Method and device operational control of the concentration of the gas phase undissolved gas in the fluid flow
(57) Abstract:Group of inventions relates to measurement technology and is intended for use in production lines of various industries, in particular in the circuits of nuclear reactors. The control is as follows: with a continuous and constant flow of liquid medium through the U-shaped vessel, the "left" part of the resulting physical and mechanical separation of the phases during the time t1in the upper part is the accumulation of gas phase and liquid replacement, resulting in a fall of the liquid level with a certain speed is directly proportional to the volumetric fraction of the gas phase in the coolant dh/dt = k*Cext. The sensor monitors the change in this level, producing an analog signal in the form of a linearly increasing or linearly falling time of the current that is supplied to the preamplifier, the preamplifier this current is amplified in proportion to the ratio k=Q/S, is converted into linearly falling voltage and fed to a microprocessor controller, where by differentiation is converted into a DC voltage directly proportional to the value of the desired concentration, and in the loop and preparation for measurement, through power electronic key control solenoid valve. At the end of the measurement time t1microprocessor controller generates a pulse of duration t2the electromagnetic valve is opened, the return fluid from the right side of the U-shaped receptacle on the principle of communicating vessels flows into the left part of the U-shaped sensor, restoring the level of the liquid in it to original position, simultaneously displacing the gas phase from the "left" side in the coolant flow. After a time t2the valve is closed and the measurement process automatically begins again. Achieved acceleration and increase efficiency control, and sealing of the sample. 2 S. p. f-crystals, 1 Il. The invention relates to a measuring technique of determining the gas content of the liquid, and solves the problem of operational control of the concentration of the gas phase (dissolved gas) in the fluid flow process circuits of various industries, mainly on the NPU.There is a method of determining the gas content of the solution by the method of displacement of fluid from the calibrated vessel analyzed the breakdown (Bender O. S., Mahin C. M., Abalkin A. K., Zotov, E. A., G. reports fourth interdisciplinary conference on reactor materials science, so 1, Dimitrovgrad 1996, page 214), which includes operations for supplying and filling of the vessel obezvozhennoy fluid and sealing from the atmosphere, the operation for supplying the sample into the vessel, the operation of the depressurization of the vessel and discharge from the rest of the liquid in the volume not exceeding internal volume of the calibrated vessel, the steps of measuring the volume released in the vessel of the gas phase, the amount of drained fluid and the operation for measuring absolute pressure and temperature in the vessel.The desired concentration of the gas phase is calculated as the ratio of the volume of the gas phase to the bulk liquid phase, from which the gas phase was separated.C= Vg273Pc/(VW-Vg)0,1013 Tc, [NCM3/kg],
where Vgthe volume of gas collected in the vessel, cm3;
VW- the volume of drained liquid, cm3;
Pwiththe absolute pressure of the sample in the vessel, MPa;
Twiththe temperature of the sample in the vessel, TO;
- density of fluid, kg/cm3.The disadvantages of the method are:
- large measuring cycle 0.5 - 1 h;
- reduction of thermophysical properties of the fluid pressure and temperature at 0.1 MPa and K respectively, inevitable because of the presence of operalaboratorio version;
contact of the sample with the atmosphere, unwanted when controlling the gas content in the first contours of the NPU.These drawbacks are due to the method of determining the specific concentration, i.e., the expression on her through the ratio of the volumes of the gas and liquid phases, to determine which require time-consuming preparatory operations, such as supply and filling, sealing from the atmosphere and depressurization, plums, measurement of the volume of drained fluid.The aim of the invention is to provide a method of operational control of the concentration of the gas phase in the fluid flow process circuits of various industries by further development of the method of displacing liquid from a container, which consists in the expression of the desired concentration through the rate of displacement of fluid from the vessel.Mathematically it can be proven that the rate of displacement of fluid from the vessel directly proportional to the concentration of the gas phase. Transform the well-known expression of the concentration of the gas phase over the ratio of the volumes of the gas and liquid phases:
C=VgRwith/VW0,1013 Tc=VgTOn, (1)
where Cthe concentration of the gas phase (the total value of concentration is the origin of the volume of gases to normal conditions;
Vg- the amount of undissolved gas in metered quantity of fluid;
VW- the volume of fluid in metered amount of fluid.Here
Vg= CVW/Kn, (2)
Express the volume of drained fluid through the coolant flow Q at time t and substituting it into equation (2), we get:
Vg= Cx Q t/Kn, (3)
dividing both side of equation (3) on the cross-sectional area of the vessel S, we obtain the expression:
