Liquid anti-icing of aircraft and runways
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to environmentally friendly fluids to prevent icing of aircraft and runways, and the liquid is particularly suitable for a variety of spray equipment. The liquid contains 10-60 wt.% trimethylglycine and 40-90 wt.% water. The vapor pressure of the specified liquid is less than 5 PA, and acute toxicity in oral administration to rats LD50is more than 10000 mg/kg Technical result - the creation of non-toxic and safe liquid icing. 8 C.p. f-crystals, 6 PL. The invention relates to environmentally friendly fluids to prevent icing of aircraft and runways, and the liquid is particularly suitable for various equipment for spraying.Prevention of ice formation on the aircraft and runways, as well as ice removal is usually done with the help of some chemical substances that lower the freezing temperature to ensure a safe takeoff, landing and flight, especially in the winter. These antifreezes are usually with thickeners to increase the viscosity, water, surface-active substances (surfactants and corrosion inhibitors. Such anti-icing based on ethylene or propylene glycol are toxic and pollute the environment when they hit the ground. In addition, they emit an unpleasant odor that gets into the air and carried by air currents. Such anti-icing can also cause problems with corrosion. Anti-icing is usually sprayed on the aircraft, usually contain at least 60% glycol, typically ethylene glycol, or a mixture of other glycols.The antifreeze function is to remove from the surface plane of snow, ice and frost that formed when the plane is at the airport. Snow, ice and frost, namestie on the plane, have a significant influence on the aerodynamic properties and performance of its engines, ultimately leading to dangerous situations, for example, during takeoff of the aircraft. For this reason, the aircraft always check before departure to be sure that there is no ice, snow and frost.Preventing icing of runways and removing them from the ice involves the use of chemicals, panyhose avchina snow and ice, weakening them in the adhesion forces that can significantly facilitate the removal of snow and ice by mechanical means. In addition, chemical substances, lowering the freezing temperature, is used in conditions where water and snow can numerate on the runway.In the patent of the USSR 1664808 described composition is used to prevent freezing and thawing powdery or granular materials such as flour, sand or any other material. This composition contains magnesium chloride or calcium, ammonia, carbohydrates, glycerol, lactic acid, volatile acid, betaine, amino acids, aliphatic compounds, and water. The objective of this arrangement is to prevent freezing of powdery material, especially during its transportation, on the walls and bottom of the container, and its aggregation, and thawing the frozen material.In U.S. patent 5079036 described thawing the composition to prevent freezing and aggregation of solid granular material like coal or ore, during loading and unloading and transport at temperatures below 0oC., the composition forms a foam on solid particles. She Soria, the potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, or a solution polyhydroxylated compounds or monoalkyl ethers or dialkylated ethers, such as ethylene and propylene glycols, glycerine, sugar and mixtures thereof. Further suitable thawing substances mentioned cellulose derivatives such as sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and metilgidroxiatilzelllozu. In addition thawing substances composition includes an anionic or amphoteric surfactant, which allows the formation of stable foam. Suitable for this purpose are, among others, anionic surfactants such as sulfonates, and amphoteric surfactants such as derivatives of betaine. In addition, the composition contains water.In the European patent 743305 described defrosting composition, especially to prevent icing of aircraft and their wings. This patent presents a new surfactant, namely polyamidoamine that can be used in combination with substances which lower the freezing point, on the basis of alkalophile using polyacrylic acid as thickeners. In addition, these compositions typically contain a corrosion inhibitor, optionally amine, potassium hydroxide or guide the e water in a typical case are water mixtures, consisting of ethylene and propylene glycols and water. In particular, the ethylene glycol is used in various applications in the automotive industry. However, the drawbacks of ethylene glycol are its toxicity and pollutant properties. In accordance with this instead of ethylene glycol often use propylene glycol in cases requiring a reduced toxicity. Although propylene glycol is relatively non-toxic, however, it is also questionable from the point of view of ecology. Another disadvantage of propylene glycol is that its viscosity increases significantly at low temperatures, which causes the need for more power pumps for pumping.The lower toxicity of ethanol compared to ethylene glycol makes its use more desirable. However, the use of ethanol is limited by its high volatility and, consequently, prone to inflammation, as well as a significant increase in viscosity at low temperatures, however, this increase in viscosity is lower than that in the case of propylene glycols. For this reason, ethanol is widely used as coolant in laboratories and in those situations when you need to toxicity.The present invention is the creation of a liquid lowers the freezing temperature, particularly applicable to prevent icing of aircraft and runways, and equipment for its use, whereby it is possible to solve the problems associated with the existing state of the art, and to resolve existing deficiencies.In addition, the present invention is the creation of a liquid lowers the freezing temperature suitable for aircraft and runways, which is safe for the environment and economically, and poses no risk to health.Liquid anti-icing of aircraft and runways proposed in this invention, is characterized in the accompanying claims.According to this invention, the preferred compound used in cachestatistics or salt hydrate of trimethylglycine. Trimethylglycine or betaine is particularly preferred. Betaine, for example, can be obtained by extraction from natural products, such as sugar beet, or by biochemical process in such a way as to give the possibility of obtaining a biological