The way the plants in the greenhouse carbon dioxide and nitrogen fertilizer

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to agriculture, namely, the feeding of plants in greenhouses. Feeding plants with carbon dioxide and nitrogen fertilizer includes air supply with a mixture of gases from livestock premises in the greenhouse. The air with the mixture gas is fed into the greenhouse through pipes and aeration system of drainage. The amount of aeration drainage for feeding carbon dioxide is determined by the formula V=(TcG1KNh)/(l,PTP)=(Gh)/(l, PTp), m3where Twith=24 h the number of hours per day; G1K- carbon dioxide production animals within days, kg; N - number of animals on the farm; G - allocation of CO2one animal, kg/h; P - norm for more plants in the greenhouse carbon dioxide, kg/m2h; TP- time for more plants carbon dioxide during the light period of day - 4 - 6 hours Volume by the absorption of nitrogen fertilizers is determined by the formula: V=[(0,5... 0,75)GTinh] /(0,3 PP), m3where V is the volume of soil in the greenhouse, m3; G - ammonia in ventilation emissions of the facility, which is formed within days, kg; Tin- the vegetation period in the receiving during the vegetation period (Tindays), kg/PCs; n is the number of plants growing on the 12heifer, PCs/m2. The final volume of the soil layer is set by the maximum value of the obtained volume. The invention allows the use of vent emissions from livestock buildings for the plants in the greenhouse.

The invention relates to agriculture, in particular the livestock and crops protected ground.

It is known that in greenhouses to increase plant productivity produce additional fertilizer plants carbon dioxide and solutions of mineral fertilizers (N.A. Smirnov. Handbook for vegetable growers. - M.: Rosselchozizdat, 1977. - S. 62, 99-102). As sources of carbon dioxide (CO2used liquefied carbon dioxide (in cylinders), solid carbon dioxide (dry ice), products of combustion directly in greenhouses liquid (kerosene) or gaseous (propane, methane) fuel, which requires a significant investment. One of the cheapest sources of CO2are the exhaust gases from the boiler, however, the widespread introduction of this method of feeding plants CO2constrained by the presence in the exhaust gas boiler harmful to humans and the plant gas does not contain sulfur compounds.

There is a method of fertilization of greenhouse crops carbon dioxide using flue gas burners, comprising passing the exhaust gases through a water absorber, followed by spraying the product of absorption in the greenhouse, the water absorber create pressure 20-25 bar, saturated with carbon dioxide water spray in the greenhouse in open grooves at atmospheric pressure, and the waste water is cleaned from the remaining gas by desorption atmospheric air and returned to the absorber (ed.St. N 967397 AND 01 G 9/18).

The disadvantage of the proposed method is that its implementation requires installation in greenhouses absorber operating at high pressure, which covers the whole greenhouse system of grooves and sprinklers, wastewater treatment by desorption. If this does not resolve the danger of air pollution greenhouse harmful to humans and animals oxides of nitrogen, as some of them can be absorbed by the water in the absorber and stand out in the greenhouse by evaporation in open grooves.

Closest to the proposed invention is a method of fertilizing plants in the greenhouse carbon dioxide emitted W is the securitization and electrification of agriculture, 1, 1999. - S. 15-17).

The disadvantage of this use of carbon dioxide is that together with carbon dioxide from the premises of the emitted hydrogen sulfide and ammonia. In this regard, the direct flow of exhaust air in livestock buildings in airspace greenhouse for the plants carbon dioxide requires the installation of additional devices for cleaning of these emissions from the impurities of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.

The objective of the invention is the provision of opportunities for the use of ventilation emissions of livestock premises for the plants in greenhouses and environmental protection.

The problem is solved in the present invention that the method of feeding plants in the greenhouse carbon dioxide and nitrogen fertilizer includes air supply with a mixture of gases from livestock premises in the greenhouse, the air with the mixture gas is fed into the greenhouse through pipes and aeration system of drainage, which is a soil layer greenhouses, whose volume on the application of plant carbon dioxide is determined by the formula

< / BR>
where Twith= 24 h; G1K- allocation of CO2one animal, kg/h; N is the number of alive is B> - time for more plants carbon dioxide during the light period of day 4...6 h; G is carbon dioxide animals within days, kg;

and its volume by the absorption of nitrogen fertilizers ammonium form is determined by the formula

< / BR>
where V is the volume of soil in the greenhouse, m3; G' - ammonia in ventilation emissions of the facility, which is formed within days, kg; Tin- the vegetation period of growing plants in a greenhouse, days; h - thickness of soil layer in the greenhouse, m; P' - consumption of nitrogen by a single plant during the vegetation period (Tindays), kg/PCs; n is the number of plants grown on 1 m2greenhouses, PCs/m2;

in this final volume of the soil layer greenhouses set by the maximum value of the obtained volume.

Significant new features.

