Fuel injector

 

(57) Abstract:

The nozzle is intended for use in gas turbine engines. Fuel injector with tangential air inlet has an inlet opening of the combustion chamber for entrance of air and fuel into the combustion chamber. The hole is limited convergent surface, the surface of the combustion chamber and a cylindrical surface passing between them. Convergent surface is held at a first distance along the longitudinal axis of the nozzle, a cylindrical surface is at a second distance along the axis, and the second distance is at least 30% of the first distance. The invention provides a low NOx allocation, improvement of durability by preventing connection of the torch with the Central part of the nozzle. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill.

The invention relates to fuel injectors with premixing of fuel and air provides low NOx allocation, and, in particular, to the injectors intended for use in gas turbine engines.

The background to the present invention

The selection of sekisei nitrogen (hereinafter referred to as NOx) in the combustion at high edevlet more stringent requirements in respect of the discharge of such pollutants. Accordingly, great efforts have been made to reduce the formation of NOx in combustion chambers.

One solution to this problem was premixing of the fuel with excess air to the combustion took place with locally large excess of air, resulting in a relatively low combustion temperature, thereby minimizing the formation of NOx. Fuel injector, which operates in the manner described in U.S. patent 5307634, in which is illustrated a spiral swirl with a conical Central part. This type of fuel injector is known as a fuel injector with tangential inlet and contains two interleaved spiral element with a cylindrical vaults connected with two end plates. The combustion air enters the swirl through the two rectangular slots formed displaced spiral elements and out through the inlet of the combustion chamber in one end plate and enters the combustion chamber. Linear matrix of holes located in the outer spiral element against the inner rear edge, injects fuel into the air stream for each input slot of the line to obtain a uniform mixture coplimentary entrance differed low NOx allocations in comparison with the fuel injectors of the prior art. Unfortunately, the fuel injector described, for example, in the aforementioned patent, has an extremely low service life when used in gas turbine engines, due to the connection of the torch with the Central part of the nozzle. For this reason, the fuel injector with tangential entry not found practical application in gas turbine engines manufactured on an industrial basis.

In this regard, there is a need in the fuel injector with a tangential inlet, which when used in gas turbine engines has significantly greater operational durability than the fuel injector of the prior art.

A summary of the present invention

The technical result of using the present invention is to provide a fuel injector with a low allocation of NOx, which when used in gas turbine engines would have far greater operational durability than the fuel injector of the prior art.

Another technical result of the present invention is to provide a fuel injector with a tangential inlet, which is much CLASS="ptx2">

In accordance with this fuel injector with tangential air inlet corresponding to the present invention has a longitudinal axis and two spiral element with a barrel vault, and the axial line of each element are displaced relative to each other. Overlapping the ends of these spiral elements form an air intake opening for introducing fuel injector mixes fuel with air. End plate adjacent the combustion chamber has an inlet opening to permit air and fuel out of the nozzle into the combustion chamber. The hole contains a convergent surface, the divergent surface and a cylindrical surface passing between them. Convergent surface extends a first distance along the longitudinal axis of the nozzle, the cylindrical surface extends for a second distance along the axis, and the second distance is at least 5% of the first distance. The opposite end plate blocks the flow area of the nozzle, and the spiral elements mounted between the end plates.

The Central part located between the spiral elements and coaxial to the longitudinal axis, has an outer radial Polnenkay in the form of a truncated cone, oriented coaxial to the longitudinal axis, and the cylindrical section, which is oriented coaxially to the longitudinal axis and limits the outer surface of the cylinder. The Central part has a base which includes at least one opening for flow of air passing through it, and the inner channel. The plot of the truncated shape tapering towards the outlet bore, and the cylindrical section is located between the area of a truncated shape and a plane in which is located the outlet. The first and second cylindrical elements have an internal channel. Tube for injection of fuel, which is coaxial to the longitudinal axis and passes through the base and ends in the inner channel, provides fuel flow to the air flow in the Central part.

