitate the grip of the rear part (section) of the underwater part of the ground.The problem to which the invention is directed in part way, is the improvement of technical and operational characteristics of amphibians, namely facilitating independent access from the water to the land.The solution of the stated problem is achieved in that in the way, including pumping water from the front along the cavities of the rotor propulsion before landfall and pumping the remaining water in cavities after the release of the amphibian on land, at partial output of the rotors of the water from their land back during the cavities pumped and simultaneously pumped in the front along the cavity.The task is also solved by a method of the aforementioned characteristics at partial output rotors on land water from the rear along the cavities can pump in the front along the cavity.In principle, the implementation of the inventive method is possible using the known device the prototype .However, first, outboard intake may already be fully or partially impossible, secondly, sabarth, work is on-Board pumping station requires high energy consumption.The implementation of the declared method with additional characteristics (pumping water directly from one cavity to another, i.e., "offline") through the hydraulic system of the amphibian prototype  is impossible.Both claimed process (primary and secondary) can be carried out due to the fact that the device, comprising a housing, a rotary-screw propulsion, at least with front and rear cavities of the rotor and the hydraulic system with intake and discharge lines, informing mentioned cavity with the ends of the intake and discharge lines, the hydraulic system provided with a device for pumping water between the front and rear cavities of the rotors.Among identified patent and literature search methods and devices not discovered such a set of essential features which would coincide with the set of essential features of the claimed method and device for its implementation.At the same time, it proposed a set of features is necessary and sufficient to solve the problem. When this feature "from the back... of the cavity is pumped into the front..hence, and declared a constructive sign, developmental (complementary) hydrosystem amphibians, providing the possibility of pumping water directly from one cavity to another, implements an additional way and eliminate with the above three lack of fresh water intake from the device prototype.In Fig.1 schematically shows the position of the amphibious afloat; Fig.2 shows the first stage output of the amphibian on land, characterized by her job-pitch feed by pumping the front cavities; Fig.3 - the second stage is characterized by redistribution of weight onboard water to feed on the fore part; in Fig.4 - the third stage is characterized by pumping (discharge) the remaining side of the water; Fig.5 is an example of a hydro scheme in the products amphibians.Amphibious contains the floating body 1, a rotary-screw propulsion in the form of each side, symmetrically installed rotors, each divided into two or more parts (sections 2 and 3 are insulated from each other cavities 4 and 5 and is provided with helical ridges 6 and 7, respectively (see Fig.1-4).Cavity 4 and 5 are connected in series through the internal hydrosalinity 8 and 9 and the valves 10 and 11 soothram pumping section 14 of the pumping station 15, and the inlet section 14 is connected with the intake line 16, the other end of which is through an external hydrosaluric 17 communicates with the sea water 18. The pipe 12 is connected to the suction inlet suction section 19 of the station 15, and the inlet pipe section 19 is connected to the drain line 20, the other end of which communicates with the sea water 18 or with the surrounding space above the waterline amphibians.In the cavities 4 and 5 are placed in the internal air inlets 21 and 22, respectively, which are connected with the surrounding space above the waterline with the formation of drainage systems cavities 4 and 5.Items 8-22 together form a hydraulic system.In the claimed amphibious hydraulic system further comprises a device (hydrological) pumping water from the cavities 5 in the cavity 4 or (optional) from the cavity 4 cavity 5 (additional hydrological shown in Fig.5 and conventionally in Fig.3). It includes two valve (three-way three-position spools with remote control) - 23 and 24, the pipes 25, 26 are connected with the cavity 4, and the pipes 27, 28, connected with the cavity 5. This uses existing pump station 15 pumping with especiauy pumping water only in the direction from the cavity 5 into the cavity 4 (if stated an additional way is not supposed to be back in amphibians).Device (highway) 23-28 pumping water may also contain its own pump section of the pump station 15) with intake and discharge pipelines connecting through the said pump cavity 5 cavity 4 (figures not shown).In the rest of the (internal intakes 8 and 9, the features of the valves 10 and 11 and so on) example of embodiment of the device corresponds to the device prototype and described in detail in the source .The above design examples do not exclude other possible options within the stated essential structural features.The claimed method of the output rotary screw amphibian on land as follows (the example output in forward motion).With the approach of amphibians, floating with water-filled