Reverse stepless gearbox
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be used to create a continuously variable transmission vehicles. Reverse stepless gearbox contains the input and output mechanisms, transmission, connecting them, and a device for controlling gear ratio. Input and output mechanisms are made in the form of differential mechanisms, a pair of axes which are connected by a direct gear, the second reversible. The control unit gear ratio made in the form of two hydraulic gear pumps, shaft each of which is connected to one of the axes of the output of the differential mechanism. The input pipe of the pump connected to the reservoir with the working fluid, and output through an adjustable choke is also connected to the reservoir with the working fluid. Improved performance, simplified design of the gearbox. 1 Il. The invention relates to mechanical engineering and can be used to create a continuously variable transmission vehicles.Well-known gear switchable under load, containing lead and led by the gear .A disadvantage of the known device is the design complexity due to the presence of a large number of coaxial shafts, gears and friction clutches, and not wide enough functionality, providing only a step change of speed of the driven shaft.Closest to the claimed design features and achieve results is a device for torque transmission with variable gear ratio, taken as a prototype .The device prototype contains the input and output mechanisms, primary and secondary power transmission, connected by a variable speed drive mechanism for the regulation of the ratio.The disadvantage of this device is its complexity due to the presence of a large number of paired between the mechanisms that reduce the overall reliability of the device and is not high enough functionality that is not allowing the gear and reverse under load.The problem to which the invention is directed, improving performance, simplifying the design and improving nadednoy and output mechanisms, transmission connecting them, a device for controlling gear ratio, unlike the prototype of the input and output mechanisms are made in the form of differential mechanisms, and a transmission connecting them to a single pair of axes made direct gear, the second reversible, the control unit gear ratio made in the form of two hydraulic gear pumps, shaft each of which is connected to one of the axes of the output of the differential mechanism, the input pipe of the pump connected to the reservoir with the working fluid, and the output is through an adjustable choke is also connected to the reservoir with the working fluid.The drawing shows a diagram of the inventive device.The input shaft 1 through a bevel gear 2 is connected to the Central wheel 3 input 4 differential, one axis of which is connected through gears 5 and 6 with the axis of the differential gear 7, the second axle differential 4 is connected through the gears 8 and 9 and parasitic gear 10 with the corresponding axle differential 7. Gears 5,6,8,9 and 10 constitute a transmission connecting the input and output differential mechanisms. To the axes of the differential gear 7 attached to the shaft of Chester what costu 16. Output pump nozzles through an adjustable throttle 15 is also connected to the reservoir 16. The differential gear 7 through the Central wheel 17 and the bevel gear 18 is connected with the output shaft 19.The device operates as follows.In the initial moment of time adjustable throttle 15 is fully open. The rotation of the input shaft 1 through the gear 2 is transmitted to the Central wheel 3 differential 4. The differential side shaft 4 begins to rotate the gear 5 and 8 in the same direction. Rotation through gears 6, 9 and 10 is transmitted to the differential 7, and the axis of the differential rotate in different directions, so the Central wheel 17, the gear 18 and the output shaft 19, the rotation is not transmitted. The pumps 11 and 12 rotate, pumping the working fluid without resistance. Using an adjustable throttle 15 overlapping the output of one of the pumps, such as pump 12. By increasing the flow resistance of the liquid at the outlet of the pump 12 increases the braking torque on its shaft, which reduces the speed of rotation of the gears 5 and 6 and the associated axes differentials 4 and 7.At the same time by the same amount increases the speed of rotation of the gears 8 and 9 and their associated axes differentials 4 and 7. R is from 17, the gear 18 and the output shaft 19. Increasing the flow resistance of the working fluid from the pump 12 that is generated by the inductor 15, increases the speed of rotation of the output shaft 19. Upon full closure of the output fluid from the pump 12 associated axis differentials 4 and 7 are stopped, the rotation is transmitted through gears 8, 9 and 10, the rotation speed of the input 1 and output shaft 19 are equal.Thus, by throttling the working fluid coming out of one of the pumps, it is possible to smoothly change gear ratio of the transmission from 0 to 1, and the direction of rotation of the output shaft can be changed without interrupting the kinematic connection of the input and output shafts.For reversal of rotation of the output shaft 19 at a constant direction of rotation of the input shaft 1 through the throttle 15 to create a flow resistance at the outlet of the pump 11, and the speed of rotation of the output shaft 19 is proportional to the braking torque on the pump shaft 11.The inventive device can be configured in the form of a housing with an oil bath, in which submerged all the mechanisms, and the oil is used for lubrication of moving parts, and is managed manually and with the help of the servo-mechanism, remotely. Possible control software.In comparison with the known structures of the gears of the proposed technical solution has the following advantages:
- simple control gear, due to the fact that the change gear ratio of the device is sufficient to rotate the throttle valve;
- reverse and change speed is carried out without breaking the kinematic chain, which allows the regulation under load and improve reliability;
- the use of hydraulic pumps as braking devices can improve the life of the gearbox and to reduce wear, which improves operational quality gear.Sources of information taken into account
1. Auth.St. The USSR 1160943, BI 21, 19852. Auth.St. The USSR 4767633, BI 25, 1975 - prototype. Reverse stepless gearbox, containing input and output mechanisms, transmission, connecting them, a device for controlling gear ratio is characterized in that the input and output mechanisms are made in the form of differential mechanisms, and a transmission connecting them to a single pair of axes made pouch gear-type hydraulic pumps, the shaft of each of which is connected to one of the axes of the output of the differential mechanism, the input pipe of the pump connected to the reservoir with the working fluid, and output through an adjustable choke is also connected to the reservoir with the working fluid.
