Method of intensification of heat transfer in the combustion of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels and heating device for its implementation (options)

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a power system and can be used for the combustion of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels in water-heating devices industrial, agricultural and domestic purposes. The invention consists in that the change of phase state of the pressure flow of the liquid coolant at the entrance of the heat exchanger in the high temperature region of the combustion and at the output section of the heat exchanger in the low temperature region of the exhaust gases. Heating device for implementing this method of heat exchange intensification contains a device for combustion and heat exchanger. Input section the latter includes receiving chamber and the inlet of the mixing chamber separated by a partition with an input cavitator, the input orifice and the inlet diffuser, hydraulically coupled with the connecting section, separated by a partition with an output cavitator from the output area containing the sequentially spaced output the mixing chamber, the outlet passage and outlet diffuser. The invention allows to increase the coefficient of heat transfer from combustion products primarily to the s combustion. 2 C. and 8 C.p. f-crystals, 5 Il.

The invention relates to a power system and can be used for the combustion of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels in water-heating devices industrial, agricultural and domestic purposes.

In known circuits of the heating fluid in the heat exchange elements during the combustion of any fuel heat transfer is achieved, on the one hand, due to the processes of convection, diffusion and optical radiation of the flame, on the other hand, due to the hydrodynamic process flowing inside the heat exchange elements and defined by the dimensionless Reynolds number Re=vd/u, where v is the velocity of flow, d is the characteristic geometric parameter of the heat transfer element and u is the kinematic fluid viscosity. Because the increased heat transfer coefficient is proportional to the number (Re)kwhere the exponent K1, increase the speed of the coolant in the heat exchange elements according to generally accepted views, can occur by increasing the coolant flow rate or through the use of high-energy fuel (see , for example, a book B. E. Yudaev. Engineering thermodynamics. The heat transfer. - M.: Vysshaya SHKOLA, 1988).

From the mechanics of liquid and gas is also known that if the speed of sound in two-phase flow is less than the local rate, then the flow is supersonic flow, when the brake which, for example, in a specially profiled expanding the channels can be arranged leap seal, accompanied by an abrupt increase in pressure and temperature, and the pressure can be restored to a value approximately equal to the pressure in nekaitiguma fluid (see , for example, a book, N. Abramovich and others, theory of turbulent jets. - M.: Nauka, 1984).

As a prototype of the selected technical solution, which describes a method of intensification of heat transfer in the combustion of liquid, solid or gaseous fuel by changing the phase state of the pressure flow of liquid teplonositeley device, contains a device for combustion of solid, liquid or gaseous fuel, and a heat exchanger consisting of a liquid-cooled housing with an inner surface forming a fuel channel, and the housing contains an inlet pipe to the inlet side, the connecting section and the outlet pipe with the outlet pipe.

The disadvantage of this method the impact on the working environment and device for its implementation is the only organization internal heat transfer without an external source of heat, which excludes the possibility to carry out heat-exchange processes in the combustion of solid, liquid or gaseous fuel and to ensure high efficiency of the device.

Thus, a further increase of heat transfer coefficient in the heat exchange elements for combustion of solid, liquid or gaseous fuels, especially its low-energy species, and therefore increase the efficiency of the device can be achieved by changing the phase state of pressure in the coolant flow.

The aim of the present invention is to increase the coefficient of heat transfer from combustion products mainly low-energy fuel and more is Alanna goal was achieved by that way the process intensification of heat transfer in the combustion of solid, liquid or gaseous fuel by changing the phase state of the pressure flow of the liquid coolant, which consists in the fact that subsonic single-phase flow of the liquid coolant in the heat exchanger to accelerate local speed at which the pressure drops to the pressure value of saturated vapor, accompanied by cavitation followed by the formation of a supersonic two-phase (liquid+vapor) flow of the coolant, the last brake by increasing the area of its living section to the occurrence of a jump of the seal to the stepwise increase in pressure and temperature and the conversion of two-phase flow in the initial single-phase condition, moreover, the phase state of the pressure flow of the liquid coolant change at the entrance of the heat exchanger in the high temperature region of the combustion and at the output section of the heat exchanger in the low temperature region of the exhaust gases.

The heating device to implement the method of heat exchange intensification contains a device for combustion of solid, liquid or gaseous fuel and a heat exchanger consisting of zopolrestat, the housing contains an inlet pipe to the inlet side equipped with the inlet valve, the connecting section and the outlet pipe with the outlet pipe, equipped with an output valve, and the input section contains the receiving chamber and the inlet of the mixing chamber separated by a partition with an input cavitator, the input orifice and the inlet diffuser, hydraulically coupled with the connecting section, separated by a partition with an output cavitator from the output area containing the output of the mixing chamber, the outlet passage and outlet diffuser.

Brief description of drawings.

The invention is explained in detail with the involvement of drawings, on which:

Fig. 1 is a longitudinal section of a heating device, a variant with a gas burner device for combustion of gaseous fuel;

Fig.2 - section 1-1 in Fig.1;

Fig.3 - options cavitator;

Fig.4 is a longitudinal section of a heating device for burning fuel options beading surfaces of the heat exchanger;

Fig.5 is a cross - section 2-2 of Fig.4.

