Run-of-river hydroelectric

 

(57) Abstract:

Run-of-river hydro is designed for the selection of the energy of the free flow of rivers and convert it into electricity. The device comprises a water turbine bearing on its shaft, housed in a secured to the frame spherical joints deformations of the frame and the turbine, the Builder thread, bottom plate which is installed at an acute angle to the flow of water, shade from it the lower part of the turbine and has a length more than twice the diameter of the turbine. A frame connected to the support runners with the possibility of their movement relative to them, connected with the shore of the supports holding the rope and swivel rigid spacer element, which together constitute a coastal system startup unit in the stream. The cavity spacer element is used to protect the transmission line from the generator, placed in a sealed capsule and kinematically connected to the turbine, or to install the driveline from the turbines to the offshore generator. High efficiency and stability of the unit when running in the river and the provided driver thread effective is using the coastal system startup and reliability is achieved by spherical joints strain. 9 C.p. f-crystals, 18 ill.

The invention relates to a hydraulic units and can be used in run-of-river hydro jets for the selection part of the natural kinetic energy of the flow of rivers and streams and convert it into mechanical energy of rotation with subsequent conversion to electric.

Known floating water turbine (MCI F 03 In 3/04, U.S. patent 4849647, 1989), which is a long cylindrical object from a material lighter than water with helical blades on its surface. The turbine is supported on the surface of the water by Archimedes, interacts helical blades with the water stream and converts part of the kinetic energy of the stream of water that carries the turbine into mechanical energy of rotation of the turbine. The ends of the turbine is fixed thrust - flexible shafts, which provide mounting of the turbine to the banks of the river or stream and transferring rotational mechanical energy to the generator.

The disadvantages of this turbine are: low utilization of the energy of water flow, sweeping turbine (less than 15%), fastening with two banks, inability to protect the turbine from falling floating predmet work in winter conditions, when the turbine is subjected to glaciation and verzani in ice.

Known free-threaded hydropower plant (MCI F 03 B, A. with. The USSR 153883, 1963; MCI F 03 C, and.with. The USSR 175906, 1965; N. Shchapov. M Turbine equipment of hydropower plants, M.-L., CEI, 1955, S. 287) containing fixed on the power cable, operating as a flexible shaft, a series of cross-turbines-migratorum forming turbine garland, which is installed across the water flow. The ends of the rope is fixed rotatably on two abutment pier, and one of them placed a generator, the rotor of which is kinematically connected with the cable turbine garlands. Turbine, interacting with the water flow, turn the part of the kinetic energy of the flow into mechanical energy of rotation. Rigid connection turbines cable provides transmission of mechanical energy of rotation of the generator for conversion into electricity.

To install characterized by the following disadvantages:

1. The difficulty of stabilizing the position of the lights in the water flow. Garland swings in the flow in the vertical plane under the action of the Magnus force arising from the interaction of the rotating turbine with a moving stream of water, and changing due to fluctuations of the velocity profile in p the operation of the turbines, does not allow for the installation of turbines in the core of the flow and can cause damage to the turbine. (Y. M. Novikov. Opportunities hydroelectric dam. N/t collection of Energy and environment, c. 81-86. Resp. ed Nakoryakov Century, that is, Novosibirsk, 1988, ed. Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS).

2. The impact of heavy loads from garland turbines on sites of rotation, mounted on the abutment pier. The calculation shows that with the very real water velocity of 3 m/s, to compensate for the drag garlands even a small area of 1 m2the tension of the cable should be not less than 2500 kg, which causes technical difficulties on the compensation of the axial forces at the nodes of rotation, mounted on the abutment pier.

3. Inability to protect from the floating objects that can damage the turbine or to be occupied by turbines, which violates the mode of their work.

4. The inconvenience of installation and maintenance installation, the nodes of which are hosted on different coasts, difficulty selecting the appropriate channel of the river to install, the destruction of the spring runoff structures on the banks - make it difficult to create a mobile, easy to install and remove the Daisy chained installation.

A device for energy use teleny to him the rope, to which with a certain interval hooked barges. Between them, the flow of water, mounted transverse rotary turbines, made in the form of a shaped wings that are installed evenly circumferentially around the turbine shaft at a certain angle of attack. When interacting with the water flow of these wings, some of the kinetic energy of the flow is converted into the energy of rotational motion of the turbine, the shaft of which is fitted with a toothed crowns, kinematically associated with the generators.

