De-icing fluid (options)

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to compositions of de-icing fluid to remove ice accumulation (frost, hoarfrost, snow, ice) from the surface of the aircraft and prevent re-icing on the ground during preflight preparation of the aircraft until takeoff. We offer de-icing fluid in the first embodiment includes a glycol, a surfactant, a corrosion inhibitor, and water, and as surface-active substances it is composed of a technical mixture of polyethylene glycol ethers of mono-alkyl phenols based propylene trimer of the following composition: C9H19C6H4O(C2H4O)nH, where n is the average number of moles of ethylene oxide attached to one pray ALKYLPHENOLS, n=9-12, and as a corrosion inhibitor contains disubstituted phosphate of an alkali metal in the following ratio, wt.%: glycol 30 - 95, a technical mixture of polyethylene glycol ethers of monoalkylphenols-based propylene trimer of 0.2-0.3, disubstituted phosphate of an alkali metal of 0.5-1.5, water to 100. In the second embodiment, the invention features anti-icing liquid is methyl derivatives diethylenglycol ethers of fatty alcohols, stearic acid and water containing surfactant in the following ratio, wt.%: alkylaryl 50-95, bansilalpet methyldiethanolamine derivatives diethylenglycol ethers of fatty alcohols of 0.3-0.5, stearic acid 01-0,2, disubstituted phosphate of an alkali metal of 0.5-1.5, surfactant 0.3 to 0.4, water to 100. As surface-active substances it contains technical mixture of polyethylene glycol ethers of monoalkylphenols-based propylene trimer of the following composition WITH9H19WITH6H40(C2H40)nN, where n is the average number of moles of ethylene oxide attached to one pray ALKYLPHENOLS, n=9-12. An object of the invention is the creation of two variants of de-icing fluid with enhanced cleaning properties. 2 S. and 4 C.p. f-crystals, 2 tab.

The invention relates to compositions of de-icing fluid to remove ice accumulation (frost, hoarfrost, snow, ice) from the surface of the aircraft and prevent re-icing on the ground during preflight preparation of the aircraft until takeoff.

At ground Obiedinenie is the result of what happens distortion profile of the aircraft, increased drag and weight of the aircraft, greatly reduced aerodynamic characteristics. All this makes it difficult and in some cases makes it impossible for takeoff, and often leads to accidents.

Due to the fact that the process of icing of aircraft may take place in different weather conditions, in the international standards ISO and ISO 11075 11078 on liquids for removing ice and prevent ice there are two main methods of assessing anti-icing properties:

1st test Water Spray Endurance Test (WSET) - the resistance of the water droplets, which is estimated by the time of the formation of ice deposits a certain thickness on the surface of inclined metal plates, treated with anti-icing fluid and having a temperature of -5oC. during the test, when the air temperature is -5oWith water droplets bombard inclined plate coated with a film of de-icing fluid. The flow rate of the water droplets is (50,2) g/DM2per hour, which corresponds to the average level of rainfall - 0.5 mm/h

2nd test High Humidity Endurance Test (HHET) - resistance to vysokovalentnogo impact, which is the bond is the atur air (00,5)oC and relative humidity (962)%.

Resistance to vysokovalentnogo effect is characterized by the formation of ice to a fixed (25 mm) mark on the surface of the plate under the influence of the conditions under which the rate of icing corresponds to 0.3 g/DM2in the hour. The speed of accumulation of water in the form of frost is 0.03 mm/h

Known melting ice composition (U.S. patent 5645755, Appl. 20.07.95,; IPC: 09 K 3/18) containing 95 wt.% alkaline substances with a pH above 7 (chloride, urea, ammonium sulfate, the mixture of calcium acetate and magnesium, or a mixture of the named salts) and 5 wt.% corrosion inhibitor (2-Butin-1,4-diol).

This composition is well-removes ice formation, but has a negative effect on the coatings, organic glass and rubber. In addition, when the melting of the ice is thinning the composition, it easily flows with inclined surfaces and prevents re-icing for just 1-2 minutes, that it is not appropriate for the actual operating conditions of the aircraft.

Anti-icing composition for application to the wings of aircraft (U.S. patent 5591375, Appl. 27.03.95 g; IPC: 09 K 3/18, From 09 To 5/00) is two. Component a consists of 0.1-20 wt.%C.% organic glycol with low toxicity, 20-99 wt.% water. Component B contains a gel-stabilizing water-soluble polyvalent cationic salts of aluminum, calcium, iron, tin, chromium, zinc (concentration of polyvalent cation is 0.001-20 wt.%) in a solvent which is a mixture of organic glycol with low toxicity and water (the water content of the mixture 20-99 wt.%).