Vg/S = h =Cx Q t/S Kn, (4)
where h is the height of the liquid column in the "left" part of the connected vessel. Will predifferentiated equation (4) at time t:
dh/dt = CQ/SKn= CKg/Kn, (5)
where Kgis the coefficient of proportionality if the condition Q=const, depending on the flow volume and the geometric dimensions of the vessel.Kg=Q/S
From equation (5) shows that the concentration of the gas phase solution can be expressed through the velocity of the falling level of the liquid phase in the vessel is displaced by the gas, resulting from physico-mechanical phase separation in a downward laminar flow.And it allows dalfaz in the vessel;
- replace operations, supply, fill and drain in a single operation-continuous leakage of liquid through the vessel with a constant flow;
- giving the vessel a U-shape, which helps to ensure continuous spilling of coolant and at the end of the cycle "dimension" to restore the liquid level in the vessel to its original position by the method of communicating vessels when performing the operation of "connection" - cycle "preparing for measurement";
- introduction operations "connection", which consists in the temporary connection of the upper parts conditionally "left" and "right" parts of the measuring vessel for equalizing the pressure in both parts of the vessel, opening the way out of the accumulated gas from the "left" part of the vessel, the alignment of the liquid level in both parts of the vessel, displacement residue gas from both parts of the vessel as they are filled with fluid and the removal of this gas in the flow of coolant;
- convert the differentiated electrical signal into a digital code.Thus, the measurement of the concentration of the gas phase by measuring the rate of fall of the liquid column can reduce the cycle time to almost continuous (e.g., 17), as the speed of the falling column of liquid which/P> A device for determining the concentration of the gas phase of the sample by the method of displacement, (Bender O. S., Mahin C. M., Abalkin A. K. , Zotov, E. A., gas and Chemical monitoring in the loop experiments on the safety of WWER-type reactors. Proceedings of the fourth interdisciplinary conference on reactor materials, so 1, Dimitrovgrad 1996 , page 214), containing a calibrated receptacle with locking devices, of a device for the controlled discharge of the quantity of solution, the device to determine the amount of accumulated gas, and sensors for measuring temperature and pressure of the sample in the vessel. This device is a handheld portable sampler.It is also known a device for determining the gas content of the solution containing the upper chamber, working on the principle of liquid displacement from the vessel, means for measuring pressure and temperature, a device for the controlled discharge quantities and closure devices (Sen L. I., Sen, A. L., Kuznetsov P. A., the Method of determining the gas content of the solution and the device for its implementation the application 97103407 from 06.03.97, BI 10, including 1, 1999, S. 217).The disadvantages of these devices are:
- the inability to use the flow aspropotamos version;
contact the radioactive sample with the atmosphere when used on pressure vessels.These drawbacks are due to the method of determining the specific concentration, i.e., the expression on her through the ratio of the volumes of the gas and liquid phases.C= Vg273Pc/VW0,1013 Tc, [NCM3/kg],
The aim of the invention is the creation of automated Assembly device that implements the method of rapid determination of the concentration of the gas phase of liquid in the technological paths of different industries, including nuclear power, by setting it directly in the process line and ensure through it a continuous stream of fluid with a constant flow.This goal is achieved by expressing the desired value of the rate of displacement of liquid from a container
dh/dt = CQ/SKn= CKg/Kn, (5)
and is implemented by a device shown in the drawing and consisting
- out of the vessel U-shaped 1, "left" and "right is controlling the change in the height of the liquid column in the "left" measuring part;
- from the preamplifier 4, amplifying the current sensor generating a signal required polarity;
from the microprocessor controller 6 containing electronic device differentiation 5, which converts the electrical signal into a digital code and generates command pulses that determine the duration of the measuring period t1and the duration of the period of preparation for the measurement of t2;
- power electronic key 7, reinforcing the command pulses of the controller and the control valve;
from the solenoid valve 2, connecting the upper cavity of both parts of the U-shaped vessel at time t2preparation for measurement;
- device pressure control 9 and the temperature 10 of the gas phase in a U-shaped vessel to bring the measurements to standard conditions;
- flow meter 8, controlling the consistency of the sample flow.The proposed device works in the following way:
- with a continuous and constant flow of liquid medium through the U-shaped vessel, the "left" part of the resulting physical and mechanical separation of the phases during the time t1in the upper part is the accumulation of the gas phase and the displacement W of the volumetric fraction of the gas phase in the coolant
dh/dt = CKg/Kn.