The disadvantages of this setup are the complexity of the installation of supports, stationary design, lack of mobility, which limits its application in mountain rivers, which can change the channel and destroy installed there designs.

In addition, the use of such systems is only possible in certain areas and requires a deep channel. The lack of devices that protect the turbine from contact with floating objects may cause damage to the turbine or jamming it. Not work gear, the gears of which is placed in the water flow. Operation in winter conditions also impossible due to icing of the ring gear, jutting out from the water and cause it to seize.

For output of the turbine in an operating mode desired pre-promotion from the outside, as in the static position of the turbines located in the water flow, the amount of torque is close to zero, due to the axial symmetry of the placement of the wings on the surface of the rotation of the turbine.

In copyright certificates of the USSR 1634812, 1988; 1700276, 1989; CL F 03 B 7/10, provides enhanced variants of the device for the application of the UK 1515561, published in 1978, CL F 03 B 7/00.

In a variant of the hydraulic unit on and. C. the USSR 1634812 rotary turbine is provided with a transverse turbine is placed on the shaft of the rotor of the turbine and connected with it freewheel. Rotary turbine spins with the cross of the turbine to the speed at which the turbine can interact with the flow of water to provide energy.

The disadvantage of this device is the complexity of the design of the turbine and the unreliability of the overrunning clutch, working in the water flow, additional transverse turbine breaks the line of the wings of the flow of water, resulting in reduced utilization of the energy of water flow.

and a bottom plate, equipped with a ramp (inclined plane), shade not more than 0.1 of the diameter of the turbine. The ramp provides a reduction in the flow rate of water falling on the lower part of the turbine, resulting in its blades have less resistance to the oncoming flow and increasing utilization of the energy of water flow.

The drawback of the unit is the lack of protection against ingress of foreign objects. According to: Lather C. M., Ivanov, I. I., Kosarev I. I. Experimental studies of orthographic units for the energy of the currents. Journal of Hydraulic engineering, 1986, 11, PP 33-37 - the maximum ratio of the power take-off of water flow of 0.44 is achieved by using turbines with two or three blades symmetrical profile and transparency coefficient of the turbine over 70%. Therefore, when hitting a floating object on the water turbine of this design, can bend the blade or shaft, which violates the mode of operation or creating an emergency situation. If a foreign object enters between the blades, there is a jamming of the rotor. When using turbines with a transparency rate of less than 40%, which have greater rigidity and strength, videris what is the clearance between the impeller and the bottom wall, D is the impeller diameter, does not provide maximum utilization of the energy of water flow.

Another disadvantage is that the invention does not provide any system startup device in the flow of water, nor the sealing of the generator, so this device can only work in the trays, made on the drainage channels from the main channel of the river or placed in the stream. The creation of such trays requires a construction that it is difficult to provide in the conditions of mountain rivers and in many cases it is expensive and inefficient. Such a device could not be quickly moved to another location that is inconvenient for mountain rivers, which often changes direction, and the spring floods destroy structures on the river.

Known run-of-river hydro (N. Shchapov.M. The turbine equipment of hydropower plants M-L., SEI, 1955, pp. 235-236), containing transverse Savonius turbine with bearings on its shaft, is placed on a frame with bottom supports in the form of rails mounted parallel to the axis of the rotor and connected by ropes from shore-based supports. The kinematic connection of the turbine to a generator is implemented via a transmission, ensuring the EDAC, moreover, the multiplier and the generator placed on the frame above the water level.

The disadvantages of this device:

1. Low coefficient of (not more than 0.18) use the energy of water flow, sweeping turbine.

2. The instability of the unit in the water flow under the action of tipping the power flow, and forces caused by the Magnus effect, caused by the interaction of a rotating rotor with a stream of water.

3. Frame and turbine when it is installed on an uneven bottom surface are deformed. While the turbine operates distributed load from the pressure of water flow, also deforming the turbine. The result is a misalignment of the turbine shaft in the bearings, which increases the load on the bearings and increase their wear. In addition, when working bearings in the regime of boundary lubrication by water, the coefficient of friction is high enough (0.05 to 0.1), which also reduces the efficiency of bearing assemblies. Swelling of the bearings and the ingress of impurities lead to increased friction and abrasive wear.

4. The absence of a system run unit under the flow of water and adjust the position of the frame with the turbine relative to the bottom supports height does not allow the head to the multiplier generator above the water level does not allow you to use it in the winter time due to icing of the transmission system and vmerzanii entire installation.

