The method of producing ammonia
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the production of ammonia by the catalytic conversion of synthesis gas. The method of producing ammonia by the interaction of the synthesis gas composed of hydrogen and nitrogen which is passed through a layer of catalyst particles for the synthesis of ammonia, located in a fixed bed, in which a stationary layer contains particles of a catalyst for ammonia synthesis in the size range from less than 1.5 mm to more than or equal to 0.2 mm mass ratio(40-70):(10-40): (10-30). When using catalyst particles with size in the range of less than 1.5 and up to more than or equal to 0.2 mm) contained in a layer in the stated weight ratio of at least 10 wt.%, increases the bulk density of the catalyst, which gives a higher pressure drop over the catalyst bed and, thus, improved the flow of synthesis gas in the layer. 2 C.p. f-crystals. The invention relates to the production of ammonia by the catalytic conversion of synthesis gas.Usually the industrial synthesis of ammonia based on the conversion of synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and nitrogen, mainly in the stoichiometric molar ratio of 3: 1 in ammonia. The synthesis gas is passed at high pressure through nepodvijnosti in a catalytically active form of iron.The performance of the method depends not only on the composition of the catalyst, but also on the size and shape of the catalyst particles. For the synthesis of ammonia is carried out in the catalyst bed with the axial flow of the synthesis gas, the typical size of the catalyst particles is from 6 to 10 mm.Due to low hydraulic resistance in the reactor for the synthesis of ammonia from radial flow to a particle size of the catalyst used in such reactors, ranges from 1.5 to 3 mmIt was found that the performance of the method of synthesis of ammonia can also be improved in the direction of increasing output produced ammonia use in radial reactors for the synthesis of ammonia fixed catalyst for ammonia synthesis with mixed catalyst particles having a large and small size. A mixture of large particles and small size has a greater bulk density, due to the fact that small particles are placed in the cavities formed between the particles of large size. High bulk density increases the amount of catalyst in the reactor for the synthesis of ammonia, which, in turn, provides a high activity catalyst to the volume of the reactor.Miaka interaction synthesis gas with particles of ammonium catalyst, which are in a fixed bed containing particles of a catalyst for ammonia synthesis, where the particle size is less than 1.5 mm and more than or equal to 0.2 mmWhen using a significant number of particles within a given interval increases bulk density, which gives a higher pressure drop over the catalyst bed and, thus, improved the flow of synthesis gas in the layer.In the process of this invention in industrial conditions improved flow synthesis gas is achieved if the layer of catalyst contain from 10 to 80 wt.% catalyst particles for the synthesis of ammonia, having a size less than 1.5 mmBelow is the relative density at different particle sizes of conventional catalyst for ammonia synthesis, commercially available from Haldor Topse A/S
Particle size /mmRel.
of 1.5 to 3.00 to 1.00
0,8 - 1,5 - 0,97
0,3 - 0,8 - 0,95
60% of 1,5 - 3,0 + - 1,09
20% 0,8 - 1,5 + - 1,09
20% of 0.3 - 0.8 - 1,09
A mixture containing 60%, 20% and 20%, respectively, 1.5-3 mm, 0.8 to 1.6 mm and 0.3-0.8 mm particle has a relative bulk density of 1.09.The absolute bulk density industrial catalyst depends on the methods what smera of 0.2-1.5 mm gives a higher bulk density of the catalyst, and lower diffusion resistance. With a wider grain size distribution and high bulk density have to have a high pressure drop over the catalyst bed, which gives a significant improvement in the distribution of the synthesis gas in the catalyst bed.In the present invention the preferred particle size distributions of catalyst for ammonia synthesis in a fixed bed is obtained by mixing particles with a size of 1.5-3.0 mm, 0.8 to 1.5 mm and 0.3-0.8 mm mass ratio(40-70):(10-40):(10-30). 1. The method of producing ammonia by the interaction of the synthesis gas for ammonia synthesis with catalyst particles for the synthesis of ammonia, arranged in a fixed bed containing catalyst particles size in the range from more than or equal to 0.2 mm to less than 1.5 mm, where the fixed layer comprises a mixture of catalyst particles with a size of 1.5-3.0 mm, 0.8 to 1.5 mm, 0.8 to 1.5 mm and 0.3-0.8 mm mass ratio(40-70): (10-40): (10-30).2. The method according to p. 1, in which the fixed layer contains at least 10 wt. % catalyst particles ranging in size from more than or equal to 0.2 mm to less than 1.5 mm3. The method according to p. 1 or 2, in which the synthesis gas is passed radially through the fixed layer.
FIELD: heat power and chemical industries, applicable in production of ammonia.
