The method of obtaining chlorinated solvents

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the production of cheap solvents for degreasing metals and chemical cleaning. The solvents get through the distillation of high-boiling waste production of vinyl chloride. Before distillation waste type trichloride and/or tetrachloride in such quantity to get azeotropic mixture trichlorethene with dichloroethane and tetrachlorethene with trichloroethane and/or tetrachlorethane. The technical result - waste production of vinyl chloride.

The invention relates to the field of processing chlorophenothane waste, as well as to the field of production of solvents for degreasing metals and chemical cleaning.

Know the use for degreasing metals and dry cleaning trichloroethene /trichloroethylene/, tetrachlorethene /perchloroethylene, trichloroethane and CFC /Traeger Y. A. and other Major chlorinated solvents. M.: Chemistry, 1984, S. 192-207/. Due to lower cost the most widely trichloride and tetrachloride, although trichloroethane and freon as far as their physical-chemical properties and detergency /Traeger Y. A., and others, see above, S. 207/.

FL. Handbook edited Osina L. A. M.: Chemistry,. 1978, S. 68/. High-boiling waste of vinyl chloride are composed mainly of dichloroethane, trichloroethane, tetrachlorethene and tetrachlorethane. Select the rectification of the mixture of individual trichloroethane, tetrachloride and tetrachlorethane is not possible, because they form an azeotropic mixture.

A method of refining high-boiling waste of vinyl chloride /patent SU 633465 A, 16.11.1973/, which consists of stages of evaporation, heat treatment residue, condensing the vaporous components and their distillation. The result is a distillate containing 1,2-dichloroethane and dichlorethylene formed during the heat treatment, as well as CBM product consisting of trichloroethane with the above-mentioned impurities. The distillate return in the production of vinyl chloride and CBM product sent as raw materials for the production of perchloroethylene.

The disadvantage of this method of recycling is the lack of a final marketable product.

The above mentioned disadvantage is eliminated by the fact that in the method of processing high-boiling waste production of vinyl chloride by distillation to the original waste before distillation to relax what chloretone and tetrachlorethene with trichloroethane and/or tetrachlorethane, then get organochlorine solvents, consisting mainly of these azeotropic mixtures.

It is known that the solvent capacity of azeotropic mixtures is higher than that of each component, introducing the mixture /Greenberg S. A. and other Solvents for paints and varnishes. L.: Chemistry, 1980, S. 103-104/.

The azeotropic mixtures have another advantage over individual solvents. Trichloride boils at 87oWith, and its azeotropic mixture with dichloromethane /39% trichlorethene and 61% of dichloroethane/ - if 82oC. Tetrachloride boils at 121oWith, and its azeotropic mixture with trichloroethane or tetrachlorethane /57% tetrachlorethane and 43% of trichloroethane and/or tetrachlorethane/ - at 112oWith /Industrial organochlorine products, see above, C. 102,139,180/. Lowering the boiling temperature is favorable for regeneration of the solvent.

In order to avoid losses trichlorethene and tetrachlorethene distillation to provide a slight excess of dichloroethane and trichloroethane in the resulting azeotropic solvents. As a result, the solvents have a boiling within, respectively, 82-84oC and 112-114oWith, because dichloroethane boils at 83,5oAnd trichloroethane - when 113,9oC.

the s contain 15.2% dichloroethane, 1.6% of 1-chloro-2-brometea, 60.3 per cent of trichloroethane, and 5.5% tetrachlorethane, 2.7% tetrachlorethane and 14.7% other chlorohydrocarbons having a boiling point above 114oC.

On the power of the column, adds 95 kg/h trichlorethene. The main product is taken 247 kg/h fraction 82-84oC, which consists essentially of azeotropic mixtures trichloroethane and dichloroethane with a small surplus /3 kg/h/ dichloroethane. This fraction is the first solvent.

Side shoulder strap column select 700 kg/h fraction 107-115oWith, which is the second solvent and has the composition: 2.3% of 1-chloro-2-brometea, 86.1% trichloroethane, 7,9% tetrachlorethane and 3.7% of tetrachlorethane and other chlorohydrocarbons.

148 kg/h VAT residue is directed to thermal deactivation.

Example 2. In a distillation column is distilled 1 t/h of high-boiling waste of vinyl chloride as described in example 1. On the power of the column add 775 kg/h tetrachlorethene.

The main product is taken 247 kg/h fraction 82-84oWith, which is the first solvent.

Side shoulder strap column select 1460 kg/h fraction 112-114oWith, which is the second solvent and is essentially azeotrope is Ronny deduce the fraction 85-111oWith 16 kg/h, which is added to 145 kg/h VAT residue and is directed to thermal deactivation.

Example 3. In the evaporator dry cleaning machines during normal operation accumulate 50-60 kg of waste cleaning, is then pumped into the evaporator 200 kg high-boiling waste of vinyl chloride, the composition of which is specified in example 1. To reduce the Flammability of the solvent here add 20 kg trichlorethene. Conduct regular distillation, getting 190 kg of solvent with a boiling within 82-115oC. first with 82oWith Argonauts azeotrope of dichloroethane with trichlorethane, and then the remaining components of the solvent.

Unload the waste cleaning and guide them in the disposal.

Example 4. The solvent receive, as described in example 3. In a tank of pure solvent dry cleaning machines add up to 155 kg tetrachlorethene getting azeotrope with the last three - and tetrachlorethane.

The method of obtaining chlorinated solvents by distillation of high-boiling waste of vinyl chloride, characterized in that the waste before distillation add trichloride and/or tetrachloride in such quantity to get the azeotropic mixture of t is

 

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