Known run-of-river hydroelectric (F 03 B 13/10, and.with. The USSR 1129403, 1984; F 03 B 13/10, and.with. The USSR 1250693, 1986), which set forth the distinctive characteristics that increase the efficiency of the unit described in the above work a.p.schapov N. M.

Efficiency is improved by introducing a rectangular nozzle, forming the water flow to the turbine, shading the lower part of the turbine and installation of the bottom plate of the nozzle at an acute angle to the incident flow. The unit contains cross the turbine is placed in the chamber, the lower part of which is made in the form of a semicylinder, covering the turbine, and is connected with forming the flow nozzle, on the lower wall of which is placed a bottom support made in the form of spikes. Turbine interacts with the incoming water stream and converts part of its kinetic energy into mechanical energy of rotation, in which the generator is converted into electricity. The flow of water lapping on the bottom wall of the nozzle, presses hydraulic unit spikes to the bottom of the river.

For unit characterized by the following disadvantages:

1. Manufacturer shading half in the form of a one-piece shell is technically difficult, and it split into pieces reduces the tion due to uncontrolled deformation, nodes compensation which is not provided.

2. Shading half the diameter of the turbine is only effective for a Savonius rotor, which has a low efficiency (not more than 0.18) and the transparency coefficient of the turbine (about 0.1). When using other types of turbines, such as Daria (Wind energy, under. edition D. de Renzo, M.: Energoatomizdat, 1982, page 26, Fig.1.3, V7.), and Novikov, Biryukov, (CL V,4, and.with. The USSR 151253) with higher efficiency, the magnitude of the effective shading turbines will vary depending on the transparency coefficient of the turbine, which for option Daria is about 0.7, and for options Novikov, Biryukova - 0.3 to 0.4. In this case, can be ineffective.

3. Using the bottom supports in the form of studs, inhibiting movement, makes it difficult to run the unit from the shore into the water stream.

4. Not provided to protect the turbine from the floating objects. The use of rigid one-piece body consisting of a reception area and working chambers, equipped with ground spikes, it is not possible to adjust the unit height. The construction itself is massive and hemobilia, generator and multiplier pharmacyserophene.

Was tasked with creating e the seal from damage by floating objects and are able to work in winter conditions and under water.

The task was solved in the following way.

Created run-of-river hydroelectric containing transverse turbine bearing on its shaft mounted on the frame with the bottom of the supports, made in the form of runners associated with the frame shaper flow with side walls and a bottom plate mounted at an acute angle to the incident flow of water and shade from it the lower part of the turbine, generator, kinematically associated with the turbine, and power transmission line from the generator to shore equipment. The hydraulic unit is equipped with a coastal system run the installation in the flow of water and adjust the position of the turbine relative to the core flow, comprising a rigid spacer element, the hinge connecting with the abutment frame, attached to the other shore support by means of a cable and mounted on skids can be moved in height, and the length of the bottom plate more than 2 times the diameter of the turbine, and bearing its shaft is placed in attached to the chassis by spherical joints deformations of the frame and turbines.

Reliable promotion turbine during its installation in the flow of water is ensured by the fact that it was assembled from a PEFC is the angle = 360/nz, where n is the number of sections, z - number of blades in the section.

High level of energy use of water flow is achieved by a bottom plate mounted in such a way that the line of intersection of its plane with a vertical plane passing through the longitudinal axis of the turbine, is located in the area bounded by the sizes of from 0.1 D to 0.4 D down from the longitudinal axis of the turbine, and the gap between the turbine and the plates of the driver of the stream is in the range of 0.02 D to 0.15 D, where D is the diameter of the turbine. With relatively small gaps that range characteristic of turbines type of Daria, and relatively large - turbine type Novikov and Biryukova.

Improving the reliability of operation of the generator and ease of maintenance is achieved by placing the generator on the shore of a rigid spacer element, and a kinematic connection with the shaft of the turbine performed using drive shafts-flexible shaft is placed in the cavity of the rigid spacer element.

The turbine is protected device reflection floating objects made in the form of a package of ribs-plates, oriented along the bottom plate and forming napravlenije coefficients of friction due to placement on the shaft of the turbine standard bearings in a sealed enclosure and sealing of the rotating shaft by contact of the sealing element with a spherical surface of the shaft (sphere), the geometric center coincides with the geometric centre of the sphere expansion joint deformation.

In another embodiment, to simplify the design of the bearing arrangement is achieved by contact of the sealing element with expansion joint end play of the shaft, a flat end surface of the shaft.

