A method of manufacturing billets for production of products of the type wheels

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and is aimed at improving the technology of manufacturing products of the type wheels by stamping and rolling. The technical result is guaranteed removal furnace scale with end surfaces of the heated billets and excluding repair grinding wheels stamped on part of the disk is achieved in that in the method of manufacturing billets for production of products of the type wheels, including cutting long round bars on the original piece with the giving end surfaces of the flat, heating the billet to a temperature of deformation, destruction of the furnace scale with end surfaces of the heated billets milling, according to the invention on the end flat surface of the workpiece exposed rotating cutters simultaneously from two sides simultaneously by all of the end surfaces directly after heating under deformation, when exposed at the end surface of the billet milling cutters rotate in opposite directions with equal force pressing the cutters on both sides of the workpieces, the processing mills are parallel to the end surfaces of the workpieces with the precise scale of the workpiece is kept on the air for 5-20 with before deformation. 4 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il.

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and is aimed at improving the technology of manufacturing products of the type wheels by stamping and rolling.

Product type wheels (rail car and locomotive wheels, wheel centres, ice rinks excavators, rays, etc.,) on the wheel units are produced by hot deformation from the original, often continuously cast billets. The latter is obtained by cutting long round bars to length, heating to a temperature of deformation, cleaning the end surfaces of the workpieces from the furnace (primary) scale. Thus obtained initial workpiece is subjected to upsetting and forming presses and rolling on the mill [1, 2] . The narrowest link in the technological chain of the preparation of the billets is clean end surfaces of the workpieces from the furnace dross. The need for exceptionally thorough cleaning of the workpieces from the scale before deformation is dictated by the fact that remaining on the workpiece scale in the precipitation process and forming shrinked in the metal hub and drive hub (Central, stamped parts of the product, Fig.1). Removes scale with blanks method Hydra the second scale with a thickness of 0.7-2.0 mm is subjected to repair the lathe. Thus, in particular, railway wagon wheel according to GOST 9036 repair from 40 to 75% in smelting (in one melting 170-190 wheels). So in metallurgical plants have to install additional, more stringent tolerances on the thickness of the disk in case you need a repair on the scale. This leads to an increase in the mass of the original piece and, as a consequence, the wheel of 2.5% against the required GOST in prematurely wheels (25-60%). Often the process of repair wheel displays the size of the disk beyond the permissible. Marriage is for this reason that reaches to 1.0%.

Known methods for producing blanks for wheels [3, 4], which include the separation of the bars into blanks by the method of cutting machines, heating billets, podstugivaniya their end surfaces of the cooling fluid before deformation (to restrict metal flow in the radial direction), the break-up of the furnace dross special tool in the process of precipitation. These methods were not successful due to get different process parameters in different preparations: unequal surface temperature in the heating process, the different temperature of tool deformation, different properties of the furnace slag in different batches.

Drugstoe blanks during their precipitation with the use of special chemical mixtures increasing the deposition rate of flux scale. However, they do not reduce the number of repaired on the scale of the wheels (40-75%), harmful people of Gaza.

As a prototype adopted a known method of manufacturing billets for production of products of the type wheels [7], which includes cutting long round bars on the original piece with the giving end surfaces of the flat, heating the billet to a temperature of deformation and destruction of the furnace scale with the end of their surfaces. Billets length of 3-8 m and a diameter of 430 mm is subjected to cutting napagod circular saws on the gauge length. This may form non-parallelism between the upper and lower end surfaces and aperpendicular their axis (side surface) up to 5o. After inspection and marking of the original billet is heated in a rotary furnace to a temperature deformation 1260-1290oC. at all (frontal and lateral) surfaces of the workpieces is formed furnace slag with a thickness of 0.7 to 2.0 mm, It is easily and are difficult to separate, depending on the furnace atmosphere of combustion products, duration of heating, the chemical composition of the steel wheel. Then before upsetting to press the workpiece machining is sang on the end surface of the billet serves a jet of water, which knocked them legkodelimae scale. Impact on metal water when cleaning leads to cooling of the metal end surface and, consequently, to the unregulated flow of metal during forming and rolling. Difficult to separate the dross remains on the workpiece and in the future on the disk at the hub of the finished wheel. As a consequence, repair of wheels on the drive, the marriage of the thickness of the disk, an excessive thickness of the disk at ceremoniously wheels. Repair of wheels on the drive, especially in the transition portion to the hub, also leads to lower fatigue resistance of this part of the product due to the formation of furrows from the incisor teeth of the hub voltage. I.e., the use of this known technology of preparation of the billets caused great material damage to both the manufacturer and the consumer of the wheels, and most importantly reduces the reliability of the product in use.

The objective of the proposed method is guaranteed removal furnace scale with end surfaces of the heated billets and excluding repair grinding wheels stamped on their part.