The sensor monitors the change in this level, producing an analog signal in the form of a linearly increasing or linearly falling time of the current that is supplied to the preamplifier;
- in preamplifier this current increases with Kgis converted into a linearly falling voltage and fed to a microprocessor controller, where by differentiation is converted into a DC voltage directly proportional to the value of the desired concentration, and digital code;
the microprocessor generates control signals that specify the duration of the measuring cycle and cycle training to the dimensions through power electronic key control solenoid valve;
- at the end of the measurement time t1microprocessor controller generates a pulse of duration t2at the opening of the electromagnetic valve. When this occurs the following: the electromagnetic valve is opened, connecting both parts of the U-shaped vessel, opening the way out of skipuseroobe gas from the "left" part of the vessel; the pressure in these parts of the vessel is aligned and the return fluid from the "right" part of the U-shaped soudeh vessel are aligned, and as you fill the vessel with liquid to happen displacement of gas from both parts of the vessel and restore the liquid level of the original position;
- after a time t2the valve is closed and the measurement process automatically begins again. 1. The method of operational control of the concentration of the gas phase undissolved gas in the fluid flow, including a supply of the sample in a calibrated vessel, the liquid displacement of the vessel in the gas phase, the control of liquid level, pressure and temperature in the vessel, the concentration of the gas phase, draining, removing the gas phase from the vessel, wherein the inlet of the sample in the vessel U-shaped and removing samples from perform continuously at a constant flow rate, the concentration of the gas phase passes through the rate of displacement of fluid from the vessel by differentiating the electrical signal transmitter, removing the gas phase from the vessel carried out by the method of displacement gas-liquid by temporarily connect the upper parts of the vessel.2. Device operational control of the concentration of the gas phase undissolved gas in the fluid flow, done, and temperature, controls the level of the liquid, characterized in that it comprises a vessel, a U-shape, the upper part of which are connected through the solenoid valve with power electronic key device level control with analog current output, preamplifier, microprocessor controller, which produces the operation of differentiation, generating command pulses to control the solenoid valve and converts the measurements into a digital code.
FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes measuring in given sequence of appropriate parameters with following calculation of determined characteristics on basis of certain relation. Device for determining characteristics for sublimation of liquid oil products contains sublimation retort with dimensions, allowing to place 5-15 ml of analyzed probe therein, device for heating retort in its lower portion with constant and adjusted heating intensiveness, two inertia-less temperature sensors providing for continuous measurement of true value of temperature of sample in steam couple, device for continuous pressure measurement in stem phase of sample during sublimation, which includes pressure sensor as well as capillary and receiving and signals processing sensors, sent by temperature sensors and pressure sensor.
EFFECT: simplified construction, higher speed of operation.
