The method of rearing cattle from 6 to 12 months of age

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention is intended for use in animal husbandry, the production of calves from 6 to 12 months of age. Heifers fed the basic diet, depending on the age of animals containing, wt.%: hay grass - 8,0-13,0, hay alfalfa - 4,0, alfalfa haylage - 20,0-24,0, silage corn - 36,0-41,0, feed - of 12.8-15.8, salt is 0.2. Moreover, 25% corn silage replaced by biomass of annual shoots of willow, which is 12,0-13,0 wt.% diet. The method allows to extend the range of feed additives of plant material, to use cheaper feed product is not inferior in nutritive value and digestibility of scarce feed constituting the basic diet of the animals. 5 table.

The invention relates to animal husbandry, in particular, to the feeding of farm animals when growing.

Forest belts, parks and forest annually accumulate a large mass of organic matter, which can be used in the feeding of farm animals. Thinning and pruning of trees in forests: forests, parks and shelterbelts can provide up to 2 tons of raw food per hectare.

The forest industry is the focus of about 50%, the rest is a waste, which can be used in various sectors of the economy. A significant portion of this waste can be used in animal husbandry.

A new direction in the use of forests is the development of its green and wood pulp for feeding livestock. In this biomass, especially in the leaves, and contains a variety of valuable nutrients various properties, specifically affecting the body of an animal.

During the development of the biomass of a forest it can play a role in nutrient balance of livestock industry. In the future, with the development of industrial technology of fodder from forest sources they can occupy a significant place in the production of many agricultural enterprises Mesoamerican regions.

Woody forage can be used in natural and processed form. In its natural form for feeding use leaves and wood hay", which are harvested in the summer from young shoots of trees.

In feed-known methods of making vitamin food with fresh greens [1]. In winter and spring on the feeding in an amount of 0.1-0.2 kg per head per day increases daily gain in live weight in pigs in 13-35% compared to the control animals. The chicken was well grown and evolved when feeding them from 1 to 5 g of needles, for sheep best rate should be considered as 0.25 kg of needles per head per day. Use fresh crushed pine needles in experiments on young cattle gave the opportunity to reduce the cost of feed per 1 kg increase in live weight per unit of production by 5.0-1.0% compared with the control.

In summary, we can state the fact that coniferous flour was studied in experiments on all kinds of animals and is recommended for implementation.

However, the application of fresh pine needles can lead to undesirable consequences: the appearance of blood in the urine, irritation of the kidneys, etc., To eliminate undesirable consequences due to the increased osmolarnostew and the presence of tannins needles must be subjected to special treatment, without which limited its use.

Known methods of preparation of vegetable protein feed from wood green or bark, or wood waste.

Coniferous themselves weight (HWM) pine, spruce, fir, cedar, and others, or the bark of these trees, or sawdust shredded process in dispergating installation within 7-10 minutes, divided into phases. Tordu which allow to obtain a highly digestible food with a high protein content, however, when using feed from HVM not fully satisfied the needs of animals for nutrients.

A method of obtaining herbal remedies that have high biological activity. In this method plant material (e.g. leaves of willow, oak, grass - alfalfa or clover) shredded prepare extracting the mixture and produce extract [5].

However, all methods of processing wood greenery time-consuming and costly.

Under the guidance of academician L. K. Ernst has created a comprehensive program for the development and use of forest products for animal husbandry. In these studies deeply studied the chemical composition and nutritive value feed themselves, made attempts to replace the straw and other forage in the diets of cattle in vetoshny food. In the literature there is information on the ensiling vetoshny feed and feeding his cattle and sheep [6,7].

Berestov Century A. and others [8] have established the possibility of a successful application feed themselves in industrial farming and rabbit.

There is a method of feeding elk in zoos, loeterman in the sanctuaries and reserves. One-year-old moose this was mixed with dicalcium phosphate, acetic acid potassium chloride sodium [9].

However, based on literature data, the biomass of the forest, in particular the biomass of annual shoots of willow, is poorly known source of valuable food products.

Known methods of rearing cattle, in which animals aged 6-12 months are included in the diet of hay, silage, silage, concentrates, feed, salt [10]. This method is the closest to the claimed type of feeding.

The invention aims to explore the possibility and zootechnical the feasibility of using biomass of annual shoots of willow in the diet of young cattle during the growing period from 6 to 12 months of age, to expand the range of feed additives of plant material, to use cheaper feed product is not inferior in nutritive value and digestibility of scarce feed constituting the main diet of these animals.