1. The mixture of gases is fed to the aeration system of drainage in the greenhouse.

2. The air from the facility with a mixture of gases is passed through the soil of the greenhouse.

3. Determine the volume of soil greenhouse by feeding plants with carbon dioxide according to the formula

< / BR>
where Twith= 24 hours - number of hours in the day; G - CO2one animal, kg/h; h - thickness of soil layer in the greenhouse, m; P - norm for more plants in the greenhouse carbon dioxide, kg/m2h; Tp- time for more plants carbon dioxide during the light period of day 4...6 hours;

4. Determine the volume of soil has its own greenhouses for uptake by plants nitrogen in ammonium form by the formula

< / BR>
where V is the volume of soil in the greenhouse, m3; G' - ammonia in ventilation emissions of the facility, which is formed within days, kg; Tin- the vegetation period of growing plants in a greenhouse, days; h - thickness of soil layer in the greenhouse, m; P' - consumption of nitrogen by a single plant during the entire growing period (Tindays), kg/PCs, n is the number of plants growing on the 12greenhouses, PCs/m2; the final volume of soil greenhouse is set by the maximum value of the obtained volume.

5. Determine the volume of soil greenhouse on the maximum value of the obtained volume.

These new significant features in conjunction with the known allow to obtain a technical result, in all cases, Cochem, the air from the facility emitted when ventilation containing impurities of carbon dioxide, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, is fed into the greenhouse through pipes in the soil of the greenhouse. Soil with padded in her piping is a system of drainage and aeration is essentially a water scrubber with an organic filler. The air supplied through pipelines, hareruya through the soil, in contact with soil moisture. Having a high solubility, airborne impurities of carbon dioxide, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the soil moisture enter into chemical combination with soil components, partially absorbed by the soil. When this carbon dioxide in the soil exhibiting the properties of an acid oxide, interacting with water and alkali solutions. Forming weak carbonic acid is neutralized absorbed bases CA, Mg, Na, and carbonates of CA and Mg. Part of the CO2outstanding soil difundir with air through the soil layer enters the airspace of greenhouses, thereby feeding plants. Plants absorb carbon dioxide not only air, but also from the soil through the root system in kazooba the second digest the leaves. The rate of plant nutrition CO2selected in such a way as to ensure that the concentration of CO2in the greenhouse for a period of feeding (Tp=4...6 hours per day) not more than 0,3%. Depending on the specific volume of the greenhouse (the ratio of the volume of the greenhouse to its area) normal feeding P (taking into account losses through leaks) equals: for greenhouses with =2.5 P=0.02 kg/m2for greenhouses with =3,5 - P=0,028 kg/m2for greenhouses with a =4,5 - P=0.036 kg/m2.

Then secreted during the day the animals the amount of carbon dioxide (G=TcG1KN) should be absorbed by the plants in the period of supplementary feeding - Tp. Hence the volume of the soil layer greenhouses V is determined by the expression

< / BR>
where Tc= 24 h; G1K- allocation of CO2one animal, kg/h; N - number of animals on the farm; t - norm for more plants in the greenhouse carbon dioxide, kg/m2h; Tp- time for more plants carbon dioxide during the light period of day 4...6 h; G is carbon dioxide animals during the day, kg, h=0.20 to 0.25 m - thick soil layer in the greenhouse.

Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide have greater solubility than carbon dioxide, and therefore completely dissolve the3converted into ammonium hydroxide NH4OH, which dissolves easily in water on plant-digestible components of NH4and NO3. Thus, partially or completely can be covered with the need for nitrogen fertilizers needed to grow plants.

Ammonium nitrogen (NH4- plants absorb more intense than nitrate - NO3however , its content should not be more than 30% of the total amount of nitrogen in the soil. Depending on conditions, plants use from 50 to 75% of the soil nitrogen, 10...35% of the nitrogen lost to denitrification and 10... 15% is absorbed by the soil microorganisms, which convert nitrogen in organic matter. On this basis, the formula for calculating the volume of soil greenhouse utilization of ammonia is

< / BR>
where G' is the content of ammonia in the ventilation emissions of the facility, which is formed within days, kg; Tin- the vegetation period of growing plants in a greenhouse, days; h - thickness of soil layer greenhouses, m; P' - consumption of nitrogen by a single plant during the entire growing period (Tindays), kg/PCs ; n - number of plants per 1 m2greenhouses, PCs/m2.

In the above, is subjected to its area), and the value of P' - only on the type of plants. Ultimately selects the larger of the obtained from the above expressions the volume of soil in the greenhouse.

The hydrogen sulfide dissolved in the soil solution, in the presence of air and under the influence of bacteria is converted to sulfates, which are extracted from the soil by plants, forming albuminous substances containing sulphur. Thus, the flow of the impurities of hydrogen sulfide in the subsoil layer enriches the soil available for plant sulfur components.

Using this technique enhances the aeration of the soil layer, the soil is saturated with oxygen, and consequently, to enhance microbiological processes in the soil.