In flooded (the underwater version of the unit) generator is placed in the capsule, which is tightly connected with the bearing housing, the kinematic connection between the shaft of the turbine and the generator is carried out through the PTO clutch, and a transmission line from the generator to shore equipment passes through the tube, tightly connected to the capsule and displayed above the water level.

Variant transmission line to shore is made in the cavity of the rigid spacer element.

Reliability driveline that connects the turbine shaft to the generator, is achieved by the fact that the cavity of the rigid spacer element is hermetically coupled to the sealed cavity of the bearing housing of the shaft through a flexible pipe.

The ease of adjusting the position of the unit across the width of the river is achieved by the fact that a rigid dystonia runners between irregularities or stones at the bottom of the river cross-section of the runner is profiled in the form of a trapezoid, oval or circle.

The increased power of the unit can be achieved by the placement of turbines on a frame sequentially along their longitudinal axis, which provides extra support and connection of the turbines between themselves PTO clutches.

The presence of the coastal system startup and adjustment of the turbine allows to solve the problem of installation of the unit from one coast to the area of the riverbed, where the water flow rate maximum. This is true for mountain rivers, the direction of which changes frequently, and the spring floods destroy the buildings that are located in the riverbed.

Even a small increase in speed of flow of water provides a significant increase in the mechanical energy of rotation of the turbine, is proportional to the cube of the flow velocity of the water, so the most efficient operation of the turbines in the core of the flow, where the velocity of incoming water maximum. In summer, the core flow is located near the surface of the water, and in winter the vector of the maximum flow rate under the ice shifted mid-depth (Y. M. Novikov. Opportunities hydroelectric dam. n/a T. Proc. of Power engineering and Ecology. Resp. editor Nakoryakov Century, that is, Novosibirsk, 1988, ed. Institute of thermal Physics is agregate in most high-speed side channel of the river, and regulation of the turbine height lets you install it in the kernel thread. Thus, the coastal system startup and adjustment of the turbine height provides its installation in the core flow of water, which increases the efficiency of the unit.

A stable position of the unit when running in the water flow and in its working position is provided by a bottom plate shaper flow, which is set at an acute angle to the incident flow and under its influence presses the unit to the bottom of the river, thereby compensating the overturning moment resulting from the impact of the flow on the turbine. The length of the bottom plate is more than two times the diameter of the turbine. This ratio is the result of a calculation unit for stability and mobility in water flow and confirmed experimentally.

Shaper flow reduces friction in the selected part of the flow in comparison with the forces of friction on the bottom of the river and its flow on the upper part of the turbine. Shading the bottom of the shaper reduces the loss of energy to overcome the blades of the turbine of the oncoming flow and improves conditions the ins depends on its design and transparency coefficient, and the installation of the turbine in the flow of water. So, for rotary turbines (type Daria) effective shading her bottom meets a certain position of the line of intersection of the plane of the bottom plate with a vertical plane passing through the longitudinal axis of the turbine. This line must lie in the zone. the upper boundary of which is located below the axis, at a distance of 0.25 D, where D is the diameter of the turbine. For options Savonius, Biryukov and Novikov part of such a zone is higher than for option Daria, because its upper bound lies below the axis of the turbine at a distance of 0.1 D, and the bottom is at a distance of 0.4 D. This position the bottom plate relative to the axis provides the most effective interaction of the blades of the turbine with the generated water flow.

Experimental data show that the use of the shaper flow of water significantly increases the utilization of its energy unit. For example, for hydraulic turbines Novikov and Biryukova application Builder flow in different characteristics of water flow increases the capacity of the unit by 20% or more compared with the case of a non-driver.

Reliability is the authorities of the turbine, mounted sequentially along its axis with a rotation angle = 360/nz, where n is the number of sections, z - number of blades in the section. The result of this interaction occur amplified pulses torque acting on the individual sections of the turbine in any position. This design allows, also, to reduce the unevenness of rotation of the turbine.

The placement of the bearings of the shafts of the turbines in the spherical joints deformation allows to ensure the alignment of the bearings and shafts by eliminating the effects of distortions of the frame and the deflection of the turbine, due to the roughness of the bottom and from the RAM pressure of the water flow.

The set of nodes of the unit and their relationships - rigid spacer element, the hinge connecting the frame with the abutment, the flexible power element (wire, rope, chain) connecting the unit to another the abutment, and a profiled rails mounted perpendicular to the turbine, provide the ability to quickly install the unit in a stream of water at the bottom of the river and its shooting, as with machinery (tractors, machinery, winches), and manual, by two people.