Brief description of drawings

Fig. 1 - cut the fuel injector corresponding to the present invention, taken along the line 1-1 shown in Fig.2.

Fig. 2 is a section along the longitudinal axis of the nozzle corresponding to the present invention.

Fig. 3 - cut the fuel injector corresponding to the present invention, along the line 3-3 shown in Fig.2.

Option implementation nastuha, provides low NOx allocation and the corresponding present invention, includes a Central portion 12 in a helical swirler 14. Spiral swirl 14 includes first and second end plates 16, 18, and the first end plate connected to the Central part 12 and is separated from the second end plate 18, which has an inlet opening 20 of the combustion chamber, passing through it. Many, and preferably two helical element 22, 24 with the cylindrical vault pass from the first end plate 16 to the second end plate 18, these end plates are interconnected.

Spiral elements 22, 24 are evenly spaced along the longitudinal axis 26 of the nozzle 10, limiting in accordance with this between a zone 28 of the mixing, as shown in Fig. 2. Each spiral element 22, 24 has an inner radial surface that faces the longitudinal axis 26 and limits the surface partial rotation around the centerline 32, 34. Used the expression "surface partial rotation" means the surface obtained by rotating the line less than one full turn around one of the axis lines 32, 34.

Each spiral element 22 is separated from the other spirooxazine in Fig.2. As follows from Fig.3, each centerline 32, 34 in spaced parallel position to the longitudinal axis 26, and all axial lines 32, 34 are separated from the longitudinal axis 26 at the same distance, limiting in accordance with this input slots 36, 38, which is parallel to the longitudinal axis 26 between each pair of adjacent helical elements 22, 24 for introducing air 40 combustion in the mixing zone 28. Supports combustion air from a compressor (not shown) enters through an inlet slots 36, 38 formed by overlapping the ends 44, 50, 48, 46 of the spiral elements 22, 24, has shifted the centerline 32, 34.

Each spiral element 22, 24 further comprises a fuel line 52, 54 for introducing fuel into the air 40 burning, when it is introduced into zone 28 of the mixture through one of the input slots 36, 38. The first fuel supply line (not shown), which can apply liquid or gaseous fuel, but preferably gaseous fuel, is connected with each of the lines 52, 54. The inlet 20 of the combustion chamber, which is coaxial to the longitudinal axis 26, is directly adjacent to the combustion chamber 56 for production of fuel and combustion air from the device corresponding to the present invention, the combustion chamber 56 (other part 12 has a base 58, which has at least one, and preferably a number of holes 60, 62 to supply air passing through it, and the base 58 perpendicular to the longitudinal axis 26 passing through it. The Central part 12 preferably has an inner channel 64, which is coaxial to the longitudinal axis 26. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention the inner channel 64 includes a first cylindrical channel 66, which has a first end 68 and second end 70, and a second cylindrical channel 72, of larger diameter than the diameter of the first cylindrical channel 66, and similarly has a first end 74 and second end 76. The second cylindrical channel 72 communicates with the first cylindrical channel 66 through a narrowing channel 78 in the shape of a truncated cone, having a first end 80, the diameter of which is equal to the diameter of the first cylindrical channel 66, and a second end 82, the diameter of which is equal to the diameter of the second cylindrical channel 72, i.e., the truncated cone is located between the said first and second cylindrical channels and connected to its smaller base with the second end of the first cylindrical channel, and a large base with the first end of the second cylindrical channel. Caio whole with the second end 70 of the first cylindrical channel 66, while the second end 82 tapering channel 78 is integral with the first end 74 of the second cylindrical channel 72. The first cylindrical channel 66 has an outlet opening which is circular and coaxial to the longitudinal axis 26 and is located on the first end 68 of the first cylindrical channel 66.