fluid icing with favorable life.The liquid used to prevent icing of aircraft and runways, in accordance with this invention contains 10-60% of trimethylglycine or its derivative and 40-90% water; preferably 40-55% of trimethylglycine or its derivative and 45-60% water, all percentages are weight.Among the advantages of this fluid against icing of its non-toxicity and safety, and no smell. Some of its physical properties are the same as the solutions of glycols, and it can be used at temperatures between -50 and +100oC. It is preferably used at temperatures ranging from -40 to +80oC. Characteristic property of thawing substances is that they lower the freezing point. This freezing temperature should be not higher than -20oWith, and in the case of betaine may even be achieved the icing of this invention can be mixed with conventional corrosion inhibitors, stabilizers and marking additives, thickeners, surfactants, other thawing substances such as glycols or salts, and compounds that regulate the acidity; all these substances are well known in the art.Liquid anti-icing according to the present invention are less toxic and less polluting than liquid icing, already known in the art. This liquid not classified as hazardous waste and can be easily removed, which reduces costs. Waste of this fluid can be treated without taking any special security measures, and they can be absorbed by the ground or down the drain, while ethylene and propylene glycols and ethanol, commonly used in the technique at the present time, it is necessary to remove the special ways as hazardous waste.Liquid anti-icing according to the present invention suitable for use in various areas to prevent icing or to remove ice from aircraft, runways, etc., especially at low temperatures and in situations where liquid must be environmentally friendly and non-toxic.Assessment t the UB> were obtained in tests on rats by oral administration of the test compounds. The results are shown in table 1.Table 2 compares the kinematic viscosity of the fluid at a concentration of 50%.Table 3 shows how the various connections reduce the freezing point 50% solution.Table 4 shows the influence of trimethylglycine on the freezing point of aqueous solutions.The surface tension of the typical substances that lower the freezing point, are presented in table 5. The surface tension of trimethylglycine comparable to the surface tension of water and higher glycols.Table 6 shows the vapor pressure at 37.8oWith multiple fluids, lowering the freezing point. Since the vapor pressure of the solution trimethylglycine lower than other solutions, it does not evaporate (no escapes) are also easily under the action of air flow.The liquid according to the present invention, containing 10-60% of trimethylglycine or its derivatives and 40-90% water (by weight), applicable in anti-icing systems for aircraft and runways, especially for spraying on the desired surface.
FIELD: road servicing industry.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the road servicing industry, in particular with the methods of extirpation of ice covering on motorways, bridges, flyovers, and also aerodromes. The method of the roadway covering slipperiness prevention provides for application of a roadway ice covering suppressing reactant based on acetate, in the capacity of which use a solution with pH=7-9.5, containing components in the following ratio (in mass %): magnesium acetate 13-17, potassium acetate 8-16, potassium hydrocarbonate 5-8, potassium carbonate 2-6, water-insoluble impurities 0-6, water - the rest. The roadway ice covering suppressing reactant may additionally contain a fired limestone in amount of 3-5 mass % in terms of calcium oxide. The method of production a roadway ice cover suppressing reactant for a roadway covering slipperiness prevention provides for mixing of a component containing a magnesium compound, iced acetic acid and water, in the capacity of the component containing the magnesium compound is used brucite, the stirring is exercised in two stages: first they continuously agitate brucite with water and a part of iced acetic acid in a stoichiometric ratio at the temperature of 50-70°C within 50-80 minutes, then, not terminating mixing at the same temperature in the produced mix with pH=5-6 add the rest of ice acetic acid and then add potash in amount exceeding by 0.1 - 6 % the stoichiometric ratio and continue agitation till production of the roadway ice cover suppressing reactant - a solution with pH = 7-9.5 with the above indicated composition. The used roadway ice cover suppressing reactant has composition mentioned above. The technical result consists in - maintenance of the low temperature at the reactant usage, ensuring the passing ice covered roadways motor vehicles metal corrosion protection and at use as the airfield runways coatings - the corrosion protection of metals used in aircraft designs as well. The roadway coating treated with the reactant has a high coefficient of adhesion, that reduces the accident rate on the roadways.
EFFECT: the invention ensures, that the roadway coating treated with the reactant decreases the accident rate on the roadways.
6 cl, 2 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: chemical industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to preparations used for prevention and removal of snow-ice formations in roads. An anti-glaze of ice preparation comprises the following components, wt.-%: calcium chloride, 15-50; sodium chloride, 48.5-83.5; potassium ferricyanide, 0.2-0.5, and sodium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.3-1.0. Anti-glaze of ice preparation in granulated form is resistant against caking, inhibits corrosion of metals and reduces inhibitory effect of chloride on plants.
EFFECT: improved and valuable properties of preparation.
FIELD: special reagents.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to substances for applying on surface to prevent or diminish adhering ice, mist or water on it, for prevention of icing, in particular, to anti-glaze of ice reagents. The composite comprises the following components, wt.-%: calcium chloride, 25-32; urea, 2-7; sodium nitrite, 0.03-1.0, and water, the balance. Invention provides preparing the composite harmless for environment that doesn't show harmful effect on environment, doesn't corrode road coatings, and inhibits corrosion of metals. Agent shows economy and high effectiveness.
