The x-ray emitter
(57) Abstract:The x-ray emitter refers to measuring technique and is designed for non-destructive testing of materials. The technical result is to increase the quality of the locality flaw detection surfaces of objects of complex shape. The essence of the invention lies in the fact that the outlet for radiation made cone-shaped, the angle of which lies within 10-30owhen the direction of radiation of the microwave generator lies perpendicular to the Central axis of the resonator. 3 Il. The invention relates to x-ray techniques, in particular x-ray emitters, designed for testing and can be used primarily for the detection of local defects of complex objects.Known x-ray emitter containing a source of microwave radiation (microwave radiation), hollow axisymmetric vakuumirovaniya microwave cavity with a transparent to microwave radiation window, the cathode and the anode, located on opposite walls along the axis of the microwave resonator and is not electrically connected with him .A disadvantage of the known device is the item of the objects of complex shape, and short service life of the radiator, because of the absence of the focusing system of particles defocused near-cathode electric field and the magnetic component of the microwave field of the resonator, which leads to scattering of electrons in the cavity of the resonator relative to the anode, causing the appearance of micropores in the walls of the cavity, and eventually to the breakdown of the resonator.The closest technical solution is the x-ray emitter, comprising a pulsed microwave generator, a hollow vakuumirovaniya microwave cavity with a transparent to microwave radiation of the communications window, an electromagnet for focusing the accelerated electrons and the collimator forming the radiation field, located next to the anode system of the microwave resonator .The disadvantage of this technical solution is blurring (landscape) -radiation, reducing the locality testing of controlled objects, and the complexity, and still does not ensure the effectiveness of testing. When sending a beam voltage from the microwave generator to the microwave resonator particles due to the large energy have strong Coulomb repulsion, which leads to an increase in the transverse dimensions of the beam, destroying the design of the resonator. To resolve defocus.The invention consists in that in the x-ray emitter containing a pulsed microwave generator, a hollow vakuumirovaniya microwave cavity with a transparent to microwave radiation of the communications window, the cathode and the anode, placed symmetrically in opposite walls of the microwave resonator, forming its Central axis, and bipolar collimator representing axisymmetric electromagnet with two holes for the entrance of the microwave radiation and the output from the anode radiation, the hole for the output radiation is made of a conical shape at one of the poles of the collimator along its longitudinal axis, passing symmetrically through the poles of the collimator, the opening angle of the cone-shaped holes are made out from the center of the emitter (point of intersection of the longitudinal axis of the collimator or the Central axis of the resonator and the line of microwave radiation generator in the range of 10<and the microwave resonator is placed between the poles of the collimator so that the Central axis of the microwave resonator is aligned with the longitudinal axis of the collimator when the direction of radiation of the microwave generator lies on the same line with the centers of the input apertures of the collimator and open communication resonator intersecting perpendicularly to the Central axis of the microwave resonator.In Fig. 1 shows a General view of the design of the x-ray emitter, and Fig.2 - microwave resonator along section a-a of Fig.1; Fig.3 - principle of operation of the emitter.The x-ray emitter contains a pulsed microwave generator 1, a hollow vakuumirovaniya microwave resonator 2 is transparent to microwave radiation window 3 communications, a cathode 4, an anode 5 and a bipolar collimator 6 with an opening 7 for the entrance of the microwave radiation from the generator 1 and the cone-shaped hole 8 to the anode 5-radiation. The cathode 4 and the anode 5 are symmetrically located on opposite walls of the microwave resonator 2, forming its Central axis, and the window 3 communications in one of the other walls and is closed by a cover 9 made of a material that is transparent to microwave radiation. The cathode 4 and the anode 5 is electrically isolated from the resonator by means of a mandrel made of ceramics or glass (not shown). Bipolar collimator 6 is an axisymmetric electromagnet coil 10 and 11, the inductance of which are located in the poles N and S, forming longitudinal axis x-X of the collimator 6.Hollow vakuumirovaniya microwave resonator 2 is placed between the poles N and S of the collimator 6 so that the Central axis of the microwave resonator 2 is aligned with the longitudinal axis x-X of the collimator 6 and the electrode 5 facing conical resp is Elah 10<providing optimal power-radiation and minimum focus radiation (local zone control). The microwave generator 1 is connected with the hole 7 of the collimator 6 through a waveguide (not shown), the direction of microwave radiation pulse generator 1 lies on the same line with the centers of the holes 7 of the entrance of the collimator 6 and Windows 3 communications resonator 2, intersecting perpendicularly to the Central axis of the resonator 2. The dimensions of the anode 5 and