When spraying protected from icing the surface of the components a and B of the individual aerosol containers, they first form a gel that turns into an elastic coating. Despite the low adhesion of ice to the floor on the basis of this composition, it does not satisfy the criterion of Aeropostale according to the international standard ISO 11078.

To increase time of protective action of de-icing fluid in their composition is administered thickeners whose primary purpose is the increase of the thickness of the protective film. So, for example, known defrosters for aircraft (application Germany 4412790 from 14.04.94,; IPC: 09 3 /18) based on glycols and water, which are composed as a thickener is a water-soluble cross-linked copolymers comprising 75-99 wt.% polymerized units of acrylic acid or methacrylic acid, 1-15% wt. polymerized units of the ether group, and with one or two alkyl residues WITH6-C22in each amide group and 0.01-10 weight. % depolimerization crosslinking agent in the following ratio, wt.%:

- 35-70 glycol group alkalophile with 2-3 carbon atoms and oxyalkylene with 4-6 carbon atoms;

0.05 to 1.5 thickener;

- 0,02-1,5 surfactants from the group of oxalato of fatty alcohols and alkylarylsulfonates;

- 0,01-1,0 corrosion inhibitor;

- at least one basis for the regulation of the pH of 7-11;

up to 100 of water.

When evaluating anti-icing properties of protective films according to the method of WSET efficiency amounted to 34 minutes, However, due to the presence of the anti-icer composition of high molecular weight thickener film is not completely blown away from the surface of the aircraft during its takeoff run.

Closest to the proposed invention and accepted us as a prototype liquid for removing ice is the composition aviation lowdelay fluid (application WO 94/05741 priority of the United States from 09.09.92,; IPC: 09 K 3/18), ranging from 41 to 92% by weight of the entire composition of a glycol or a mixture of ethylene glycol (41-82%) and diethylene glycol(4,5-9%); 0,03-0,30% potassium hydroxide as an agent for maintaining a pH in the range from 7-10; 0,2-2,0%, Panim weight of from 250 to 650, or mixtures thereof; 0-0,2% silicone non; 0,2-1,45% of the corrosion inhibitor in the form of a composition comprising ester phosphate, tolyltriazole, triethylamine, and 5,28-53,57% water. The composition when applied to the surface of the aluminum has a wetting angle from 0 to 35oand a surface tension of from 15 to 40 Dyne/cm, which ensures that the value of complete wetting in the range from 0 to 5 Dyne/see This means that this composition is well wets the surface and spreads it in the form of a thin protective film of a thickness of a few microns, thereby providing sharp decrease of adhesion of ice to the surface plane.

The disadvantages of the prototype should include low efficiency prevent re-icing (WSET=5-9 min) due to the small thickness of the protective film, the multicomponent composition of the liquid (up to 7 components), the toxicity of the individual components (triethylamine, tolyltriazole), as well as the introduction into the composition of a large number (up to 2%) biologically hard surface-active substances (up to 2%), characterized by a long period of biodegradation when injected into the groundwater from the runways of airfields together with precipitation, which ultimately negatively affects alternova prevent re-icing of aircraft we have chosen de-icing fluid (RF patent 2100398 priority from 05.04.93,; IPC: 09 K 3/18) having the following composition, wt.%:

Alkylaryl - 30 - 95

Disubstituted phosphate of an alkali metal is 0.5 to 1.5

Bansilalpet methyldecyl - aminomethyl derivatives diethylenglycol ethers of fatty alcohols - 0,5 - 5,0

Stearic acid - 0,1 - 1,2

Water Up to 100

Known anti-icing fluid is not met by surface tension and by the storage period, storage for more than 1 year, the viscosity of the liquid increases by 2-3 times due to the introduction of a large number (up 6.2 percent) texturing agents, due to which it becomes impossible for her to surface application of existing aircraft spray equipment.

An object of the invention is the creation of two variants of de-icing fluid with enhanced cleaning properties, one of which is designed to remove ice and a short (10-15 minutes) prevent re-icing (the first option), and the second option of de-icing fluid is supposed to be used for removal of ice, and long-term (more than 30 minutes under conditions of freezing rain) prevent ground icing of aircraft.
WITH9H19WITH6H4O(C2H4O)nN,

where n is the average number of moles of ethylene oxide attached to pray one of alkyl phenols; n=9-12, and as a corrosion inhibitor contains disubstituted phosphate of an alkali metal in the following ratio, wt. %:

Glycol - 30 - 95

The technical mixture of polyethylene glycol ethers of monoalkylphenols based trimers of propylene - 0,2 - 0,3

Disubstituted phosphate of an alkali metal is 0.5 to 1.5

Water Up to 100

As use glycol 1,2-propylene glycol (TU 2422-069-05766801-97) or diethylene glycol (GOST 10136-77). Disubstituted phosphate alkali metal is potassium phosphate disubstituted trihydrate (GOST 2493-75).