The task was solved by feeding the calves when growing from 6 to 12 months of age instead of corn silage, which is included in the basic diet, biomass of annual shoots of willow in the amount of 25% by weight corn forces is antalek Krasnodar forestry, and their nutritional value. The results of analytical studies are presented in table.1.

As follows from the table. 1, in forestry Krasnodar are species of willow that the content of nutrients is not always uniform.

The moisture content in the shoots of willow ranges from 40.0% in willow Sukachev, to 53.0% in willow Polish breed. The corresponding oscillations were installed and the dry matter content.

The content of crude protein favorably shoots of willow varieties of Hemp and Purple. In the matter of the natural moisture content of crude protein in these varieties is almost two times higher than in the other. These varieties differ and lower fiber content.

The content of crude fat and BEV are significant differences between the annual willow shoots of various species was not found.

The content of carotene and minerals in the samples submitted for analytical studies, are given in table. 2.

The content of nutrients, are presented in table. 2, a great interest in livestock can cause breed willow Hemp, as they exceed the breed willow American on the content of carotene in 3.2 times, crude ash by 29%, calcium nomicheskogo composition was determined the nutritional value of the compared species of willow, presented in table. 3.

Taking into account data on the chemical composition and nutritive value of annual shoots of willow were developed rations for steers of different ages.

Rations for steers accounted for in accordance with the terms of feeding, adopted in whose "Kuban" ksam, and availability of feed of its own production. For calves at the age of 6-9 months with body weight 160-215 kg and daily gain in live weight of 600 g diet included:

Hay grass - 1.0 kg, which amounts to 8.0 wt.%.

Hay alfalfa - 0.5 kg, which amounts to 4.0 wt.%.

Haylage alfalfa - 3.0 kg, which amounts to 24.0 wt.%.

Silage corn - 6.0 kg, representing 48.0 wt.%.

Mixed fodder for cattle - 2.0 kg, which is 15.8 wt.%.

Salt - 25 g, which is 0.2 wt%

This ration was adopted as the primary and was fed to the calves of the control group.

1 kg of corn silage contains 0.26 feed unit, 2.76 MJ metabolizable energy, 0.3 kg of dry matter, 24.9 g of crude protein, 1.86 g of calcium, 0.53 g of phosphorus 18 mg of carotene.

Branches feed of annual shoots of willow contained on average 0.2 fodder units, 2.7 MJ metabolizable energy, 0.55 kg of dry substances on individual differences in content of nutrients and biologically active substances of silage corn and annual shoots of willow, these foods can be considered interchangeable. On this basis, in the diet of animals from the experimental group 25% of the silage was replaced by feed themselves. The diet of the animals of the experimental group at the age of 6-9 months was represented by the following feed means:

Hay grass - 1.0 kg, which amounts to 8.0 wt.%.

Hay alfalfa - 0.5 kg, which amounts to 4.0 wt.%.

Haylage alfalfa - 3.0 kg, which amounts to 24.0 wt.%.

Silage corn - 4.5 kg, which is 36.0 wt.%.

Branches feed - 1.5 kg, which amounts to 12.0 wt.%.

Feed - 2.0 kg, which is 15.8 wt.%.

Salt - 25 g, which is 0.2 wt.%.

For growing steers from 9 to 12 months of age to reach a live weight of 215-270 kg obtaining the average daily gain in live weight of 600 g of the diet of the control group of animals included:

Hay grass - 2.0 kg, which amounts to 13.0 wt.%.

Haylage alfalfa - 3.0 kg, which amounts to 20.0 wt.%.

Silage corn - 8.0 kg, which is 54.0 wt.%.

Feed - 2.0 kg, which is 12.8 wt.%.

Salt - 30 g, which is 0.2 wt.%.

The calves of the experimental group in this age period, 25% corn silage was replaced by branches is the main feed means:

Hay grass - 2.0 kg, which amounts to 13.0 wt.%.

Haylage alfalfa - 3.0 kg, which amounts to 20.0 wt.%.

Silage corn - 6.0 kg, representing 41.0 wt.%.

Branches feed - 2.0 kg, which amounts to 13.0 wt.%.

Mixed fodder for cattle - 2.0 kg, which is 12.8 wt.%.

Salt - 30 g, which is 0.2 wt.%.