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to crawler tractors and it can be used in their full-flow hydrostatic transmissions. Said transmission contains dividing reduction unit 2, two parallel final hydrostatic drives with pumps 3, 4 and hydraulic motors 5, 6, track reduction units 17, 18 and two planetary mechanisms. Planetary mechanisms are installed between hydraulic motors 17, 18 and track reduction units 17, 18. Sun gears 9, 10 of planetary mechanisms are connected with each hydraulic motor by two similar gear trains 7, 9. Carriers 11, 12 of each planetary mechanism are connected with epicyclic wheels 14, 13 of other planetary mechanism and with track reduction units 17, 18. invention improves maneuverability of tractor, provides economic recuperation of brake power from trailing side to leading side at turning of tractor, reduced power load on engine at turning, reduced power losses in hydrostatic drives of transmission of tractor with possibility of use of hydrostatic drives of lower installed power.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics of tractor.
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: infinitely variable reduction gear comprises input shaft connected with the driving electric motor and output shaft provided with a longitudinal opening connected with the controllable throttle through the coupling. The throttle is connected with the rotatable housing which receives the hydraulic braking device mounted inside the vessel. The hydraulic braking device is made of worm gearing whose worm wheel is connected with the output shaft. The worm wheel is coupled with two worm shafts arranged from both sides of the worm wheel. The axle of each worm shafts is connected with the gearing pump whose intake is connected with the space of the vessel and outlet is connected with the opening in the output shaft.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and simplified structure.
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: positive-displacement hydraulic-mechanical transmission comprises input shaft (1), output shaft (2), two interconnected reversible controlled hydraulic motors (3) and (4), four-link differential (5), and pumping devices (12), (13), (14), and (15). Satellites (7) and (8) of differential (5) are made in pairs and engage each other. Satellite (8) is wide and interposed between the large solar gear (10) and central wheel (11) with the inner engagement. Satellite (7) is narrow and engages small solar gear (9). Two switching devices (14) and (15) connect the shaft of hydraulic motor (4) with input shaft (1) of the transmission and central wheel (11) with the inner engagement. Two switching devices (12) and (13) connect the shaft of hydraulic motor (3) with output shaft (2) of the transmission and small solar gear (9) of the differential.
EFFECT: reduced mass and sizes and enhanced efficiency.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used as gearbox in vehicles or as actuator in tank armament stabilizers. Proposed stepless transmission contains power differential 1, comparing differential 30, regulating differential 2, two self-braking mechanisms 3, 4 operating in release mode, two regulators, and mechanism 36 for equalizing speeds of rotation of central gears of regulating differential. Input of power differential 1 is connected with drive and with input of regulating differential 2. Central gears 17, 18 of power differential are rigidly connected with driven members 15, 16 of self-braking mechanisms and are connected with central gears of comparing differential 30 to provide rotation of the latter in opposite directions. Driving members 13, 14 of self-braking mechanisms are connected with central gears of regulating differential by mechanism 36 equalizing speeds of rotation and are rigidly connected with regulators.
EFFECT: enlarged range of change of gear ratio, improved dynamic characteristics of vehicle, its reliability and multipurposeness.