EFFECT: improved and valuable properties of reagent.
2 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: road-transport industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes applying substance on asphalt-concrete mixture. As substance silicon-organic modifier is used, loss of which at 1 m2 of area of pre-placed on road asphalt-concrete mixture at temperature 80-100°C is no less than 0,3-0,5 kg. After applying modifier, asphalt-concrete mixture is rolled.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, no corrosive effect on metals, effective at temperature above -20°C.
2 cl, 3 tbl, 3 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: domestic chemistry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agents using against misting and icing windshields in transports, sight glasses in agent of individual protection and can be used in living conditions for prevention showcase glasses icing. The composition comprises the following components, wt.-%: polyoxyethylene glycol ester of synthetic primary higher alcohols of (C12-C14)-fraction as a surface-active substance, 6-25; urea or thiourea, or mixture of urea and thiourea, 1-20; glycerol, 5-25; ethylene glycol, 5-41; dye, 0.0005-0.02, and a solvent, the balance. Propyl alcohol as propanol-1 or propanol-2 can be used as a solvent. The composition elicits an anti-misting and anti-icing properties, provides two-sided protection of sight glasses of transport agents and agents of individual protection in cooling the protecting glass surface up to -40°C, elicits the prolonged protective effect, it doesn't solidify at the environment temperature below -40°C and doesn't require the special technical devices for its applying.
EFFECT: valuable properties of composition.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 10 ex
FIELD: Composition of an anti-icing water solution for roads surface treatment.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to production of composition of an anti-icing water solution for roads surface treatment against a winter slipperiness (snow rolling-ups, a glaze ice, black ice) n the roads and streets in cities and settlements. The composition contains, in mass %: 20-27 calcium chloride, 5-30 ethyl alcohol, 0.3-5 corrosion inhibitors (borax or sodium nitrite or their mixture), the rest - water. The technical result is - an increase of effectiveness of the composition application, an increase of friction coefficient due to a decrease of the ice density, a raise of the composition ice melting capacity.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of effectiveness of the composition application, an increased friction coefficient and a decreased ice density, a raise of the composition ice melting capacity.
1 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl
FIELD: materials for miscellaneous applications.
SUBSTANCE: grain mixture comprise, in mass %, 15-45% of compressed first salt of alkaline or alkaline-earth metal and 85-55% of the second salt of alkaline or alkaline-earth metal. The first salt is a waterless hygroscopic salt.
EFFECT: reduced cost.
14 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: preventive means against freezing and sticking of loose materials to walls of mining and transport equipment; prevention of dusting on interim roads, open-cut mining; protection of rolling stock against freezing and blowing-off of loose materials, coal and peat for example.
SUBSTANCE: preventive means is made in form of mixture of solvent and thickening additive of oil nature. Used as solvent are distillation residues of coke and by-product process and/or by-products of production of butadiene, isoprene, isobutylene, ethylene both independently and in mixture with distillation residues of production process of polymers, pyrolysis residues, benzene, styrene and distillation residues of production of butanol, isobutanol, 2-ethyl hexanol acid and 2-ethyl hexanol. Solvent may additionally contain gas oils of thermal and catalytic cracking and gas oils of coking process. Used as thickening additives are mineral and synthetic oils of all kinds, mixture of used oils, oil sludge, oil residues and oil fuel. Components of thickening additive and solvent are used at any combination. Novelty of invention is use of wastes of various processes of oil and petroleum chemistry products.
EFFECT: extended field of application; cut costs; enhanced ecological safety.
5 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 17 ex
FIELD: suppression or reduction of icing on surfaces by means of antiicing compounds.
SUBSTANCE: proposed anti-icing compounds contain succinic acid and/or succinic anhydride and neutralizing base, sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide or ammonium hydroxide in particular. When mixed with water anti-icing compounds form succinates in the course of reaction which causes fast liberation of heat sufficient for melting ice on surface. According to other versions, anti-icing compounds contain glycol which inhibits repeated icing on cleaned surface. Specification gives description of sets of compounds for melting snow and ice.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of melting snow and ice on aircraft and territories of their operation.
29 cl, 11 dwg, 7 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: motor-car industry; other industries; methods of production of the anti-icing reactant.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of production of the anti-icing reactants for maintenance of roads in winter. The method of production of the anti-icing reactant based on sodium chloride and calcium chloride provides for mixing of the sodium chloride with calcium chloride and their heating and drying. Sodium chloride crystals are coated with the atomized solution of calcium chloride and dried in the "boiling bed" kiln with production of the double-layer granules, the outer layer of which is composed out of calcium chloride. Sodium chloride crystals are coated with calcium chloride in two phases. The forming small particles of calcium chloride are fed into the cyclone, whence the cyclone dust of the calcium chloride is fed into the mixer for intermixing with the wet crystals of sodium chloride. The produced anti-acing reactant has the improved physicochemical thermodynamic properties.
EFFECT: the invention ensures, that the produced anti-acing reactant has the improved physicochemical thermodynamic properties.
3 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl