The x-ray emitter


H01J35/32 - Tubes wherein the X-rays are produced at or near the end of the tube or a part thereof, which tube or part has a small cross-section to facilitate introduction into a small hole or cavity

 

(57) Abstract:

The x-ray emitter refers to measuring technique and is designed for non-destructive testing of materials. The technical result is to increase the quality of the locality flaw detection surfaces of objects of complex shape. The essence of the invention lies in the fact that the outlet for radiation made cone-shaped, the angle of which lies within 10-30owhen the direction of radiation of the microwave generator lies perpendicular to the Central axis of the resonator. 3 Il.

The invention relates to x-ray techniques, in particular x-ray emitters, designed for testing and can be used primarily for the detection of local defects of complex objects.

Known x-ray emitter containing a source of microwave radiation (microwave radiation), hollow axisymmetric vakuumirovaniya microwave cavity with a transparent to microwave radiation window, the cathode and the anode, located on opposite walls along the axis of the microwave resonator and is not electrically connected with him [1].

A disadvantage of the known device is the item of the objects of complex shape, and short service life of the radiator, because of the absence of the focusing system of particles defocused near-cathode electric field and the magnetic component of the microwave field of the resonator, which leads to scattering of electrons in the cavity of the resonator relative to the anode, causing the appearance of micropores in the walls of the cavity, and eventually to the breakdown of the resonator.

The closest technical solution is the x-ray emitter, comprising a pulsed microwave generator, a hollow vakuumirovaniya microwave cavity with a transparent to microwave radiation of the communications window, an electromagnet for focusing the accelerated electrons and the collimator forming the radiation field, located next to the anode system of the microwave resonator [2].

The disadvantage of this technical solution is blurring (landscape) -radiation, reducing the locality testing of controlled objects, and the complexity, and still does not ensure the effectiveness of testing. When sending a beam voltage from the microwave generator to the microwave resonator particles due to the large energy have strong Coulomb repulsion, which leads to an increase in the transverse dimensions of the beam, destroying the design of the resonator. To resolve defocus.

The invention consists in that in the x-ray emitter containing a pulsed microwave generator, a hollow vakuumirovaniya microwave cavity with a transparent to microwave radiation of the communications window, the cathode and the anode, placed symmetrically in opposite walls of the microwave resonator, forming its Central axis, and bipolar collimator representing axisymmetric electromagnet with two holes for the entrance of the microwave radiation and the output from the anode radiation, the hole for the output radiation is made of a conical shape at one of the poles of the collimator along its longitudinal axis, passing symmetrically through the poles of the collimator, the opening angle of the cone-shaped holes are made out from the center of the emitter (point of intersection of the longitudinal axis of the collimator or the Central axis of the resonator and the line of microwave radiation generator in the range of 10<and the microwave resonator is placed between the poles of the collimator so that the Central axis of the microwave resonator is aligned with the longitudinal axis of the collimator when the direction of radiation of the microwave generator lies on the same line with the centers of the input apertures of the collimator and open communication resonator intersecting perpendicularly to the Central axis of the microwave resonator.

In Fig. 1 shows a General view of the design of the x-ray emitter, and Fig.2 - microwave resonator along section a-a of Fig.1; Fig.3 - principle of operation of the emitter.

The x-ray emitter contains a pulsed microwave generator 1, a hollow vakuumirovaniya microwave resonator 2 is transparent to microwave radiation window 3 communications, a cathode 4, an anode 5 and a bipolar collimator 6 with an opening 7 for the entrance of the microwave radiation from the generator 1 and the cone-shaped hole 8 to the anode 5-radiation. The cathode 4 and the anode 5 are symmetrically located on opposite walls of the microwave resonator 2, forming its Central axis, and the window 3 communications in one of the other walls and is closed by a cover 9 made of a material that is transparent to microwave radiation. The cathode 4 and the anode 5 is electrically isolated from the resonator by means of a mandrel made of ceramics or glass (not shown). Bipolar collimator 6 is an axisymmetric electromagnet coil 10 and 11, the inductance of which are located in the poles N and S, forming longitudinal axis x-X of the collimator 6.