In the second embodiment, the invention features anti-icing fluid, including alkylaryl, disubstituted phosphate of an alkali metal, bansilalpet methyldiethanolamine derivatives diethylenglycol apiru mixture of polyethylene glycol ethers of monoalkylphenols-based propylene trimer of the following composition

WITH9H19WITH6H4ABOUT(C2H4O)nN,

where n is the average number of moles of ethylene oxide attached to one pray ALKYLPHENOLS;

n= 9-12 as surfactants in the following ratio, wt.%:

Alkylaryl - 50 - 95

Disubstituted phosphate of an alkali metal is 0.5 to 1.5

Bansilalpet methyldiethanolamine derivatives diethylenglycol ethers of fatty alcohols - 0,3 - 0,5

Surfactant - 0,3 - 0,4

Stearic acid - 0,1 - 0,2

Water Up to 100

Disubstituted phosphate alkali metal is potassium phosphate disubstituted trihydrate (GOST 2493-75). As alkalophile use of 1,2-propylene glycol (TU 2422-069-05766801-97).

Introduction to the formulation of de-icing fluid in the first embodiment of the invention as surfactants technical mixture of polyethylene glycol ethers of monoalkylphenols based trimers of propylene in combination with disubstituted phosphate potassium leads to an increase in the thickness of the protective film, and hence the duration prevent icing.

The use of additives, surfactants in which capture de-icing fluid on the second version of the invention in combination with benzosulfimide methyldiethanolamine derivatives diethylenglycol ethers of fatty alcohols and stearic acid can improve the rheological properties of de-icing fluid, that provides a significant increase in the duration of prevent icing, easy removal of the protective film liquid during takeoff aircraft while maintaining its aerodynamic characteristics at a high level.

In tables 1 and 2 shows the composition of the proposed anti-icing fluids and their properties compared to the prototypes.

Symbols in tables 1 and 2:

DG - diethylene glycol;

PG - 1,2-propylene glycol;

EG - ethylene glycol;

PAGAM - polietilenglikolya esters of monoalkylphenols based trimers of propylene;

DCP - dailypost (potassium phosphate disubstituted trihydrate);

ASN - alkyl(C14WITH16)sulfonate sodium;

KOA - silicone non;

IR - corrosion inhibitor;

KOH - potassium hydroxide;

The tea is triethylamine;

DIF - centripetal;

SC - stearic acid;

Alcamo OS-2 - bansilalpet methyldiethanolamine derivatives diethylenglycol ethers of fatty alcohols.

Examples of specific implementation.

Example 1 (the first option of de-icing fluid). In a reactor equipped with a stirrer, a jacket for heating or cooling discalificata carried out for 15 min at 60oC. Then load 300 kg of diethylene glycol and 3 kg technical mixture of polyethylene glycol ethers of monoalkylphenols based trimers of propylene. Dissolution at a given temperature should be performed within 30 minutes After which the liquid is cooled to a temperature of 20oC.

Similar technology is obtained liquid composition is shown in table 1 (examples 2 and 3).

Example 5 (the second option of de-icing fluid).

In a reactor equipped with a stirrer, a jacket for heating or cooling and reflux condenser, download 478 kg of water, 500 kg of propylene glycol and 15 kg of discalificata include the stirrer and heating. Dissolution of discalificata in water-propylene glycol mixture is carried out for 15 min at 75-80oC. Then load 3 kg Alemana OS-2, 3 kg technical mixture of polyethylene glycol ethers of monoalkylphenols based trimers of propylene and 1 kg of stearic acid. After loading each one of these components conduct stirring for 15 min at the same temperature. The resulting liquid is cooled to a temperature of 20oC.

Similar technology is obtained liquid composition is shown in tableuse 30-95 wt.% 1,2-propylene glycol or diethylene glycol, of 0.2-0.3 wt.% the technical mixture of polyethylene glycol ethers of monoalkylphenols based trimers of propylene as surfactants, 0.5 to 1.5 wt.% potassium phosphate disubstituted trihydrate as a corrosion inhibitor, and water to 100 wt.%, has a lower surface tension at 20oFrom 33 to 38 mn/m, than the prototype in example 4-39 mn/m the proposed anti-icing fluid forms on the protected surface at a temperature of -10oWith a film thickness of 0.03-0.07 mm, which exceeds the thickness of the protective film from the prototype (0,002 mm). Consequently, the protective films offer liquids have greater resistance to impact of water drops (WSET = 11-15 minutes instead of 9 min for the prototype) and high humidity (NET = 2-3 h instead of 1 h for the prototype). In actual use, the protective film offer de-icing fluid due to sorption of water and its vapor will protect the surface from freezing, while the liquid film of known composition does not have a protective ability due to its small thickness and a large number of special additives, which are hydrophilic compounds, that is, substances, well-sorbing water. Thus the formed ice formation, the removal will occur only when the takeoff of the aircraft. However, the existing instructions for aircraft operation prohibit the admission of the plane when the surface of the ice.