Annual shoots of willow should be introduced in the diet of young cattle in fresh powdered form. In this case, they are readily eaten by animals. As the dry biomass of willow shoots her palatability decreases.

Example 1.

Study of the efficiency of annual shoots of willow in the diet of calves at the age of 6-9 months.

Scientific and economic experience was held in whose Kuban Kuban state agrarian University.

When growing calves from 6 months to obtain reliable quantitative differences in the experiment the animals were egalitarian period within 31 days until the age of 7 months of age. According to the principle of analogues were selected animals for two groups of 17 goals each. Developed and grew the bulls during the surge period is the same in all of the GRU who left respectively 8.57 and 8.79 feed units, 1108 g and 1136 g Perevalova protein. Differences between groups were unreliable, resulted in the subsequent one group used as control and the other experience.

Thus, starting from 7 months of age were identified 2 groups, the first Control and the second group - Experience) of young animals. The control group received the basic diet for the animals in this age group, experimental diet with replacement of 25% corn silage on the same amount of biomass of annual shoots of willow. The data table. 4 the performance of young cattle presented with 7 months of age.

The obtained data show that the animals of the first group who received corn silage without biomass of annual shoots of willow, for the period growing from 7 to 9 months increased live weight with 149.1 up to 187.5 kg, providing average daily gain in live weight 629 g with average daily consumption in this group 5.45 fodder units, 603 g Perevalova protein, 62.3 MJ metabolizable energy and 1421 g crude fiber.

When feeding instead of 25% corn silage biomass of annual shoots of willow, the average daily gain in live weight in calves increased by 3.5% what is the cost of crude fiber in the experimental group increased by 10.2%.

Example 2.

Study of the efficiency of annual shoots of willow in the diet of calves at the age of 9-12 months.

Scientific and economic experience was held in whose Kuban Kuban state agrarian University.

It was formed 2 groups, the first Control and the second group Experience) young animals with 17 goals each. The control group received the basic diet for the animals in this age group, experimental diet with replacement of 25% corn silage on the same amount of biomass of annual shoots of willow. The results of the productive use of the different diets are shown in table. 5.

From the data obtained it follows that the animals of the second experimental group during the cultivation period from 9 to 12 months increased live weight at 6% compared with the control group, providing average daily gain in live weight 687 g by reducing feed cost per 1 kg increase of 8.5%, Perevalova protein - 7.3%, metabolizable energy - 7.2%. At the same time, the cost of crude fiber increased by 7.5%.

Thus, replacement of 25% corn silage on the same amount of biomass of annual shoots of willow allows you to use cheap is growing steers from 7 to 12 months to increase the average daily gain in live weight by 4.5% while reducing cost per 1 kg increase in live weight - fodder units at 7.3%, Perevalova protein at 5.9%, the exchange energy at 9.2%. At the same time, the cost of crude fiber increased by 9.1%.

References

1. Forest - agriculture. Production and application of food processing waste wood. M: the Forest industry. 1978, S. 11.

2. EN 2088106 C1, 27.08.1997.

3. EN 2088107 C1, 27.08.1997.

4. EN 2092073 C1, 10.10.1997.

5. EN 2060683 C1, 27.05.1996.

6. Ernst L. K., Naumenko H. M., Ladin, S. I., and other Silos of forest raw material In the book. "Problems of use of forest waste and industrial processing of wood to feed" Leningrad div. Of agricultural Sciences, 1979, S. 72-79.

7. Skrebneski M. F. Experience silage feed themselves and feeding his cattle In the book. "On green branches stern", published by NIS LTA, 1958, S. 34-35.

8. Berestov C. A. and other wood green industrial farming and rabbit, L., spike, 1982, S. 93.

9. SU 1729392 A1.30.04. 1992.

10. Kleimenov N. And. Feeding young cattle. M: Agropromizdat, 1987, S. 70-76, C. 200-201.

The method of rearing cattle from 6 to 12 months of age, providing for the feeding of animals with a basic diet containing grubstake and/or alfalfa, as juicy - corn silage and alfalfa haylage in the following ratio, wt. %:

Hay grass - 8,0-13,0

Hay alfalfa - 0,0-4,0

Silage corn - 36,0-41,0

Haylage alfalfa - 20,0-24,0

Feed - of 12.8-15.8

Salt - 0,2

in the process of feeding 25% corn silage replaced by biomass of annual shoots of willow, which is 12,0-13,0 wt. % of the diet.

 

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