the small base of the conical hole 8 must be commensurate.The microwave generator 1 and the collimator 6 are designed to focus the electrons 13 emitting cathode 4, the microwave resonator 2 and collimation of radiation in cone collimator 6.The cap 9 is made of a material such as quartz glass, and the cathode 4 and the anode 5 is made, for example of tungsten.Proposed technical solutions allow to prevent premature destruction of the walls of the cavity by reducing the intensity of the bombing of the periphery of the resonator, thereby to improve reliability and increase the locality of the flaw detection of hard-to-reach places of interest control.The x-ray emitter works as follows.In pulsed electric field 12 (Fig.3) the tension of up to 106In/cm in a vacuum cavity resonator 2 is connected with the emission of electrons 13, imitating the cathode 4, and the acceleration due to bipolar collimator 6. When the collision of accelerated electrons 13 with the anode 5 occurs bremsstrahlung x-rays (radiation). The magnetic field 14 generated by bipolar collimator 6, does not allow the electrons 13 substantially to scatter inside the cavity resonator 2 from the Central axis due to the action of the microwave field in the cavity 2 in the perpendicular direction to the Central axis of the resonator 2, or still to the longitudinal axis x-X of the collimator 6 and focuses the beam of electrons 13 in the size of the anode 5.X-rays from the anode 5, focused conical bore 8 of the collimator 6, passes through the body of the test object, where it is partially absorbed in the material, and most of the hits on the x-ray element, for example the x-ray film, which come from the opposite side of the test object (not shown). The x-ray shadow projection is judged on the presence of a defect in the thickness of the material of the test object.A positive result of the technical the geometry.Sources of information
1 A. C. USSR N 136670, CL H 01 35/02, 1983.2. E. A. Abrahamian. Industrial electron accelerators. - M.: Energoizdat, 1986. The x-ray emitter containing a pulse of microwave (MW) generator for radiation flux of the electromagnetic field, hollow vakuumirovaniya microwave resonator with a transparent flow of the electromagnetic field of the microwave generator connection box, the cathode and the anode, placed symmetrically in opposite walls of the microwave cavity, adjacent the wall with the communications window, and forming the Central axis of the resonator, and two-pole hollow collimator representing axisymmetric electromagnet with two holes - one for the inlet flow of the electromagnetic field of the microwave generator, the other for output flow-radiation, characterized in that the microwave resonator is placed inside the collimator anode and cathode between the poles of the collimator forming longitudinal axis x-X of the x-ray emitter is aligned with the Central axis of the microwave resonator, when the axes of the holes of the collimator to the entrance of the flow of the electromagnetic field of the microwave generator and open communication microwave resonator aligned and oriented perpendicular to the longitudinal axis x-X of the x-ray emitter and the hole La and made a cone shape at the pole of the collimator, facing the anode, and the opening angle of the cone-shaped holes are made out from a point (the center of the x-ray emitter) of intersection of the axis of flow of the electromagnetic field of the microwave generator and the longitudinal axis x-X of the emitter in the range of 10< <30 where is the opening angle of the cone holes.
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises introducing contrast agent into the object to be analyzed, irradiating the object by ionizing radiation, and recording spatial distribution of the secondary radiation generated when the object is affected by the ionizing radiation. The contrast agent is made of the water solution of zinc chloride or zinc bromide.
EFFECT: decreased toxicity.
2 cl, 2 tbl
FIELD: quality inspection.
SUBSTANCE: tested article and sample-imitator are exposed to penetrating radiation to radiographic film. Standard samples are grooves of different depth are mounted onto article and sample-imitator. At similar parameters of radiation, the article and sample-imitator are subject to initial radiation by non-filtered X-ray radiation and to secondary filtered X-ray radiation or to gamma-ray radiation without changing direction of radiation and to non-filtered X-ray radiation while changing direction of radiation. Corresponding shoots are received and subject to analysis. Quality of articles is judged from the data received.
EFFECT: improved truth of information; improved quality inspection of welded articles.
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises sensors of longitudinal and angular positioning arranged in a cross-section of pipeline parallel one to the other and to the plane of the Roentgen radiation flux. The sensor of longitudinal positioning is mounted a the cross-section in front of the plane of the flux at a distance of 8-10 mm in the direction of movement of the device. The sensor of angular positioning is mounted at a distance of 4-6 mm from the radiation flux, or interposed between the plane of the flux and the plane of the sensor of longitudinal positioning, or from the opposite side of the plane of the radiation flux. The sensor of longitudinal positioning is oriented strictly normal to the inner side of the pipeline, and the sensor of angular positioning strictly points to a point at the inner circumference.
