Liquid anti-icing of aircraft and runways

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to environmentally friendly fluids to prevent icing of aircraft and runways, and the liquid is particularly suitable for a variety of spray equipment. The liquid contains 10-60 wt.% trimethylglycine and 40-90 wt.% water. The vapor pressure of the specified liquid is less than 5 PA, and acute toxicity in oral administration to rats LD50is more than 10000 mg/kg Technical result - the creation of non-toxic and safe liquid icing. 8 C.p. f-crystals, 6 PL.

The invention relates to environmentally friendly fluids to prevent icing of aircraft and runways, and the liquid is particularly suitable for various equipment for spraying.

Prevention of ice formation on the aircraft and runways, as well as ice removal is usually done with the help of some chemical substances that lower the freezing temperature to ensure a safe takeoff, landing and flight, especially in the winter. These antifreezes are usually with thickeners to increase the viscosity, water, surface-active substances (surfactants and corrosion inhibitors. Such anti-icing based on ethylene or propylene glycol are toxic and pollute the environment when they hit the ground. In addition, they emit an unpleasant odor that gets into the air and carried by air currents. Such anti-icing can also cause problems with corrosion. Anti-icing is usually sprayed on the aircraft, usually contain at least 60% glycol, typically ethylene glycol, or a mixture of other glycols.

The antifreeze function is to remove from the surface plane of snow, ice and frost that formed when the plane is at the airport. Snow, ice and frost, namestie on the plane, have a significant influence on the aerodynamic properties and performance of its engines, ultimately leading to dangerous situations, for example, during takeoff of the aircraft. For this reason, the aircraft always check before departure to be sure that there is no ice, snow and frost.

Preventing icing of runways and removing them from the ice involves the use of chemicals, panyhose avchina snow and ice, weakening them in the adhesion forces that can significantly facilitate the removal of snow and ice by mechanical means. In addition, chemical substances, lowering the freezing temperature, is used in conditions where water and snow can numerate on the runway.

In the patent of the USSR 1664808 described composition is used to prevent freezing and thawing powdery or granular materials such as flour, sand or any other material. This composition contains magnesium chloride or calcium, ammonia, carbohydrates, glycerol, lactic acid, volatile acid, betaine, amino acids, aliphatic compounds, and water. The objective of this arrangement is to prevent freezing of powdery material, especially during its transportation, on the walls and bottom of the container, and its aggregation, and thawing the frozen material.

In U.S. patent 5079036 described thawing the composition to prevent freezing and aggregation of solid granular material like coal or ore, during loading and unloading and transport at temperatures below 0oC., the composition forms a foam on solid particles. She Soria, the potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, or a solution polyhydroxylated compounds or monoalkyl ethers or dialkylated ethers, such as ethylene and propylene glycols, glycerine, sugar and mixtures thereof. Further suitable thawing substances mentioned cellulose derivatives such as sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and metilgidroxiatilzelllozu. In addition thawing substances composition includes an anionic or amphoteric surfactant, which allows the formation of stable foam. Suitable for this purpose are, among others, anionic surfactants such as sulfonates, and amphoteric surfactants such as derivatives of betaine. In addition, the composition contains water.

In the European patent 743305 described defrosting composition, especially to prevent icing of aircraft and their wings. This patent presents a new surfactant, namely polyamidoamine that can be used in combination with substances which lower the freezing point, on the basis of alkalophile using polyacrylic acid as thickeners. In addition, these compositions typically contain a corrosion inhibitor, optionally amine, potassium hydroxide or guide the e water in a typical case are water mixtures, consisting of ethylene and propylene glycols and water. In particular, the ethylene glycol is used in various applications in the automotive industry. However, the drawbacks of ethylene glycol are its toxicity and pollutant properties. In accordance with this instead of ethylene glycol often use propylene glycol in cases requiring a reduced toxicity. Although propylene glycol is relatively non-toxic, however, it is also questionable from the point of view of ecology. Another disadvantage of propylene glycol is that its viscosity increases significantly at low temperatures, which causes the need for more power pumps for pumping.

The lower toxicity of ethanol compared to ethylene glycol makes its use more desirable. However, the use of ethanol is limited by its high volatility and, consequently, prone to inflammation, as well as a significant increase in viscosity at low temperatures, however, this increase in viscosity is lower than that in the case of propylene glycols. For this reason, ethanol is widely used as coolant in laboratories and in those situations when you need to toxicity.

The present invention is the creation of a liquid lowers the freezing temperature, particularly applicable to prevent icing of aircraft and runways, and equipment for its use, whereby it is possible to solve the problems associated with the existing state of the art, and to resolve existing deficiencies.

In addition, the present invention is the creation of a liquid lowers the freezing temperature suitable for aircraft and runways, which is safe for the environment and economically, and poses no risk to health.

Liquid anti-icing of aircraft and runways proposed in this invention, is characterized in the accompanying claims.

According to this invention, the preferred compound used in cachestatistics or salt hydrate of trimethylglycine. Trimethylglycine or betaine is particularly preferred. Betaine, for example, can be obtained by extraction from natural products, such as sugar beet, or by biochemical process in such a way as to give the possibility of obtaining a biological fluid icing with favorable life.

The liquid used to prevent icing of aircraft and runways, in accordance with this invention contains 10-60% of trimethylglycine or its derivative and 40-90% water; preferably 40-55% of trimethylglycine or its derivative and 45-60% water, all percentages are weight.

Among the advantages of this fluid against icing of its non-toxicity and safety, and no smell. Some of its physical properties are the same as the solutions of glycols, and it can be used at temperatures between -50 and +100oC. It is preferably used at temperatures ranging from -40 to +80oC. Characteristic property of thawing substances is that they lower the freezing point. This freezing temperature should be not higher than -20oWith, and in the case of betaine may even be achieved the icing of this invention can be mixed with conventional corrosion inhibitors, stabilizers and marking additives, thickeners, surfactants, other thawing substances such as glycols or salts, and compounds that regulate the acidity; all these substances are well known in the art.

Liquid anti-icing according to the present invention are less toxic and less polluting than liquid icing, already known in the art. This liquid not classified as hazardous waste and can be easily removed, which reduces costs. Waste of this fluid can be treated without taking any special security measures, and they can be absorbed by the ground or down the drain, while ethylene and propylene glycols and ethanol, commonly used in the technique at the present time, it is necessary to remove the special ways as hazardous waste.

Liquid anti-icing according to the present invention suitable for use in various areas to prevent icing or to remove ice from aircraft, runways, etc., especially at low temperatures and in situations where liquid must be environmentally friendly and non-toxic.

Assessment t the UB> were obtained in tests on rats by oral administration of the test compounds. The results are shown in table 1.

Table 2 compares the kinematic viscosity of the fluid at a concentration of 50%.

Table 3 shows how the various connections reduce the freezing point 50% solution.

Table 4 shows the influence of trimethylglycine on the freezing point of aqueous solutions.

The surface tension of the typical substances that lower the freezing point, are presented in table 5. The surface tension of trimethylglycine comparable to the surface tension of water and higher glycols.

Table 6 shows the vapor pressure at 37.8oWith multiple fluids, lowering the freezing point. Since the vapor pressure of the solution trimethylglycine lower than other solutions, it does not evaporate (no escapes) are also easily under the action of air flow.

The liquid according to the present invention, containing 10-60% of trimethylglycine or its derivatives and 40-90% water (by weight), applicable in anti-icing systems for aircraft and runways, especially for spraying on the desired surface.

oC. Further, the freezing point of a 50% aqueous solution is less than -38oWith, and its surface tension less than 55 Dyne/see the shelf Life of the liquid when stored under standard conditions at room temperature is less than 2 years. Viscosity, an important characteristic of the fluid, reducing the freezing point, it is possible to stably hold in the desired range.

Trimethylglycine is a non-toxic and odorless raw material of natural origin, which biodegraders in natural conditions at 80% for 20 days. Slow biodegradation is a problem, for example, propylene glycols, which was previously used. Trimethylglycine lowers the freezing point of water, it has excellent heat transfer properties, it does not stand out unpleasant odors and can be used without adding any corrosion inhibitors, which are used to prevent corrosion, as it itself has only a weak correlation effect. For example, the corrosion of copper alloys is less than 1 μm/year when using liquid according to this invention. In addition, they do not vyzyvayushe previously as compositions icing, have an adverse impact on sealants that are present in the construction of aircraft, while liquid icing on the basis of trimethylglycine not give such negative effects. Return icing fluids containing glycols, from airports to remove them or re-use is very difficult, and a full refund in any case impossible. Solutions of trimethylglycine not need to return, as they quickly decompose in the natural environment. Solutions of trimethylglycine safe to handle due to low vapor pressure and, accordingly, the low volatility of these solutions. In contrast, for example, ethylene glycol, for security reasons, set a maximum steam pressure of 50 ppm (total vapor to liquid) (TVL). Security in relation to the environment is already mentioned as one of the major advantages of using solution trimethylglycine as a liquid to prevent icing of aircraft and runways.

This invention is described above with reference to specific preferred examples of its implementation, the details of which, however, should not be construed as limiting the invention, defined in the attached claims.

1. Liquid anti-icing of aircraft and runways, characterized in that it contains 10-60 wt.% trimethylglycine and 40-90 weight. %.

2. Fluid under item 1, characterized in that it contains 40-55 wt.% trimethylglycine and 45-60 wt.% water.

3. Fluid under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the vapor pressure of the specified liquid is less than 5 PA, and acute toxicity in oral administration to rats LD50is more than 10000 mg/kg

4. The liquid according to any one of paragraphs.1-3, characterized in that the freezing point 50% of a liquid below -38oC.

5. The liquid according to any one of paragraphs.1-4, characterized in that the freezing temperature of 35% of the liquid is -15oWith or below this value.

6. The liquid according to any one of paragraphs.1-5, characterized in that the surface tension of 50% of the liquid is more than 55 Dyne/see

7. The liquid according to any one of paragraphs.1-6, characterized in that it contains trimethylglycine from a biological source.

8. The liquid according to any one of paragraphs.1-7, characterized in that the specified liquid icing can be used at a temperature lying in the according to any one of paragraphs.1-8, characterized in that it contains as additives, corrosion inhibitors, stabilizers, marking additives, thickeners, surfactants, other thawing substances or compounds to control acidity.

 

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