2 cl, 4 ex, 10 tbl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes upper mold-half and lower metallic mold-half. Upper flask is filled with sand and it has cavity for pouring melt metal and heat-insulation ring. Lower mold-half has base, sleeve and heat insulation cylinder. Sample of sand is placed into said cylinder and it is fixed by means of net. There is cavity between net and lid; said cavity is communicated with atmosphere through opening of lid and duct in which sampler is mounted. Other opening of lid is communicated with carrier-gas source through gas flow rate pickup. Gases are generated in sample by action of temperature of cast metal and they are filtered into cavity between net and lid where said gases are mixed with carrier gas. Flow rate of carrier gas is registered by means of pickup calibrated according to flow rate of selected carrier gas. Formed gas mixture is directed to sampler and in atmosphere. Mass speed of toxic gas separation is calculated on base of flow rate of carrier gas and concentration of toxic gas contained in samples of gas mixture. It is possible to use samples of different diameter.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of determining parameters of gas separation out of poured casting mold.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in through portion of pipe with choking of through portion cavitation flow lock mode is set, and in zone of low density value of critical pressure of cavitation and liquid flow are determined, which flow is used to determined liquid speed in pipe neck. Received critical pressure value of cavitation is aligned with pressure of saturated steam of pumped liquid, after that to specially built calculation graph dependencies of relative value of critical pressure of critical speed of flow in channel neck are applied in the moment of setting of lock mode with different concentration of cores target concentration of cores of cavitation of pumped liquid is determined.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: analytical methods.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automated determination of solution concentrations, in particular from measured boiling temperature, and can be used in natural gas fields and in underground gas holders on gas absorption drying installations, wherein aqueous solution of di- or triethylene glycol is used as absorbent. Concentration of aqueous glycol solution comprises measurement of boiling point and vapor phase pressure over boiling solution. Sought concentration is calculated from following relationships: (1) Cg=Mg*Xg*100/(Mg+Xg+Mw*(1-Xg)), where Xg=(10Zw(T)-P)/(10Zw(T)-10Zg(T); (2) Zw(T)=8.006-1691/(230+T); (3) Xg(T)=9.270-3035/(230+T) for diethylene glycol; (4) Xg(T)=8.54-2927.5/(230+T) for triethylene glycol; where Zw(T) is exponent value in determination of saturated water vapor pressure, Zg(T) is exponent value in determination of saturated glycol vapor pressure, Mw=18 kg/kmole (molecular mass of water), Mg is molecular mass of glycol, Mg=106 kg/kmole for diethylene glycol, Mg=150.17 kg/kmole for triethylene glycol, T is boiling temperature of glycol solution, °C, P is pressure of vapor phase over boiling solution, kg/cm2.
EFFECT: increased determination accuracy.
FIELD: measurement engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method and device can be used in systems for survey, transportation and preparation of oil. Continuous and simultaneous measurement of volumetric discharge Q1 and Q2 is performed in two points standing apart along flow travel in pipeline; the measurements are carried out by means of two flowmeters. Behind the first point Q1, the local hydrodynamic disturbance is generated in flow by means of expansion of cross-section of flow. Second measurement is carried out at expanded part of flow. Availability of gas is judged from excess in setting relatively current values Q1 and Q2, which value is specified in controller to which controller the both flowmeters are connected. Device for realization of the method is made in form of insertion n the pipeline.
EFFECT: improved reliability of measurement.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises heating, mixing, aerating and degassing of lubricant in the device for investigating the lubricants. The aerating of the lubricants is provided by their flowing through the opening of alternative cross-section where pressure drop is generated. The degassing is provided by the use of the degassing unit where, under the action of centrifugal forces, the dissolved gas is removed from the lubricant. The processes are controlled by video surveying of generation, change of sizes, shape, and concentration of gas bubbles in the lubricant as well as by readings of temperature and pressure gauges. The device comprises oil tank for temperature control with mechanical mixer, heater, and temperature gauge and pipeline with valve. The device is additionally provided with pump, throttling valve, and degassing unit. The safety valve, pump, and throttling valve are connected in series through pipeline sections. The pipeline sections provided with throttling valve and degassing unit are made of a heat-resistant transparent material and provided with temperature and pressure gauges and digital video cameras connected with the computer.