FIELD: mechanical engineering and machine-tool building.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in vehicles and machine tools, different machines and mechanisms. Proposed continuously-variable transmission contains drive and output shafts and case accommodating drive and drive and driven constant-mesh gears, differential with coaxial gears mechanically engaging through planet pinions and provided with coaxial axle-shafts, and gear ratio changer including axial-plunger pump with inclined plate with rotary working member, pressure line and suction line connected with reservoir filled with working liquid. Adjustable bypass restrictor is installed in pressure line of pump. Output of restrictor is connected with said reservoir by drain line. Rotary working member of pump is made in form of block of working cylinders accommodating plungers, each being mechanically coupled with inclined plate. Differential is arranged inside working cylinder block of axial-plunger pump with coaxial arrangement of drive and driven gears and said block, and it has at least one pair of planet pinions installed for rotation in cylinder block of axial-plunger pump. Constant-mesh drive gear is connected with drive shaft, and constant-mesh driven gear is connected with drive gear of differential. Invention is aimed at enlarging functional capabilities of transmission owing to provision of limitation of speed of rotation and braking of output shaft, interruption of torque on shaft and control of delivery of pump included into gear ratio changer of transmission and increase of service life and provision of uniform rotation of output shaft and increase of efficiency of transmission.
EFFECT: enlarged operating capabilities, increased efficiency of transmission.
22 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: infinitely variable transmission comprises power differential (1), synchronizing differential (2), two self-braking mechanisms (3) and (4), and two controllers. The input of power differential (1) is connected with the drive and input of synchronizing differential (2). Central wheels (17) and (18) of the power differential are connected with driven links (15) and (16) of self-braking mechanisms (3) and (4). Driving links (13) and (14) of self-braking mechanisms are connected with central wheels (19) and (20) of the synchronizing differential and controllers. Driven shaft (26) is connected with one of the central wheels of power differential (1).
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: variable-speed drive comprises two differential stages connected in series. The differential sage whose shaft is connected with the engine is the input shaft of the variable-speed drive and is made of a differential mechanism. The second differential stage is a hydraulic differential converter provided with two planet rows defined by the kinematical links of multi-gearing hydraulic pump and hydraulic motor provided with different gear ratios . The axles of the satellites of the first and second differential stages are mounted inside the housing . The housing is set in bearings inside the crankcase of the variable-speed drive and represents a carrier for both of the differential stages. The carrier is provided with the free running clutch.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to devices for stepless converters of torque and rotary motion. A gear variator contains two differential mechanisms (1, 2), two reducers (3, 4) with different ratios. One of the shafts of each reducer is connected to a hydro pump (11) equipped with an adjustable valve. Two differential mechanisms and two reducers are arranged so that input shafts of the reducers are at the same time half axes of the first differential mechanism, while output shafts of reducers are half axes of the second differential mechanism. The differential allows distribution of rotation between half axes within range from zero to a speed of a drive shaft on one of the half axes which corresponds to interval from the speed of the drive shaft to zero on the other half axis. A rotation speed of the variator driven shaft can be adjusted by means of adjustable valves through which liquid is pumped by gear oil pumps driven with specified shafts of the mechanism.
EFFECT: variator allows to change value of torque within any given range.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a hydromechanical transmission incorporating a split mechanical and hydrostatic drives and is designed to be used in agricultural tractors. The hydromechanical four-gear infinitely-variable transmission incorporates planetary mechanism (32) including three planetary trains (34, 36, 38), four clutches (C1, C2, C3, C4) and brake (48) to throw in reverse. First hydrostatic assembly (20) is in mesh with planetary mechanism second crown gear (R2). In the First and Fourth gears, second hydrostatic assembly (18) is in mesh with carrier (28) thrown in by first clutch (C1). In the Second and Third gears, second hydrostatic assembly is thrown into mesh with sun gear (S2) of the planetary mechanism second train by second clutch (C2). In the First and Second gears third clutch (C3) meshes carrier (28) with output shaft (46). In the Third and Fourth gears, fourth clutch (C4) meshes sun gear (S2) of the second planetary train with output shaft (46). Third planetary train (38) incorporates brake (48) to throw in reverse. When brake (48) meshes to throw in reverse and both clutches, third and fourth, (C3, C4), are disengaged, third train sun gear (S3) and, hence, transmission output shaft (46) runs reverse.
EFFECT: infinitely-variable transmission with steady efficiency in operating conditions.
27 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: hydro-automatic output control gear incorporates input shaft 1 and output shafts 3, 4 coupled with propulsion unit and inter-jointed by differential 2, its output elements being coupled with pumps 10, 11 be planetary drive of hydraulic control system. Pumps 10, 11 communicate, via control valve 17, with common fluid flow rate control valve driven by both aforesaid output elements. Aforesaid control valve 17 is articulated to steering drive worm 18.
EFFECT: improved vehicle propulsion performances, better steering, longer life of propulsion unit due to automatic shut-off of fluid flow rate control valve.