SUBSTANCE: in the method for steam generation at production of ammonia from hydrocarbon gases, saturation of the hydrocarbon gas after desulfurization and/or process air fed to the secondary reforming is effected due to the use of the flue gas of a tube furnace at a temperature of 160 to 580C, preferably within 220 to 480C, by means of water recirculation.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of energy due to reduction of the total amount of generated steam, reduced consumption of feed water, and recovered gases dissolved in the process condensate.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: heat power and chemical industries, applicable in production of ammonia.
SUBSTANCE: in the method for steam generation at production of ammonia from hydrocarbon gases the mean-pressure steam used for the process of steam reforming and/or for the compressor drives is subjected to humidification by injection of the process condensate or feed water, and the obtained humidified steam is overheated by the heat of the flue gas in a unit of the heat-using equipment of the reforming tube furnace.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of energy due to reduction of the amount of generated steam and reduced of the amount of generated steam and reduced consumption of feed water; provided additional cleaning of the process condensate and recovering of gases dissolved in it in the process of steam humidification in the mass transfer device.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: inorganic synthesis catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention provides ammonia synthesis catalyst containing ruthenium as active ingredient supported by boron nitride and/or silicon nitride. Catalyst can be promoted by one ore more metals selected from alkali, alkali-earth metal, or rare-earth metals. Ammonia synthesis process in presence of claimed catalyst is also described.
EFFECT: increased temperature resistance of catalyst under industrial ammonia synthesis conditions.
4 cl, 6 ex
FIELD: chemical industry; production of ammonia.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the process of synthesis of ammonia, in particular to improvement of the process of cleanout synthesis of the gas added into the catalytic reactor for substitution of the reacted synthesis gas. The method of synthesis of ammonia provides for compression of the synthesis gas containing hydrogen and nitrogen in a many-stage centrifugal compressor. On the first stage of this compressor the synthesis gas is compressed up to the pressure making from approximately 800 up to 900 pounds per a square inch - (56-63)·105 Pa, withdraw from this stage and cool, and also dehydrate by a contact to a liquid ammonia in a dehydrator. Then the cooled and dehydrated synthesis gas is fed back in the compressor and bring it on the second stage. The installation for realization of this process contains a centrifugal compressor supplied with the synthesis gas outlet, that connects the synthesis gas discharge outlet from the first stage of the compressor with the synthesis gas inlet in the dehydrator, and also an intermediate inlet of the synthesis gas connecting by a hydraulic link the inlet of the second stage of the compressor with the synthesis gas discharge (outlet) from the dehydrator. Due to the intermediate cooling and a dehydration the compressor rate is lowered, and due to favorable effect of the dehydrator on the last two stages of the compressor a significant saving of the consumed power is also achieved. The additional saving of the consumed power is possible due to decreased need of chill in the closed contour of the synthesis process.
EFFECT: the invention ensures a significant saving of the consumed power for the synthesis process in the installation.
13 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: industrial inorganic synthesis.
SUBSTANCE: process comprises passing nitrogen and hydrogen-containing synthesis gas stream through three stacked catalyst beds, wherein catalyst is based on iron with magnetite as principal constituent, which is reduced during the process until catalytically active form of alpha-iron is produced. Above-mentioned synthesis gas stream is obtained by combining stream directly supplied onto first catalyst bed with another stream, which is preheated via indirect heat exchange with products exiting first and second catalyst beds, whereupon product is recovered. Method is characterized by that gas under treatment is passed through middle catalyst bed at volume flow rate between 0.65 and 2.00 value of volume flow rate, at which gas under treatment is passed through upper catalyst bed, volume ratio of middle catalyst bed to upper catalyst bed lying preferably between 0.5 and 1.5.
EFFECT: increased yield of product.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: inorganic synthesis catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: ammonia synthesis catalyst includes, as catalytically active metal, ruthenium deposited on magnesium oxide having specific surface area at least 40 m2/g, while concentration of ruthenium ranges between 3 and 20 wt % and content of promoter between 0.2 and 0.5 mole per 1 mole ruthenium, said promoter being selected from alkali metals, alkali-earth metals, lanthanides, and mixtures thereof. Regeneration of catalytic components from catalyst comprises following steps: (i) washing-out of promoters from catalyst thereby forming promoter-depleted catalyst and obtaining solution enriched with dissolved promoter hydroxides; (ii) dissolution of magnesium oxide from promoter-depleted catalyst in acidic solvent wherein ruthenium is insoluble and thereby obtaining residual ruthenium metal in solution enriched with dissolved magnesium compound; and (iii) regeneration of residual ruthenium metal from solution enriched with dissolved magnesium compound via liquid-solids separation to form indicated solution enriched with dissolved magnesium compound and ruthenium metal.
EFFECT: increased catalyst activity.
6 cl, 6 ex
FIELD: petrochemical industry; methods of the synthesis of ammonia from the nitrogen and hydrogen mixture produced from the natural gases.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of petrochemical industry, in particular, to the method of the synthesis of ammonia from the nitrogen and hydrogen mixture produced from the natural gases. The method of the catalytic synthesis of ammonia from the mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen provides, that the natural gas together with the oxygen-enriched gas containing at least 70 % of oxygen is subjected to the autothermal reforming at temperature from 900 up to 1200°C and the pressure from 40 up to 100 bar at the presence of the catalyzer of cracking, producing the unstripped synthesis gas containing in terms of the dry state 55-75 vol.% of H2, 15-30 vol.% of C and 5-30 vol.% CO2. At that the volumetric ratio of H2: CO makes from 1.6 : 1 up to 4 : 1. The unstripped synthesis gas is removed from the furnace of the autothermal reforming, cooled and subjected to the catalytic conversion producing the converted synthesis gas containing in terms of the dry state at least 55 vol.% of H2 and no more than 8 vol.% of CO. The converted synthesis gas is subjected to the multistage treatment for extraction ofCO2, CO and CH4. At that they realize the contact of the synthesis gas with the liquid nitrogen and using at least one stage of the absorption treatment produce the mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen, which is routed to the catalytic synthesizing of ammonia. At that at least a part of the synthesized ammonia may be transformed into carbamide by interaction with carbon dioxide. The realization of the method allows to solve the problem of the ammonia synthesis efficiency.
EFFECT: the invention ensures solution of the problem of the ammonia synthesis efficiency.
8 cl, 1 ex, 2 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; installations and the methods of production of the synthesis-gas from the natural gas.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of chemical industry, in particular, to the installation and the method for simultaneous production from the natural gas of the methanol synthesis-gas, the ammoniac synthesis-gas, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The installation consists of the in-series connected to each other assembly units and includes: the first reactor (A), in which at feeding of oxygen realize the transformation of the natural gas into the synthesis gas consisting of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and the steam; the second reactor (B), in which exercise the regular transformation of carbon monoxide into carbon dioxide; if necessary the compressor (C) using which the formed gases may be contracted; absorbing apparatus D, which serves for absorption of carbon dioxide and production of he mixture of monoxide with hydrogen used for synthesizing methanol; the refrigerating separator E, in which at feeding of the liquid nitrogen receive the ammoniac synthesis gas and simultaneously produces carbon monoxide, argon and methane. The invention allows to increase profitability of the installation due to production at one installation of several products.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased profitability of the installation due to production at one installation of several products.
15 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: inorganic synthesis catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: ammonia synthesis catalyst is based on ruthenium on carrier of inoxidizable pure polycrystalline graphite having specific BET surface above 10 m2/g, said graphite being characterized by diffraction pattern comprising only diffraction lines typical of crystalline graphite in absence of corresponding bands of amorphous carbon and which graphite being activated with at least one element selected from barium, cesium, and potassium and formed as pellets with minimal dimensions 2x2 mm (diameter x height). Catalyst is prepared by impregnating above-defined catalyst with aqueous potassium ruthenate solution, removing water, drying, reduction to ruthenium metal in hydrogen flow, cooling in nitrogen flow, water flushing-mediated removal of potassium, impregnation with aqueous solution of BaNO3 and/or CsOH, and/or KOH followed by removal of water and pelletizing of catalyst.
EFFECT: increased activity of catalyst even when charging ruthenium in amount considerably below known amounts and increased resistance of catalyst to methane formation.
12 cl, 1 tbl
FIELD: chemical industry; methods and devices for production of ammonia from the synthesis gas.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method and installation for production of ammonia from the synthesis gas. The method of production of ammonia provides for the catalytic reaction of the synthesis gas contracted in the appropriate compressor having several stages, each of which has the inlet and the outlet for the synthesis gas. The synthesis gas is purified by the liquid ammonia from contained in it water and carbon dioxide. At that at purification of the synthesis gas use the gas-liquid mixer, which is connected on the one hand to the outlet of the first stage of the compressor, or to the outlet of the intermediate stage of the compressor, and on the other hand - with the inlet of the second stage located behind the first stage, or with the inlet of the intermediate stage of the compressor, and has the section of the certain length with diminishing cross-section. Into the mixer in the axial direction feed in the forward flow the stream of the synthesis gas taken from the first stage of the compressor, or from the intermediate stage and the stream of the liquid ammonia, essentially the dehydrated synthesis gas is separated from the mixture flow coming out of the mixer and guide it into the second stage of the compressor, which is located behind the first stage or behind the intermediate stage. The technical result of the invention consists in the rise of the conversion outlet and in the decrease of the power inputs.
EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased conversion outlet and the decreased power inputs.
10 cl, 2 dwg