De-icing fluid on the second version of the invention (examples 5-7), comprising 50-95 wt.% propylene glycol, 0.5 to 1.5 wt.% potassium phosphate disubstituted trihydrate as a corrosion inhibitor, 0.3 to 0.5 wt. % benzosulfimide methyldiethanolamine derivatives diethylenglycol ethers of fatty alcohols, of 0.3-0.4 wt.% the technical mixture of polyethylene glycol ethers of monoalkylphenols based trimers of propylene as surfactants, 0.1 to 0.2 wt.% stearic acid and water to 100 wt.% compared with liquid composition according to the prototype (example 8) have a surface tension 38-39 mn/m, which satisfies the requirements of the international standard ISO 11078. The thickness of the protective film and, accordingly, the resistance of the water droplets and moisture of the proposed anti-icing fluids in 1,5-2 times higher than the similar characteristics of the liquid having the composition of the prototype. The undoubted advantage of de-icing fluids on W what about the comparison with the liquid on the prototype, that is confirmed by the coefficient of viscosity (table 2). The coefficient of viscosity is a calculated value and is the ratio of the values of dynamic viscosity, measured at a temperature of -10oC and a shear rate of 2.7 and 27 with-1. For the claimed anti-icing fluids coefficient of viscosity of 1.6-2.9 times higher than that of the prototype. This means that when moving from a lower speed shift to more (simulates the initial stage of the takeoff aircraft during takeoff) the viscosity of the protective film of de-icing fluid is sharply reduced, and it is easily removed oncoming air flow. At higher values of the coefficient of viscosity of the process is facilitated.

Thus, the proposed de-icing fluid can increase the thickness of the protective film and thus increase 1.5 times the duration of their action, prevents icing. This in turn leads to lower material and labor costs for de-icing handling aircraft. In addition, the improvement of the rheological characteristics of de-icing fluids according to the second variant of the invention, achieved by the introduction to the recipe, a combination of three components-structure of the alcohols, the technical mixture of polyethylene glycol ethers of monoalkylphenols-based propylene trimer, stearic acid leads to the complete removal of the protective film at the initial stage of takeoff aircraft, thus increasing the safety and regularity.

The production of the proposed anti-icing fluids is cheaper because of the use of the liquid formulation as surfactants technical mixture of polyethylene glycol ethers of monoalkylphenols instead of expensive individual chemical compounds with particular molecular weight, as well as reducing the number of components in the formulation of the composition of de-icing fluid in the first embodiment of the invention.

Use in the formulation of the proposed anti-icing fluids non-toxic components and surfactants with high Biodegradability significantly improves Toxicological and ecological conditions in the production and application of liquids.

1. De-icing fluid containing glycol, surfactant, corrosion inhibitor, and water, characterized in that as powersolo-based propylene trimer of the following composition

WITH9H19WITH6H4O(C2H4O)nN,

where n is the average number of moles of ethylene oxide attached to one pray ALKYLPHENOLS, n= 9-12,

and as a corrosion inhibitor contains disubstituted phosphate of an alkali metal in the following ratio, wt. %:

Glycol - 30-95

The technical mixture of polyethylene glycol ethers of monoalkylphenols based trimers of propylene - 0,2-0,3

Disubstituted phosphate of an alkali metal is 0.5 to 1.5

Water Up to 100

2. De-icing fluid under item 1, characterized in that as the use glycol 1,2-propylene glycol or diethylene glycol.

3. De-icing fluid under item 1, characterized in that the disubstituted phosphate alkali metal is potassium phosphate disubstituted trihydrate.

4. De-icing fluid containing alkylaryl, disubstituted phosphate of an alkali metal, bansilalpet methyldiethanolamine derivatives diethylenglycol ethers of fatty alcohols, stearic acid, and water, characterized in that it further contains the technical mixture of polyethylene glycol ethers of monoalkylphenols based trimers Ave - average number of moles of ethylene oxide, attached to one pray ALKYLPHENOLS, n= 9-12,

as surfactants in the following ratio, wt. %:

Alkylaryl - 50-95

Disubstituted phosphate of an alkali metal is 0.5 to 1.5

Bansilalpet methyldiethanolamine derivatives diethylenglycol ethers of fatty alcohols - 0,3-0,5

Surfactant - 0,3-0,4

Stearic acid - 0,1-0,2

Water Up to 100

5. De-icing fluid under item 4, wherein the disubstituted phosphate alkali metal is potassium phosphate disubstituted trihydrate.

6. De-icing fluid under item 4, characterized in that as alkalophile use of 1,2-propylene glycol.

 

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