The composition of the propellant

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the production of propellants and compositions on their basis. The composition of the propellant comprises a mixture of tordiglione (halon 21) and diperchlorate (Halocarbon 22) in the ratio 80-70:20-30 wt.% respectively. The technical result - the composition of the propellant that meets the requirements for dilution capacity, steam pressure, inert to the active ingredients. table 4.

The invention relates to the production of propellants and compositions on their basis. Propellants (Propellants) - substances that can be used to actuate (or transfer) of the other active substances (ADV). In aerosol containers are used, normally gaseous propellant in a compressed form. As active substances can be cosmetic, pharmaceutical preparations or compositions used for household or sanitary purposes, varnishes, paints, etc., For aerosol application in food products are typically used such propellants as nitrous oxide or carbon dioxide, aerosols, non-food products, such as cosmetics, insecticides, etc., until recently, was often used of different sources are called freons, or refrigerate, or halocarbons.

Because there is a hypothesis about their destructive effect on the ozone layer of the atmosphere, these substances were banned by the Montreal Protocol.

It was also established that the hydrogen-containing peroperty and chlorophenolate not destroy, or practically do not destroy stratospheric ozone. However, in the selection of substances for use as propellants takes into account a number of essential requirements.

They should be non-toxic, non-flammable, have a definite boiling point, to have the necessary solubility of the active ingredients, chemically inert to the active current matter, to have a certain vapor pressure, providing a constant concentration of active ingredients. Freon should not affect the packing material (container) gasket or spray device.

In addition to the qualities mentioned above, these substances must be commercially available.

Dissolving ability of propellants is their ability to form a homogeneous liquid phase with the other components of the aerosol compositions, i.e., to be their solvents.


Freon 21 (CHCl2F) - 102;

Freon 11 (CCl3F) - 60;

Freon 113 (CCl2F-CClF2) - 31;

Freon 22 (CHClF2) - 25;

Freon 142b (CH3-CClF2) - 20;

Freon 12 (CCl2F2) - 18;

Freon 114 (CClF2-CClF2) - 12;

Freon 152a (CH3CHF2) - 11;

Freon, which is a stronger solvent - mainly those with an equal number of atoms of carbon and hydrogen have more chlorine atoms.

To ensure quality spray aerosol spray and preserve the integrity of the aerosol container, the excess vapor pressure of the propellant at 20oWith should be not less than 0.2 MPa and at a temperature of 50oWith no more than 75% of the allowable internal pressure that does not cause permanent deformation of the container.

Depending on the excess vapour pressure at 20oWith propellants are divided into basic (pressure not lower than 0.2 MPa) and the subsidiary. To obtain the desired pressure usually use a mixture of primary and secondary propellants. In compositions based peroperative the main propellant is HFC 12, auxiliary refrigerant 11, pricemelatonin 12 and 11, page 62].

Gauge vapour pressure of the propellant in aerosol packaging affects the product (the active active ingredient without propellant).

Known [RF patent 2122852, class a 61 K 9/12, op. 10.12.98, bull. 34] the composition of the aerosol under pressure, which contains liquefied hydrofluroalkane, for example, refrigerant 134-a (CF3CFH2), A (CH3F2) and HFC 227 (CF3CHF F3-Heptafluoropropane. To create a certain pressure of steam used a mixture of these hydrofluroalkane. To ensure proper solubility of the active substances in the composition are added alcohols, for example ethanol or isopropanol.

Adding organic solvents, such as alcohols, lowers the vapor pressure of the propellant.

Known [U.S. patent 4174295, CL NCI USA 516/8, Z. August 9, 1977, op. November 13, 1979] composition of aerosol propellants, which are used chlorophenolate, such as halocarbons (freons) 21 and 22. This invention relates propellant compositions for aerosol consisting of a mixture of chlorofluorocarbon or fluorocarbon (A) containing hydrogen and selected from the group including CH2F2and CF3-CH3with chlorophenolate.p. In addition to the propellant and the propellant can be included hydrocarbon propellant. The preferred embodiment of this invention is the following composition: (A) from 5 to 95% by weight, (B) from 5 to 95% by weight, (C) up to 50% by weight. In many of the following in the description of the compositions include Halocarbon 22 in combination with more macromolecular agent. In the description of this invention indicates that a binary composition (a+b) are very strong solvents, more powerful than a mixture of freon 11 and 12.

However, this property may cause undesirable consequences, in particular, these compounds can dissolve the material of the gaskets and valves of aerosol containers.

The main aim of the invention is to provide a composition of the propellant, which is able to replace used so far compositions based on CFC 11 and 12, without significant modernization of vessels for storage or packing - in particular, bottles and containers for aerosol preparations or substances.

In addition, the purpose of this invention is to provide a composition of the propellant that meets the requirements listed above, and commercially available.

The invention is >F (halon 21) and diperchlorate CHClF2(Halocarbon 22) in the ratio 80-70: 20-30 wt.%, respectively.

The composition of the main parameters is almost identical to the propellants on the basis of freon 11 and 12 (base propellants), and in some ways surpasses them.

On the basis of the conducted researches it is established that ferrichloride, l2F (Halocarbon 21), like halon 11, has a low vapor pressure and accepted classification can be attributed to the auxiliary propellants.

Diperchlorate, CHClF2(Halocarbon 22) has a higher vapor pressure, and can be used as the main propellant.

The composition satisfies the requirements for propellants by dissolving capacity, steam pressure, inert to the active ingredients. It is non-toxic and commercially available. It uses freon relate to the transition, i.e., their use is permitted up to a certain period.

Studies have been conducted of the main indicators of mixtures of the proposed structure on which it is possible to judge about the possibility of replacing old mixtures of propellants on the basis of freon 11 and 12 on new. These indicators Pref is tableno, the proposed structures meet the basic requirements of the relevant propellants. The results are given in table 4.

The characteristics determined in the temperature range from minus 20oC to + 60oC. analysis of the obtained data shown in the tables shows that a mixture of freon 21 (cordilleran) and 22 (diperchlorate) in the present ratio within these limits coincide with mixtures of freon 11 and 12 for the basic parameters of the vapor pressure, density, and surface tension in the range from -20 to +60oWith and thus, can be replaced without significant design changes aerosol cans.

Selected types of rubbers, persistent in the environment specified mixtures of freon 21 and 22. The most persistent are rubber stamps 51-2107 and 51-2112.

The composition of the propellant, including chlorofluorocarbons, characterized in that it contains a mixture of tordiglione (halon 21) and diperchlorate (Halocarbon 22) in the ratio 80-70: 20-30 wt. % respectively.

 

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