As follows from Fig.3, the outer radial surface 84 of the Central part 12 contains a plot 86 of a truncated shape, which limits the outer surface of a truncated shape which is coaxial to the longitudinal axis 26 and extends toward the base 58, and a curved section 88 which is integral with the section 86 of the truncated shape and preferably limits the portion of the surface formed by rotating a circle around the longitudinal axis 26 tangent to section 86 of the truncated shape having a center which lies in the radial direction outwards from it. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the section 86 of the truncated shape is limited to the plane in which is located the outlet, which is simultaneously the first end 68 of the first cylindrical channel 66. Base diameter (not to be confused with the base 58 of the Central part) of section 86 2.65 tion between the plane in which there is a base section 86 of the truncated shape and the plane in which the top section 86 of the truncated shape) 1.90 times the diameter of the base section 86 of the truncated shape. As described in more detail below, the curved section 88, which is located between the base 58 and section 86 of the truncated shape that provides a smooth transitional surface that axially rotates the air 40 for combustion supplied to the fuel injector 10 with a tangential inlet adjacent the base 58. As shown in Fig.3, the inner channel 64 is located radially inward from the outer radial surface 84 of the Central part 12, section 86 of the truncated shape coaxial to the longitudinal axis 26, and the Central part 12 is connected to the base 58 so that the section 86 of the truncated shape narrowed toward the outlet of the first cylindrical channel 66 and ended at the hole.

As shown in Fig. 2, the base section 86 of the truncated shape corresponds to the circumference 92 inscribed in a zone 28 of mixing and having its center 94 on the longitudinal axis 26. As it is obvious to the skilled in this technical field specialist, because the area 28 of the mixing is not round in pgcalc 88, where the curved portion 88 is held in each input slot 36, 38 and this part is machined for education aerodynamically shaped inclined part 96, 98 that directs the air coming into the input slot 36, 38, from the base 58 and the curved section 88 in the zone 28 of confusion.

As follows from Fig.1, the inner chamber 100 is located in the Central part 12 between the base 58 and the second end 76 of the second cylindrical channel 72, which limits the camera 100. The air 102 is fed into the chamber 100 through the holes 60, 62 to supply air at the base 58, which are connected with each other, and the camera 100, in turn, provides the air supply to the internal channel 64 through the second end 76 of the second cylindrical channel 72. The first end plate 16 has holes 104, 106, which are aligned with the holes 60, 62 for air supply, made in the base 58 so as not to interfere with the airflow 102 for combustion from the gas turbine compressor. Swirl 108, preferably of known construction with a radial input, coaxial to the longitudinal axis 26 and is located in the chamber 100, directly adhering to the second end 76 of the second cylindrical channel 72 so that all the air coming into the fuel which is also coaxial to the longitudinal axis 26 passes through the base 58, the camera 100 and the swirler 108 in the second cylindrical channel 72 of the inner channel 64. Tube 110 for injection of fuel, which has a diameter less than the diameter of the second cylindrical channel 72 includes a second cylindrical channel 72 so that the cross-sectional area of flow in the second cylindrical channel 72 was essentially equal to the cross-sectional area of the first cylindrical channel 66. The second fuel supply line (not shown), which can apply liquid or gaseous fuel, is connected with a tube 110 for injection of fuel for supplying fuel to the internal channel 112 in the tube 110 for injection of fuel. Fuel nozzles 114 are located in the tube 110 for injection of fuel and provide fuel passage to the exit of the tube 110 for injection of fuel into the internal channel 64.

As follows from Fig.3, the inlet 20 of the combustion chamber (the camera itself is not shown) coaxially to the longitudinal axis 26 and has a convergent surface 116 and a cylindrical surface 118, which limits the critical section of the inlet. The convergent surface 116 and a cylindrical surface 118 coaxial to the longitudinal axis 26, while it is 18. The convergent surface 116 has an essentially conical shape and tapers in the direction of the cylindrical surface 118. Cylindrical surface 118 passes between the plane 120 critical section and the surface 122 of the combustion chamber, the inlet 20 of the combustion chamber, which is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis 26 and limits the plane 124 of the outlet cross section of the fuel injector 10, corresponding to the present invention. To achieve the required axial velocity of the mixture of fuel with air through the inlet 20 of the combustion chamber, passes through the combustion air must be faced with a minimum size of flow or the area of the critical section in the input hole 20 of the combustion chamber.

The convergent surface 116 is limited by the plane 120 critical section, where the diameter of the convergent surface 116 is equal to the diameter of the cylindrical surface 118. As shown in Fig.3, the plane 120 critical section is located between the plane 124 of the output section and the plane in which is located the outlet of the first end 68 of the first cylindrical channel 66, and the convergent surface 116 is located between the cylindrical surface 118 and the first t is AI 20 of the combustion chamber, the convergent surface 116 is held at a specified distance 126 along the longitudinal axis 26, and a cylindrical surface 118 is held on the second distance 128 along the longitudinal axis 26, which is at least 30% of the specified distance 126.

In the process, the flow of combustion air from the compressor of the gas turbine engine is supplied through the holes 104, 106 and openings 60, 62 to supply air at the base 58 in the camera 100 of the Central part 12. The combustion air enters from the chamber 100 through the swirler 108 with radial inlet and enters into the inner channel 64 essentially with tangential velocity or swirl about the longitudinal axis 26. When this vortex flow of the combustion air passes through the tube 110 for injection of fuel, fuel, preferably in gaseous form, is sprayed from the tube 110 for injection of fuel into the internal channel 64 and is mixed with the vortex flow of the combustion air. Then the flow of the mixture of fuel and air for combustion passes from the second cylindrical channel 72 in the first cylindrical channel 66 through a narrowing channel, made in the form of a truncated cone 78. After that, the mixture continues to move along the first cylindrical channel 66, leaving the first clindamicina Central stream of the mixture of fuel and air.

Additional combustion air from the compressor of the gas turbine engine is in the area 28 of the mixture through each of the input slots 36, 38. The air included in the input slots 36, 38 in the vicinity of the base 58 is directed through the inclined portions 96, 98 on the curved section 88 in the zone 28 of the mixing spiral swirl 14. Fuel, preferably gaseous fuel supplied to the fuel lines 52, 54, sprayed into the combustion air passing through the inlet slots 36, 38, and begins to mix with it. Due to the shape of spiral elements 22, 24, this mixture forms a vortex ring flow around the Central part 12, and the mixture of fuel with air is further mixed, when it forms a vortex flow around the Central part 12, moving along the longitudinal axis 26 to the inlet 20 of the combustion chamber.

The vortex ring flow formed by the helical swirler 14, preferably (but without limitation) rotates in one direction to swirl the mixture of fuel and air in the first cylindrical channel 66 and preferably has an angular velocity at least equal to the angular velocity of the mixture of fuel with air in the first cylindrical channel 66. Due to the form of centrolene combustion chamber to migrate in a spiral swirl 14 and join the outer surface 84 of the Central part 12. In the presence of the first cylindrical channel 66, a swirling mixture of fuel with air (or air flow without fuel) Central flow surrounded by a circular flow of the spiral swirl 14, and these two streams are plane 120 critical section of the inlet openings 20 of the combustion chamber and pass in the radial direction of the cylindrical surface 118 until then, until they reach the plane 124 of the output section of the inlet openings 20 of the combustion chamber down the processing chain from zone 28 of confusion.

Under the existing inlet 20 of the combustion chamber, the interaction of the Central flow annular flow creates the Central recirculation zone of 200, which is lower downstream from the plane 124 of the output section (i.e. the plane of the outlet cross section is located between the Central recirculation zone and the outlet of the inner channel and is separated from it. Sharp protuberance 130 formed where the cylindrical surface 118 meets with the surface 122 of the inlet 20 of the combustion chamber, causes a sudden expansion of the mixture of fuel with air and the recirculation of the mixture of fuel with air in a radial direction outward from the Central zone 200 recirculation. G what about this flame is separated from the plane 124 of the output section and is completely below her on the technological chain. As a result, the device corresponding to the present invention, provides both zones 200, 300 recirculation supported spaced from the plane 124 of the output section during all modes of engine operation.