EFFECT: reduced labor consumption and enhanced safety.
FIELD: inspection of edge welds.
SUBSTANCE: unit of chambers is made in form of set of separate detectors disposed in plane of cross-lateral section of pipeline uniformly along circle and in symmetry to longitudinal axis of pipeline. Detectors are capable of simultaneous panorama-oriented reception of reflected flux of panorama-oriented X-ray radiation. Planes of set of chambers and of X-ray radiation source are disposed at both sides of plane formed by contact circle of edges of pipe being joined by weld within 4-5 mm. They stay aside it equidistantly from the contact surface along axis of pipeline. Ring-shaped head is made in form of trapezoid to provide angular panorama flux to X-ay radiation directed onto edge weld in such a way that angle of radiation of X-ray flux would equal to angle of reflection from structure of material of weld seam. The second position detector is disposed between planes of unit of chambers and panorama-directed radiation source, namely, in plane brought into coincidence with plane formed by edge of welded pipes.
EFFECT: reduced labor input; improved safety; increased precision of positioning.
FIELD: investigating or analyzing of materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises determining the number of failed articles, density distribution function of time to failure, and intensity of failures from criteria of defect presence, or leakage, or failure before operation without preliminary tests or without preliminary operation of the article.
EFFECT: improved method.
FIELD: non-destructing inspection.
SUBSTANCE: object is subject to X-ray radiation or gamma radiation. Intensity of radiation, passed through object, is registered by means of detector which is brought into contact with part of object. Results of tests are processed and presence of defects is evaluated in part of object being in contact with detector. Then intensities are detected which intensities testify on possible availability of defect in part of object which is not brought in contact with detector. Then mentioned part is brought into contact with detector due to making changes in spatial position of part of detector. Then object is subject to radiation once more, intensity of radiation passed through object is registered. Results of repeated tests are processed and availability of object is evaluated in part of object where the contact was made with detector. Availability or absence of defects in object is judged from results of both radiations.
EFFECT: improved truth of results of inspection.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: x-ray engineering, possible use for estimating quality of informative capacity of x-ray shadowgraphs, produced, for example, in medical diagnostics.
SUBSTANCE: method is based on determining an information index for the shadowgraph being examined, which index indicates amount of information contained therein, while x-ray shadowgraph is digitized by division onto elementary sections - pixels, and for each pixel a value is determined, corresponding to its blackening density, and the information index characterizing the x-ray image is determined from formula: where xmax and ymax - number of pixels in rows and columns, respectively, Ix,y - pixel blackening density coefficient with x and y coordinates, and Cmin - threshold value of contrast, and in case when inequality condition is satisfied for two adjacent pixels for a value, exceeding Cmin, a unit is added to information index Q, in opposite case - a zero is added.
EFFECT: increased information capacity estimate of x-ray shadowgraph.
FIELD: the invention is designed for evaluation of defect sizes in the direction of radioscopy.
SUBSTANCE: the essence is in that they make radiography of standard and real defects, photometry of received images and comparison of the values of their contrasts ▵D carried to the contrast coefficient γD, build or choose out of earlier built dependences of the value ▵D/γD of standard grooves and standard openings from the width b (diameter Ø) of a standard defect corresponding to x-rayed thickness of the control article which they receive according to the data of photometry of radiographic pictures of the samples with standard grooves and openings of different width(diameter), but of the same depth, x-rayed at given parameters of radiographic control of the article, they x-ray the controlled article with placing on it some standard defect- a groove, an opening, a projection, a wire of known size ▵dSt.D and according to the received picture they photometrically measure the values ▵D/γD of the standard (St.D) and real (R.D.) defects. Then they define the correction coefficient (kb) taking into consideration distinction in the width of the compared standard and real defects, correction coefficient (kf) taking into consideration distinction in the form (ratio of the length l/b of the defect to its width) comparing the standard and the real defects, and also coefficient (kp) characterizing hollowness of the defects or their packing with some insertions. After that they define the size of the defect in the direction of radioscopy with the usage of these coefficients.
EFFECT: reduces labor-intensiveness, increases reliability and accuracy of evaluation of the sizes of the defects in the direction of radioscopy.