cavities 4, 5 (see Fig. 1), to the coast line or the edge of the ice (with sufficient bearing capacity and stability) set the trim to the stern, which produce simultaneously pumping water from the front of the cavity 4 (see Fig.2).It is carried out (see Fig.5) by including a pumping section 19 of the pumping station 15 and the switching valve 10 to the right. is 1.At partial output rotors on land water from the cavities 5 pump and simultaneously injected into the cavity 4 (see Fig.3).It provides one of two possible ways.By the first method the water from the cavity 5 pumped overboard. To do this, include (leaves included) section 19 of the stations 15 and translate the valve 11 in the right position. At the same time in the cavity 4 is injected outboard water include (leaving included) section 14 station 15 and moving the valve 10 in the leftmost position, i.e., connecting the cavity 4 to the pump section 14.On the second way water from the cavities 5 is pumped directly into the cavity 4. To do this, in the neutral (middle) position of the valves 10, 11 valves 23, 24 synchronously transferred from the neutral (middle) to the left position.Thus the low pressure pipeline 25 and the high pressure pipeline 26 is connected to section 14 station 15. The drainage of the air is similar to that described above.Regardless of which of these two methods produce the redistribution of water in the cavities 4 and 5, is offset from the center of mass from the stern to the bow of the amphibians. This leads, on the flying boot and efficiency of the rotors as ground propulsion. On the other hand, this leads to a decrease in the resistance movement from submerged aft-defined component of gravity of the rear parts (sections) 3 rotors.If the amphibian on land produce pumping water from the cavities 4 overboard. When the neutral (middle) position of the valves 23, 24 switch valve 10 to the right, thereby connecting the cavity 4 with working suction section 19 station 15.The output of amphibians from water to land back similar to that described: rear cavity should be considered as the front and Vice versa, and valves to switch to the other side.The use of the invention allows to improve technical and operational characteristics of amphibians, namely to facilitate self out of the water onto land due to rapid pumping of water (into the position of amphibians with trim at the stern of the rear cavities of the rotor propulsion in front of the cavity and thereby increase the coupling weight of the front parts (or sections) of the rotors with the edge of the land and at the same time weight reduction submerged rear parts (or sections) of the rotors.Sources of information
1. Nikolaev, A. F., Kul is the prototype). 1. The way of the rotary-screw amphibian on land, including pumping water from the front along the cavities of the rotor propulsion before landfall and pumping the remaining water in cavities after the release of the amphibian on land, characterized in that at partial output rotors on land water from the rear along the cavities pumped and pumped in the front along the cavity.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that at partial output rotors on land water from the rear along the cavity is pumped into the front along the cavity.3. The device for implementing the method under item 1 or 2, comprising a housing, a rotary-screw propulsion with at least front and rear cavities of the rotor and the hydraulic system with intake and discharge lines, informing mentioned cavity with the ends of the intake and discharge lines, characterized in that the hydraulic system provided with a device for pumping water between the front and rear cavities of the rotor.
FIELD: transport engineering; amphibian vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: proposed vehicle has trimaran water displacement body, wheeled propulsive device and water propulsor. Two pressure chambers with fans are installed in bow of body. Surface of body bottom part is provided with bend having two slot-like holes connected with pressure chambers to let out air jets created by fans and forming air cushion in under-bottom space. Wheeled propulsive device is of rolling type and it has individual drive from geared motors. Wheels of propulsive device are made in form of cylindrical housing with flanges on outer surfaces of which round-shape cross slots are milled in number corresponding to number of support and rest flexible members of rim secured by pins in holes of flanges for turning through angle of roll out to form, together with wheel rim and inner engagement of support-and-drive device of vehicle, mechanism with three degrees of freedom implementing rolling system with negative friction providing translational movement of vehicle owing to upward-forward (backward-up-ward) displacement of center of masses. Support-and-drive device can be furnished with covers interconnected by studs. End of upper stud can be made in form of cylinder fitted into extensible grip installed in upper part of vehicle body on its side to change mode of operation of wheel. Water propulsor can be made in form of paddle wheels installed on vertical posts for vertical displacement and containing cylindrical housing fitted in bearings on axle and paddles of rectangular shape or paddles with bevels to build additional traction force and increase efficiency when moving in water or negotiating bogged terrains.