EFFECT: enhanced precision.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: analysis of content of solution.
SUBSTANCE: method and device can be used for determination of mutual solvability of fluid and compressed gas. Solution is fed from piezometer along pipeline to flask and throttling process id performed by means of special gadget to reach atmospheric pressure, at which pressure the compressed gas loses its solvability and extracts from solution while other components are left in liquid or hard phase. Throttling unit is mounted in front of entrance of flask intended for solution. Flask is made of elastic and vapor-penetrable material. Volume of extracted gas is carried out due to measurement of volume of thermostatic fluid in flask, forced out of thermostat provided with overflow un it used for supplying solution into flask. Masses of solution components, left in flask in liquid or solid phase, are measured during time of τ when components change to vapor phase due to passing through walls of flask into environment. Content of solution component is determined by building graph and selecting linear part on it, which part is described by relation of m2+3 - m/m2+3=β+α*τ, where m2+3 is initial mass of components mixture, left in liquid or solid phase; m is mass of component mixture of solution, which components are left in liquid or solid phase at moment time of τ; α is relative speed of transition to vapor phase, defined as tangent of angle of inclination φ of linear part to axis τ; β=m3/m2+3 is mass portion of more volatile component of solution, where m is mass of more volatile component, which is defined as part of straight line cut out of axis m2+3 - m/m2+3, when linear part of graph is extrapolated to it on base of dependence of m3=β*m2+3. Mass of volatile component m2 is found from relation of m2= m2+3- m3.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement; improved truth of results.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 2 dwg
FIELD: analytical tool-making industry, in particular, analytical devices meant for detecting micro-concentrations of substances, possible use for detecting steams of explosives on documents, for example, passports, tickets, etc.
SUBSTANCE: device for controlling traces of explosives on documents contains heated desorber for mounting steam carrier, air pump and detector of analyzed steams of explosives, while desorber is made in form of document receiver, which consists of central chamber, wherein document being studied is positioned, and divided from it by air gaps by two side chambers with electric heaters mounted in them, while inputs of side chambers are connected to output of air pump, connected by input to atmosphere, and outputs of side chambers are connected through air gaps of central chamber to input of detector of analyzed steams.
EFFECT: accelerated detection of steams of explosives absorbed on documents while providing for safety of document.
1 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: analyzing or investigating of materials.
SUBSTANCE: press comprises cylinder filled with the sample of oil to be investigated. The top base of the cylinder is provided with a charging opening connected to the pressure gage and inlet of the multi-position air-operated valve. The cylinder receives the floating piston with the sealing ring that separates the cylinder into the top and the bottom chambers. The piston movements inside the cylinder to determine the volume of oil is recorded by an ultrasonic pickup of linear movements. The piston is connected with the hollow rod that passes outside through the bottom base of the cylinder and is connected with the measuring rod and compensator through the T-pipe. The other end of the measuring rod is connected with the electronic pickup of linear movements. The bottom chamber of the cylinder is connected with the hydraulic pump controlled by the pulse block.
EFFECT: enhanced precision.
FIELD: electronic engineering, in particular, methods for manufacturing powerful electro-vacuum devices.
SUBSTANCE: method includes excitation of gases being analyzed due to impulse energetic influence on electrodes. Duration of impulse energetic influence is selected to be less than time of flight of any one of gases being analyzed towards manometer transformer, but more than minimal excitation time of any one of gases being analyzed. As manometer transformer, magnetic electro-discharge pump built into electro-vacuum device is used. In process of measurement, stepped curve of pump current growth is measured, number of steps k on the curve is determined. Using features of current growth, ascending series of all values tn is determined - for time which passed since the moment of impulse energetic influence up to the middle of growth front of n step, where n=1,...,k. On basis of this information, mass number is determined for gases which escape into the volume of electro-vacuum device, as well as alternation of their partial pressures.
EFFECT: simplified method for measuring partial pressures of gases in a powerful electro-vacuum device, possible examination of processes, occurring in its vacuum space.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl