The method of producing ammonia

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the production of ammonia by the catalytic conversion of synthesis gas. The method of producing ammonia by the interaction of the synthesis gas composed of hydrogen and nitrogen which is passed through a layer of catalyst particles for the synthesis of ammonia, located in a fixed bed, in which a stationary layer contains particles of a catalyst for ammonia synthesis in the size range from less than 1.5 mm to more than or equal to 0.2 mm mass ratio(40-70):(10-40): (10-30). When using catalyst particles with size in the range of less than 1.5 and up to more than or equal to 0.2 mm) contained in a layer in the stated weight ratio of at least 10 wt.%, increases the bulk density of the catalyst, which gives a higher pressure drop over the catalyst bed and, thus, improved the flow of synthesis gas in the layer. 2 C.p. f-crystals.

The invention relates to the production of ammonia by the catalytic conversion of synthesis gas.

Usually the industrial synthesis of ammonia based on the conversion of synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and nitrogen, mainly in the stoichiometric molar ratio of 3: 1 in ammonia. The synthesis gas is passed at high pressure through nepodvijnosti in a catalytically active form of iron.

The performance of the method depends not only on the composition of the catalyst, but also on the size and shape of the catalyst particles. For the synthesis of ammonia is carried out in the catalyst bed with the axial flow of the synthesis gas, the typical size of the catalyst particles is from 6 to 10 mm.

Due to low hydraulic resistance in the reactor for the synthesis of ammonia from radial flow to a particle size of the catalyst used in such reactors, ranges from 1.5 to 3 mm

It was found that the performance of the method of synthesis of ammonia can also be improved in the direction of increasing output produced ammonia use in radial reactors for the synthesis of ammonia fixed catalyst for ammonia synthesis with mixed catalyst particles having a large and small size. A mixture of large particles and small size has a greater bulk density, due to the fact that small particles are placed in the cavities formed between the particles of large size. High bulk density increases the amount of catalyst in the reactor for the synthesis of ammonia, which, in turn, provides a high activity catalyst to the volume of the reactor.

Miaka interaction synthesis gas with particles of ammonium catalyst, which are in a fixed bed containing particles of a catalyst for ammonia synthesis, where the particle size is less than 1.5 mm and more than or equal to 0.2 mm

When using a significant number of particles within a given interval increases bulk density, which gives a higher pressure drop over the catalyst bed and, thus, improved the flow of synthesis gas in the layer.

In the process of this invention in industrial conditions improved flow synthesis gas is achieved if the layer of catalyst contain from 10 to 80 wt.% catalyst particles for the synthesis of ammonia, having a size less than 1.5 mm

Below is the relative density at different particle sizes of conventional catalyst for ammonia synthesis, commercially available from Haldor Topse A/S

Particle size /mmRel.

of 1.5 to 3.00 to 1.00

0,8 - 1,5 - 0,97

0,3 - 0,8 - 0,95

60% of 1,5 - 3,0 + - 1,09

20% 0,8 - 1,5 + - 1,09

20% of 0.3 - 0.8 - 1,09

A mixture containing 60%, 20% and 20%, respectively, 1.5-3 mm, 0.8 to 1.6 mm and 0.3-0.8 mm particle has a relative bulk density of 1.09.

The absolute bulk density industrial catalyst depends on the methods what smera of 0.2-1.5 mm gives a higher bulk density of the catalyst, and lower diffusion resistance. With a wider grain size distribution and high bulk density have to have a high pressure drop over the catalyst bed, which gives a significant improvement in the distribution of the synthesis gas in the catalyst bed.

In the present invention the preferred particle size distributions of catalyst for ammonia synthesis in a fixed bed is obtained by mixing particles with a size of 1.5-3.0 mm, 0.8 to 1.5 mm and 0.3-0.8 mm mass ratio(40-70):(10-40):(10-30).

1. The method of producing ammonia by the interaction of the synthesis gas for ammonia synthesis with catalyst particles for the synthesis of ammonia, arranged in a fixed bed containing catalyst particles size in the range from more than or equal to 0.2 mm to less than 1.5 mm, where the fixed layer comprises a mixture of catalyst particles with a size of 1.5-3.0 mm, 0.8 to 1.5 mm, 0.8 to 1.5 mm and 0.3-0.8 mm mass ratio(40-70): (10-40): (10-30).

2. The method according to p. 1, in which the fixed layer contains at least 10 wt. % catalyst particles ranging in size from more than or equal to 0.2 mm to less than 1.5 mm

3. The method according to p. 1 or 2, in which the synthesis gas is passed radially through the fixed layer.

 

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