Example 1. One cow weighing 550 kg in productivity of 15 liters of milk per day allocates 120 l/h (0,228 kg/HR) carbon dioxide. The amount of CO2that can come from a barn in the greenhouse during the day, is G=0,22824= 5,47 kg or 0,1224=2.28 m3.

The amount of CO2that can be absorbed by plants per 1 m2over 75% of the light period of the day (6 hours) depending on the design of greenhouses ()

P=(0,02...0,036)1,256=0,15...0,27 kg/m2.

To absorb the daily output is 0% absorption by the plants), when h=0.25 m must be V=(Gh)/P=9,12...5,07 m3.

In the barn can produce up to 10 mg/m3hydrogen sulphide, which is in the scope of the barn (25 m3) 250 mg When submitting it with the air in the subsurface layer of the greenhouse volume 9,12...5,07 m3for each m3soil may come from 27,4 up to 49.3 mg H2S that poses no danger to plants.

One plant, for example, cucumber during the vegetation period (239 days) learns 46 g of nitrogen. In the greenhouse in 1 m2grows 2.5 cucumber plants, which consume 462,5=115 g/m2nitrogen per season or average 115/239=0,48 g/m2per day, of which nitrogen in ammonium form NH4- 30% or 0,144 g/m2. In the greenhouse, depending on the soil type, make a basic dressing of soil from 0.25 to 1 kg/m2nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium nitrate NH4NO3), and then spend time in 10 days feeding nitrogen fertilizer to 10 g/m2. Thus the consumption of nitrogen fertilizers per season is: (250...1000)+10239/10=459... 1239 g/m2, of which the share of fertilizers in the ammonium form should not exceed 30% of the total number, i.e., must be within 137,7...371,1 g/m2.

In the barn can produce up to 11 mg/m3ammonia and about the greenhouse can do G=0,27524=6.6 g or 8.4 DM3of ammonia. Substituting the numerical values into the formula, we get:

< / BR>
Daily feed air 6.6 g of ammonia in the subsurface layer of the greenhouse area of S=V/h=26,0...34,3 m2meets daily to make 6,6/(26. . . 34,3)=0,25...0,19 g/m2ammonium fertilizer or applying ammonium fertilizers (at 75% of their absorption by plants) 0,191075=1; 4 g/m2within 10 days or 0,1923975=334,6 g/m2during the vegetation period, which is within the range of accepted standards for ammonia fertilizer for soils requiring high standards of nitrogen fertilizer application. Therefore, daily making in the subsoil layer greenhouses ammonia fully covers the needs of plants for nitrogen fertilizers. To absorb the total amount of ammonia required volume of soil in the greenhouse, equal to 8.6 m3that is in the range of volumes to absorb carbon dioxide.

Thus for greenhouses with specific volume =2,5 selected volume of soil, based on the absorption of carbon dioxide 9,12 m3and for greenhouses with a =4,5 - condition for the absorption of ammonia - 8.6 m3.

Example 2. A typical dairy farm for 400 head of cattle interlocked with the greenhouse. For the disposal of carbon dioxide and data layer of the greenhouse should be

A) absorption of carbon dioxide -

< / BR>
for greenhouses with specific volume =2,5...4,5.

C) For the absorption of ammonia that can be produced on this farm, the volume of soil of the greenhouse should be:

< / BR>
The amount of hydrogen sulfide, which can be generated on this farm and to act in the soil of the greenhouse, is GH2S=0,25400 Twith=2400 g / day, which is 0.65...0,70 g/m3soil greenhouse or 0,0058 g/kg dry soil.

For full absorption of the allocated impurities should at specific volume =2,5 to use the greenhouse volume of soil 3646,6 m3and when volume =4.5 to the greenhouse volume of soil 3429,1 m3.

The way the plants in the greenhouse carbon dioxide and nitrogen fertilizers, including air supply with a mixture of gases from livestock premises in the greenhouse, characterized in that the air with the mixture gas is fed into the greenhouse through pipes and aeration system of drainage, which represents the soil of the greenhouse, the volume of which on the application of plant carbon dioxide is determined by the formula

< / BR>
where Tc= 24 h;

G1K- allocation of CO2one animal, kg/h;

N - the number is 2h;

Tp- time for more plants carbon dioxide during the light period of the day for 4-6 h;

G - carbon dioxide production animals within days, kg;

and its volume by the absorption of nitrogen fertilizers ammonium form is determined by the formula

< / BR>
where V is the volume of soil in the greenhouse, m3;

G - ammonia in ventilation emissions of the facility, which is formed within days, kg;

TV - vegetation period of growing plants in a greenhouse, days;

h - the thickness of the topsoil in the greenhouse, m;

N - nitrogen use one plant per growing season (Per day), kg/PCs ;

n - number of plants per 1 m2greenhouses, PCs /m2;

in this final volume of the soil layer greenhouses set by the maximum value of the obtained volume.

 

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