Embodiments of the invention.

Heating device for otobrannogo fuel and the heat exchanger (2), consisting of filled with liquid coolant housing (3) with the inner surface (4), forming a fuel channel (5) and outer surface (6). Enclosure (3) contains an inlet pipe (7) with an inlet pipe (8), equipped with the inlet valve (9), the connecting section (10) and outlet pipe (11) with the outlet pipe (12), equipped with the inlet valve (13). Inlet pipe (7) contains a receiving chamber (14) and input the mixing chamber (15), separated by a partition wall (16) with the input cavitator (17), input the neck (18) and the inlet diffuser (19), hydraulically coupled with the connecting device (10). The latter is separated by a partition (20) with an output cavitator (21) from the output section (11) containing consistently located the outlet mixing chamber (22), the output orifice (23) and outlet diffuser (24). The heat exchanger (2) is made concentric with and located symmetrically relative to the longitudinal axis (25).

Input (15) and an output (22) of the mixing chamber is made tapering in the flow of the coolant.

Input (17) and an output (21) cavitators made mainly of hydrodynamic type narrowing the flow of the coolant device, such as a narrowing of the nozzle, as the body, the wrap comes with a margin, as shown in Fig.3, and the fastening of the cavitator of this type can be performed on the radial ribs (26).

Internal (4) and/or outer (6) of the input surface (7) and/or outlet pipe (11) can be performed ribbed longitudinal ribs (27) spaced evenly in the circumferential direction, as shown in Fig. 4,5.

Input (8) and/or output (12) of the nozzles can be arranged in parallel and/or perpendicular to the longitudinal axis (25) of the heat exchanger (2).

The connecting section (10) is made constant cross-section.

To control the pressure in front of the entrance (17) and outlet (21) cavitators installed gauges (28) and at the outlet of the heat exchanger - pressure gauge (29).

In Fig. 1 shows a variant of the heating device for burning gaseous fuels by gas burners (1) containing an electric motor (30) with the shaft (31), the fan housing (32) with the outlet (33), the body of the gas burner (34) and which disk (35) with a hole (36) for air flow. Inside the fan housing (32) is placed planted on the shaft (31) of the centrifugal impeller (37) and fixed lapustesti (41). The gas burner device (1) mounted on the inlet of the heat exchanger (2), combining its axis (25) with the axis (42) of the gas burner (1).

Method of intensification of heat transfer in the combustion of solid, liquid or gaseous fuel by changing the phase state of the pressure flow of the liquid coolant is that subsonic pressure single-phase flow of liquid coolant through the cavitator (17,21) speed to the local speed at which the pressure drop to the pressure value of saturated vapor cavitation occurs, followed by the formation in the mixing chambers (15) and (22) supersonic two-phase (liquid+vapor) coolant flow, inhibit the latest in diffuser (19) and (24) by increasing its area living section with the occurrence of surge pressure and temperature, and the transition of the flow of two-phase in the initial phase condition after the inlet pipe (7) and the output section (11) of the heat exchanger (2). At the entrance (7) in the high temperature region of the combustion subsonic flow single-phase liquid coolant introduced into the state of cavitation at a temperature (60-90o), And at the output section (11) is in the low-GNSO burning, for example, the gaseous fuel is as follows.

During the rotation planted on the shaft (31) of the motor (30) of the impeller (37) of the fan (32) air flow sequentially passes through the stationary blade outlet (38), the outlet (33) and enters the body of the gas burner (34). Hence, the air flow is directed to stabilizing bars (41) to improve its homogeneity, then, through which the disk (35) with holes (36), the air flow enters the combustion zone, which is fed a stream of gaseous fuel, moving in the direction of arrow (b) in the gas tube (39) to the nozzle (40). In the combustion channel (5) at the entrance (7) heat exchanger (2) will be a high-temperature region of the combustion, and at the output section (11) is the low - temperature region of the exhaust gases.

Pressure flow of liquid coolant on the arrow (a) through the inlet (8) enters the receiving chamber (14) of the inlet pipe (7) heat exchanger (2), where the flow is single-phase and moves with subsonic speed. From the reception chamber (14) single-phase subsonic flow of fluid under pressure is supplied to a narrowing device is an annular nozzle phasising vapor at the temperature of (6090o)S. for example, for water used as a coolant, the specified temperature range will correspond to the vapor pressure that is equal to approximately (2,07,0)104PAND. Under these conditions the flow of coolant begins to capitonovici with the formation of the vapor phase, which is mixed with the liquid phase of the coolant in the inlet mixing chamber (15), which leads to the formation of two-phase mixture, the speed of sound which is much below the speed of sound in single-phase flow of coolant. Own speed two-phase flow in the inlet mixing chamber (15) is increased by narrowing the cross-section for the flow in such a way that the input orifice (18) is the speed of sound for two-phase medium. Consequently, the camera input expansion cone (19) two-phase flow will be accelerated more of their own sound velocity, forming a shock wave, which at the same time, the surge pressure and temperature, the effect of the manifestations of which is greater, the smaller the pressure and temperature in the inlet diffuser (19). Leap of pressure and temperature is accompanied by condensation of the vapor phase and two-phase flow fluid outlet and is vdavlenia connecting section (10) and the output section (11) can be substantially restored up to almost the initial value.

Breaking the connecting section (10) of constant cross-sectional, single-phase subsonic flow passes narrowing device output cavitator (21) and is accelerated to the local velocity at which the pressure decreases to the pressure value of saturated vapor at temperature (3050o)C. water this temperature range correspond to the saturated vapor pressure equal to approximately (4,21031,2104PAND. If this should meet the following hydrodynamic conditions:

V1<VP1>R2,

where V and P, respectively, the flow rate of fluid from the orifice of the cavitator and the pressure of saturated vapor; the indices 1 and 2 refer respectively to the input and output cavitators.

The liquid and vapor phase of the coolant after the output of the cavitator (21) are mixed in the output of the mixing chamber (22) with the formation of two-phase medium, in which the output orifice (23) becomes supersonic environment, the movement of which is in the output cone (24) is accompanied by a jump in pressure and temperature with subsequent transformation of the two-phase supersonic flow again in single-phase subsonic flow of the liquid coolant. Last across the parameters of the coolant flow is provided by a regulator valve (9) and (13).

The fins of the inner surface (4) of the heat exchanger (2) longitudinal ribs (27) increases thermal voltage residual volume when compressed gas in the combustion channel (5), which increases heat dissipation. The fins of the outer surface (6) allows to increase the heat dissipation device. In the end, the fins of the inner and/or outer surface of the heat exchanger increases its efficiency.

The present invention makes better use of the heat released by combustion, especially its low-energy species, and to create the most favorable from an energetic point of view compact heating device with high efficiency. In addition, there will be fuel savings due to spasmodic two heating of the coolant, and also the savings in pumping fluid through an abrupt increase in pressure. It is also important that surges through seals are not changing the output of the hydrodynamic and thermal parameters of the carrier. This means that the input parameters of the heating device will always be in the optimal stationary mode.

Industrial premarket.

1. Method of intensification of heat transfer in the combustion of liquid, solid or gaseous fuel by changing the phase state of the pressure flow of the liquid coolant, wherein the subsonic single-phase (liquid) flow in the heat exchanger to accelerate local speed at which the pressure drops to the pressure value of saturated vapor, accompanied by cavitation followed by the formation of a supersonic two-phase (liquid+vapor) flow of the coolant, the last brake by increasing the area of its cross-section to the occurrence of a jump of the seal to the stepwise increase in pressure and temperature and the conversion of two-phase flow in the initial single-phase condition, during this phase the state of pressure of the flow of the liquid coolant change at the entrance of the heat exchanger in the high temperature region of the combustion and output Uch is obmana under item 1, characterized in that at the entrance of the heat exchanger in the high temperature region of the combustion subsonic flow single-phase liquid coolant introduced into the state of cavitation at a temperature of 60-90oWith, and at the output section of the heat exchanger in the low temperature region of the exhaust gases at a temperature of 30-50oC.

3. Method of heat exchange intensification in PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the cavitation flow of the coolant at the inlet and outlet sections of the heat exchanger is carried out at the following hydrodynamic conditions: V1<V, R1>R2where V and P are respectively the speed of the outflow of fluid from the orifice of the cavitator and the pressure of saturated vapor; the indices 1 and 2 refer respectively to the input and output cavitators.

4. The heating device containing a device for combustion of solid, liquid or gaseous fuel and a heat exchanger consisting of a liquid-cooled housing with an inner surface forming a fuel channel, and the housing contains an inlet pipe to the inlet side, the connecting section and the outlet pipe with the outlet pipe, wherein the inlet section contains the well and the inlet diffuser, hydraulically coupled with the connecting section, separated by a partition with an output cavitator from the output area containing the sequentially spaced output the mixing chamber, the outlet passage and outlet diffuser and inlet and outlet equipped with input and output valves.

5. The heating device according to p. 4, characterized in that the heat exchanger is made concentric with and located symmetrically relative to the longitudinal axis.

6. The heating device according to PP.4 and 5, characterized in that the input and output of the mixing chamber is made tapering in the flow of the coolant.

7. The heating device according to one or more of the preceding items, characterized in that the input and output cavitators made mainly of hydrodynamic type narrowing the flow of the coolant device.

8. The heating device according to one or more of the preceding items, characterized in that the inner and/or outer surface of the inlet and/or outlet area of the heat exchanger is made of ribbed longitudinal ribs spaced evenly in the circumferential direction.

and outlet are parallel and/or perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the heat exchanger.

10. The heating device according to one or more of the preceding items, characterized in that the connecting section is made of a constant cross-section.

 

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