Hollow vakuumirovaniya microwave resonator 2 is placed between the poles N and S of the collimator 6 so that the Central axis of the microwave resonator 2 is aligned with the longitudinal axis x-X of the collimator 6 and the electrode 5 facing conical resp is Elah 10<providing optimal power-radiation and minimum focus radiation (local zone control). The microwave generator 1 is connected with the hole 7 of the collimator 6 through a waveguide (not shown), the direction of microwave radiation pulse generator 1 lies on the same line with the centers of the holes 7 of the entrance of the collimator 6 and Windows 3 communications resonator 2, intersecting perpendicularly to the Central axis of the resonator 2. The dimensions of the anode 5 and the small base of the conical hole 8 must be commensurate.

The microwave generator 1 and the collimator 6 are designed to focus the electrons 13 emitting cathode 4, the microwave resonator 2 and collimation of radiation in cone collimator 6.

The cap 9 is made of a material such as quartz glass, and the cathode 4 and the anode 5 is made, for example of tungsten.

Proposed technical solutions allow to prevent premature destruction of the walls of the cavity by reducing the intensity of the bombing of the periphery of the resonator, thereby to improve reliability and increase the locality of the flaw detection of hard-to-reach places of interest control.

The x-ray emitter works as follows.

In pulsed electric field 12 (Fig.3) the tension of up to 106In/cm in a vacuum cavity resonator 2 is connected with the emission of electrons 13, imitating the cathode 4, and the acceleration due to bipolar collimator 6. When the collision of accelerated electrons 13 with the anode 5 occurs bremsstrahlung x-rays (radiation). The magnetic field 14 generated by bipolar collimator 6, does not allow the electrons 13 substantially to scatter inside the cavity resonator 2 from the Central axis due to the action of the microwave field in the cavity 2 in the perpendicular direction to the Central axis of the resonator 2, or still to the longitudinal axis x-X of the collimator 6 and focuses the beam of electrons 13 in the size of the anode 5.

X-rays from the anode 5, focused conical bore 8 of the collimator 6, passes through the body of the test object, where it is partially absorbed in the material, and most of the hits on the x-ray element, for example the x-ray film, which come from the opposite side of the test object (not shown). The x-ray shadow projection is judged on the presence of a defect in the thickness of the material of the test object.

A positive result of the technical the geometry.

Sources of information

1 A. C. USSR N 136670, CL H 01 35/02, 1983.

2. E. A. Abrahamian. Industrial electron accelerators. - M.: Energoizdat, 1986.

The x-ray emitter containing a pulse of microwave (MW) generator for radiation flux of the electromagnetic field, hollow vakuumirovaniya microwave resonator with a transparent flow of the electromagnetic field of the microwave generator connection box, the cathode and the anode, placed symmetrically in opposite walls of the microwave cavity, adjacent the wall with the communications window, and forming the Central axis of the resonator, and two-pole hollow collimator representing axisymmetric electromagnet with two holes - one for the inlet flow of the electromagnetic field of the microwave generator, the other for output flow-radiation, characterized in that the microwave resonator is placed inside the collimator anode and cathode between the poles of the collimator forming longitudinal axis x-X of the x-ray emitter is aligned with the Central axis of the microwave resonator, when the axes of the holes of the collimator to the entrance of the flow of the electromagnetic field of the microwave generator and open communication microwave resonator aligned and oriented perpendicular to the longitudinal axis x-X of the x-ray emitter and the hole La and made a cone shape at the pole of the collimator, facing the anode, and the opening angle of the cone-shaped holes are made out from a point (the center of the x-ray emitter) of intersection of the axis of flow of the electromagnetic field of the microwave generator and the longitudinal axis x-X of the emitter in the range of 10< <30 where is the opening angle of the cone holes.

 

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