Fuel injector 10, corresponding to the present invention, significantly reduces vibration flow, accompanied by evolution of heat, which causes excessive pressure pulsations in the combustion chamber and acoustic sound. The present invention eliminates the above-mentioned interaction between the combustion process with the plane 124 of the output section, leading to a significant reduction in sound effects. Therefore, the present invention provides a solution to the problem of excessive pressure pulsations in the fuel injector 10 with a tangential inlet at achieving lower emissions during its operation.

Although the present invention is described and shown in the example of his preferred variant implementation, skilled in this technical field specialist will be obvious that without deviating from the essence and scope of the claimed invention can be in General and, in particular, made various changes.

1. Fuel injector containing Central is URS, bounding the outer surface of a truncated shape, coaxial to the longitudinal axis and extending to the base of a truncated shape, and a curved section, constituting one with a plot of truncated shape, and preferably limiting the portion of the surface formed by rotation around the longitudinal axis of the circle which is tangential to the plot of a truncated shape and has a center located radially outwards from him; the base of the Central part having at least one through hole for air supply; an internal channel, coaxial to the longitudinal axis formed by the first cylindrical channel, the second cylindrical channel and located between the said first and second cylindrical channels conical channel, and each channel has a first end and a second end, and the tapered channel is associated with its smaller base with the second end of the first cylindrical channel, and a large base with the first end of the second cylindrical channel with the mentioned second cylindrical channel has a diameter, the larger diameter of the first mentioned cylindrical channel, referred to the second cylindrical channel is communicated with said PE is output with the above mentioned second end of the said first cylindrical channel, and its second end is one with the said first mentioned end of the second cylindrical channel, referred to the first end of the tapered channel has a diameter equal to the diameter of the first cylindrical channel, and the second end of the tapered channel has a diameter equal to the diameter of the second cylindrical channel, each of the said channels coaxial to the longitudinal axis, the first mentioned cylindrical channel has an outlet opening which is circular, coaxial to the longitudinal axis and located at the first end of the first cylindrical channel; an internal chamber located between the base of the Central part and the above-mentioned second end of the second cylindrical channel, moreover, the above-mentioned openings for air inlet communicated with said second cylindrical channel through said chamber; swirl, oriented coaxially to the longitudinal axis and located in the chamber adjacent to the second end of the second cylindrical channel; a tube for the injection of fuel, oriented coaxially referred to the longitudinal axis and passing through the said Central base portion, the internal chamber and swirl, and zakanchivayu is Tina, interconnected, and the first mentioned end plate spaced from the mentioned second end plates, which is drawn through the inlet of the combustion chamber, oriented coaxially mentioned longitudinal axis, and a convergent surface, the surface of the combustion chamber and a cylindrical surface passing of said convergent surface to the surface of the combustion chamber, at least two spiral element with a barrel vault, with each spiral element limits the body partial rotation around the centerline, each of the said helical elements passes from the first mentioned end plates to the said second end plate and equally spaced around the axis, limiting in accordance with this between a mixing zone, each mentioned helical element spaced from the other spiral element, each mentioned centerline is mentioned in the mixing zone and in an exploded position equally far apart from the mentioned longitudinal axis and parallel to it, limiting in accordance with this input slots running parallel to the aforementioned axis between each pair of whoredom, each of these helical elements contains a fuel line for introducing fuel into the combustion air introduced through one of the mentioned input slits.

2. Fuel injector under item 1, in which the aforementioned convergent surface is held at a first distance along said axis, mentioned cylindrical surface is at a second distance along said axis, and the aforementioned second distance is at least 30% of the first distance.

3. Fuel injector under item 2, in which the cylindrical surface has a prescribed radius from the longitudinal axis, which is at least 10% less than the radius of the area of a truncated shape at its base.

 

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