EFFECT: improved operating characteristics of amphibian vehicle.
3 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: armored equipment, in particular, armored caterpillar vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: the vehicle is provided with folding water displacement tanks, whose spaces communicate with the inner space of the hull, sections of hinged flaps-pontoons, hinge-joined along the hull on the sides and that can in the non-operating position be packed up on the left-hand and right-hand flaps of the hull from the top, built in the rear sections of the flaps-pontoons on the sides of water - motion propellers of the "packed propeller" type with a drive from the power plant, that can in the inoperating position be packed up in the recesses in the upper rear part of the hull and be hinged together with the rest sections of the flaps-pontoons, hydrofoil in the nose section of the hull. A 12.7-mm machine gun with a circular rotation is installed on the hull roof with a forward shift. The vehicle has a mass up to 5.5 tons.
EFFECT: enhanced speed and stability of motion afloat.
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for creating amphibian with open seat and common drive for simultaneous or in-turn operation of ground and water propulsion drives. Proposed amphibian vehicle with open seat is furnished with drive engine to operate, either in turn of simultaneously, ground propulsion or water propulsion drive made in form of jet drive by means of two independent clutches. Ground propulsion drive is made as all-wheel-drive. Drive engine is installed between ground propulsion axles under seat. Front and/or rear wheels are made for turning opposite to direction of vehicle movement when moving over water. According to proposed method, ground propulsion drive is engaged at water movement, and front and/or rear wheels are set into rotation opposite to direction of movement. At movement over water control is effected by means of rotary reactive nozzle and by control of front wheels.
EFFECT: improved operating characteristics of amphibian vehicle.
8 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering; amphibians on pneumatic wheels.
SUBSTANCE: proposed vehicle has hull with smooth bottom and pneumatic wheels with drive and treads. Tires of pneumatic wheels are furnished with water-gripping treads. Skis are installed at adjustable angle of incidence under smooth bottom behind wheels at a distance from wheels. Skis are made adjustable in height through ski clearance and they have width not less than thickness of wheels. Ends of skis are truncated upwards, and redans are made before wheel drive axles.
EFFECT: possibility of moving over water at higher speed without considerable increase in engine power rating.
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed steering gear of amphibious vehicle has levers arranged in control cabin at working place of driver, and control tie-rods coupled with ground and water-propelled units. Proposed gear is furnished with turning mode selector arranged between said levers and control tie-rods. Turning mode selector is made for changing to control side gearbox distributors when moving over ground and to control rudders of water-propelled units and transmission of increased control force when moving over water. Change-over is provided through summing lever installed on axle under floor of control cabin, traction-and-lever mechanism furnished with hydraulic booster and made for converting translation of tie-rods into rotation of telescopic propeller shaft, and through mechanism to convert rotation of telescopic propeller shaft into translation of cross steering tie-rod. Steering tie-rod is coupled with inner blades of rudders of left-hand and right-hand water-propelled units. Turning mode selector can be made in form of roller clutches with rods coupled by link and installed for axial displacement by means of two-position link with fixing in operating positions by ball stop. Making of telescopic propeller shaft hydraulic system of rudder booster of water-propelled unit and mechanism for converting rotation of telescopic propeller shaft into translation of cross steering tie-rod is shown.
EFFECT: simplified design, improved reliability and operating characteristics of steering gear with possibility of control by levers both when moving over ground and over water.