The problem is solved due to the fact that in the method of manufacturing billets for production of products of the type wheels, vkluchaya is a, heating the billet to a temperature of deformation, destruction of the furnace scale with end-face milling, end flat surface of the workpiece exposed rotating cutters simultaneously from two sides simultaneously by all of the end surfaces directly after heating under deformation, while the cutters rotate in opposite directions with equal force axial pressing on both sides of the workpieces, the processing mills are parallel end planes with the tilting of the blades within 0-5oaxis (side surface) of the workpiece, and after descaling billet stand in the air within 5-20 with before deformation.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where Fig.1 shows the distribution of areas of the original piece in the elements of the finished product of Fig.2 - cleaning circuit end surface of the billet from the furnace dross.

The process sequence of the proposed method. Long continuous cast billets are divided into circular saws on multiples of the workpiece. Cutting ingots lead to the passage, resulting in the formation of the end faces of the workpiece flat. In the process parisc the training) from perpendicularity to the axis (side surface) of the workpiece to 5o. Received initial workpiece mark float and heated in a furnace to a temperature deformation 1260-1290oC. While the workpiece is set on the furnace hearth in the furnace in a vertical position, as required by the different conditions of formation of the furnace dross on the bottom, in contact with the furnace hearth (and restricted combustion products), and the upper end surface. After heating the workpiece 1 (Fig.2) served in the milled strip, it is held by the grip 2 at the side surface in a stationary state, and the end surfaces fail rotating in opposite directions round the cutters 3 and 4, simultaneously covering the entire surface. The rotation of the cutters in opposite directions dictated by reducing the effective forces holding the workpiece in a vertical position and a decreasing value of dents from the gripping device. The force of the cutter on the workpiece carried by one drive, the same on both sides, and the value of its hard enough only for cutting, separating from metal oxides. Hinged cutters ensures even their adherence to the "oblique", not perpendicular to the axis of the workpiece end surfaces up to 5oat the start of milling. P in the treatment area is served industrial air into the nozzle 5 for blowing scale with cutter and nozzle 6 for blowing scale from the workpiece. And since this air has high humidity, while the end surface intensively podstegivayut. Therefore, to equalize the temperature of the metal due to the heat of the middle part of the harvesting them before deformation is kept on the air for 5-20 C. This time range is set experimentally and corresponds to the range of the heating temperature of the billet in the furnace 1260-1290oC. the use of the proposed technology training enables you to securely remove from the end surfaces of the scale, virtually eliminate repair wheels on the scale (reduction of repair with 40-75 to 0.5-1.0%) and to provide the required GOST weight wheels that came into operation.

Example. In the manufacture of solid-rolled railway wagon wheel diameter 957 mm continuously cast billets of length 3 m and a diameter of 430 mm was cut into circular saws piece cutting. Cut blanks (length 400 mm, which corresponded to the weight of 460 kg Cosine end surface was 1.5o. The resulting billet float was heated in a rotary furnace to a temperature of 1270oC for 5 hours on end and side surfaces formed furnace slag thickness of approximately 2.0 mm and Then sequentially n the ity special capture, to its end surfaces summed from both sides of the cutters with a diameter of 450 mm and when they rotate in opposite directions with a speed of 300 rpm was carried out by pressing the workpiece simultaneously for 2 sec. At the moment of contact with the workpiece cutter turned 1.5o(by the amount cosine end surfaces) axis (side surface) of the workpiece. Vertical force pressing on the end surface 70 kgf. All scale with end surfaces were removed completely. Before deformation of the workpiece is kept on the air for 15 s, followed two systems were forged and rolled to the finished size of the wheels, and produced a pilot batch of 170 wheel repair on the scale were subjected to two wheels (1,0%).

Sources of information

1. G. A. Bibik and other Reconstruction wheel shop. Bulletin STI Ferrous metallurgy, 17 /829/, 1978, S. 38-40.

2. C. J. Genkin, etc. continuously Cast round billets. M.: metallurgy, 1984, S. 87-96.

3. Auth.mon.The USSR 818717, CL 21 To 1/28. Bull. 13, 1981.

4. Auth.mon.The USSR 1013060, class B 21 H 1/04, bull. 15, 1983.

5. Auth.mon.The USSR 436076, class C 10 M 3/02, bull. 26, 1974.

6. Auth.mon.The USSR 442240, class C 23 G 5/00, bull. 33, 1974.

7. G. A. Bibik and other Prostiution while manufacturing products of the type wheels, including cutting long round bars on the original piece with the giving end surfaces of the flat, heating the billet to a temperature of deformation, destruction of the furnace scale with end-face milling, characterized in that on the end flat surface of the workpiece exposed rotating cutters simultaneously from two sides simultaneously by all of the end surfaces directly after heating under deformation.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that when exposed to the end surface of the billet milling cutters rotate in opposite directions.

3. The method according to PP. 1 and 2, characterized in that the pressing cutters on the end faces of the workpieces carried out with the same axial force on both sides.

4. The method according to any of paragraphs. 1-3, characterized in that the processing mills are parallel to the end surfaces of the workpieces with the tilting of the blades within 0-5owith respect to an axis of the workpiece.

5. The method according to any of paragraphs. 1-4, characterized in that after removal of scale with the end surfaces of the workpiece is kept on the air for 5-20 with before deformation.

 

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