5 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in designing ramp and propulsion and steering gear and their hydraulic systems. Novelty in proposed water craft is that it is furnished with streamlined carrying frame for fastening devices of propulsion and steering complex installed in hull aft part and formed by two pairs of rigid longitudinal beams hinge secured by inner ends of aft sheet of hull in zone located under loading side coupled by flexible cross beams in each pair and support bar between pairs. Hydraulic heads of propulsors are hinge-mounted on outer ends of each pair of longitudinal beams, being secured on said beams to form additional cross tie between beams. Carrying frame is furnished with power hydraulic cylinders connected with hydraulic system and installed to control position of heads and loading side by turning carrying frame in aft sheet hinge joints. Body of each is provided with upper roller support, being rolling support for each hinged loading side at its opening, and lower platform being rigid base interacting with ground at resting of hinged loading side on head body in loading position of loading side. Novelty in hydraulic system of watercraft is that it is furnished, in additional to propulsor control hydraulic cylinders, with hydraulic cylinders for setting ramps, changing thrust vector, fixing loading side and locking carrying frame. Each hydraulic cylinder, including propulsor position control hydraulic cylinders, are supplied through parallel hydraulic lines connected with main line, with electric control in each line. Invention contains description of design peculiarities of each line providing required modes of operation of watercraft.
EFFECT: improved performance of watercraft and creating of hydraulic system providing required mode of operation of watercraft.
9 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: shipbuilding; designing amphibians.
SUBSTANCE: proposed amphibian has hull including deck and bottom; located under hull are pneumatic bottles and elastic protective shock-absorbing bottom in form of skin made from strips of material possessing high abrading resistance which are laid transversely overlapping each other. Amphibian is provided with motor plant and control member. Bottom skin extends as far as upper portion of hull; it is secured at clearance between sides and skin due to projection of extreme pneumatic bottles beyond surface of bottom. Skin strips are secured by means of rope lacing on the outside of amphibian perimeter. In case of availability of fender guards on sides, rope lacing may be made by means of lacing eyes. It is good practice to build bottom of two parts: upper and lower with clearance between them which is filled with elastic deformation material. Pneumatic bottles located between bottom and skin may be assembled from components of different diameters. Extreme bottles may have similar diameters of greater magnitude. Diameter of remaining intermediate pneumatic bottles may be lesser as compared with diameter of extreme bottles.
EFFECT: simplified construction of amphibian; enhanced protection; reduced mass; enhanced strength; increased running speed; enhanced maneuverability and economical efficiency.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: amphibian aircraft control systems.
SUBSTANCE: proposed system includes water touchdown sensor, unit of amphibian aircraft motion parameter sensors and computer for forming elevator automatic deflection signal. Control system includes optimal pitch angle setter and unit of amphibian aircraft motion parameter sensors includes sensor of speed made good through the water and present pitch angle sensor. Computer includes preset pitch angle stabilization unit and smooth connection unit.
EFFECT: improved safety characteristics; enhanced seaworthiness.
FIELD: transport engineering; amphibians.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to amphibian vehicles, particularly, to post of hydraulic systems suspension. According to invention, vehicle has at least one wheel shifted out from vehicle body to support vehicle when it is used on the ground and retracted for use on water. Vehicle is furnished additionally with hydraulic cylinder containing hydraulic fluid, piston installed for movement inside cylinder and dividing the cylinder into first and second chambers, device to connected piston with suspension lever mechanism connected with wheel, first two-position valve designed to control fluid flow between first and second chambers at least on section of working stroke of piston, and second two-position valve connected only with one of first and second chambers. When first valve is open, and second valve is closed, post provides functions of suspension and/or damping of wheel vibrations. When first valve is closed and second valve is open, post serves as drive to move wheel between extended and retracted positions.
EFFECT: provision of retraction and extension of wheel through distance exceeding that required for normal riding.
13 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering; amphibian vehicle power train.
SUBSTANCE: proposed power includes engine with crankshaft, clutch or fluid coupling and transmission installed in line with engine crankshaft. Transmission has input shaft set into rotation from flywheel. Moreover power train contains additionally power takeoff unit designed to drive power takeoff shaft which is made for transmission of power to propulsion set intended for moving vehicle over water. Power takeoff unit has drive device secured on end of crankshaft on which flywheel is mounted. Drive device is made for transmission of power to power takeoff shaft.
EFFECT: improved layout of power train.
19 cl, 8 dwg