For example, if manual installation is the reverse side of the stream so that turbine is parallel to the flow of water. Then push in the stream, after which the unit carried by a stream of water and distantsionniy hard element is rotated around the abutment, a trajectory in a quarter circle and is installed in a working position, fixed ropes fixed on the second coast support. This turbine is located perpendicular to the flow of water. Glide over uneven bottom and rocks provide runners, the cross-sectional profile which is executed in the form of a trapezoid oval or circle. A stable position of the unit in the flow of water is provided by a bottom plate, clamping the unit to the bottom of the river.

For ease of maintenance of the generator and multiplier used in the applications of generators with high angular velocities, they are placed on the sea side of the spacer tube, and a kinematic connection with the shaft of the turbine is realized by means of drive shafts placed in the cavity of the pipe. Thus, the unit is divided into two modules - shore and underwater associated with the spacer tube. The coast includes the multiplier generator, and podwodny and refilling oil in the multiplier) without output unit ashore. This is especially important when operating the unit in winter conditions, when the inferred unit quickly covered with ice, which makes it difficult to repair and maintenance. Reducing the weight of the underwater part of the unit due to the transfer to the onshore portion of the generator with multiplier simplifies the start of the unit in the water flow.

To protect the turbine from floating objects (logs, sticks, boards, branches) is required in connection with the possibility of contact between the blades and jamming turbines, and from a strong blow can bend the turbine and its blades. In the proposed device can be used for different turbines.

Calculations and practical experiments show that for a rigid and durable turbines type Savonius, Biryukov and Novikov no serious need to put a protective device from rare snags, deeply immersed in the stream of water as they hit the rotating turbine addicted to it and the flow of water and go downstream, without the turbine noticeable damage. Small objects floating on the surface of the river and make up the bulk of the impurities, for such turbines are not dangerous as they are discarded powerful stream of water, obecause shaped wings, installed evenly spaced around the circumference around the shaft of the turbine, under a certain angle of attack and has a transparency rate of over 70% (Lather C. M., Ivanov, I. I., Kosareva S. I. // orthogonal Experimental studies units for the energy of currents // Hydrotechnical construction 11, pp. 33-37). Therefore, the floating objects hitting the blades can bend them and change the angle of attack that can dramatically reduce the utilization rate of energy flow. When you hit a floating object between the blades of this turbine can jam.

Protection of the turbine device reflection of floating objects increases the reliability of the unit. In the proposed device package edge plates oriented along a bottom plate and forms a guide channel for the flow of water, sweeping the turbine.

Large floating objects against the ribs are recorded and, sliding the ribs, swept the water flow. Formed by the edges of the channels aligns the velocity field of the flow of water, cover plate increases the lateral stiffness of the ribs.

The placement of the bearings of the shafts of the turbines in a sealed enclosure with built-in nodes compensation defile their work and to eliminate the influence of the bias frame and deflection of the turbine, arising from the installation frame to the rough bottom surface, and from the frontal pressure on the turbine water flow. This increases the reliability of the bearing units and their efficiency by reducing friction bearings compared with sliding bearings, which are the boundary smash water and experiencing congestion due to misalignment of the shafts.

The placement of the generator with multiplier in a sealed capsule that is connected to the bearing housing, provides reliable operation and the cooling water flow. The connection of the shaft of the turbine with the multiplier through the drive coupling can compensate for misalignments of the shaft from the deformation of the turbine. The output transmission line through the tube, tightly connected to the capsule and displayed above the water level, provides the power supply on both banks of the river.

The set of nodes and their relationships: the placement of the generator in a sealed capsule that is connected to the bearing housing, shaft coupling the turbine to the generator through the drive clutch, the output transmission line through the tube, tightly connected to the capsule and displayed above the water level, the placement of the turbine shaft in sealed enclosures with built-in alarm, the ATA under water in winter and summer time.

The implementation of transmission lines in the cavity spacer tubes, hermetically connected to the capsule by means of the flexible hollow element, protects the line from damage, resulting in increased reliability of the unit.

The tight connection of the hollow rigid spacer element with a cavity sealed bearing housing through a flexible pipe eliminates the ingress of water into the propeller transmission (flexible shaft), thereby decreasing friction losses and increase reliability of the cardan joints.

Performing a hard spacer element in the form of tubes telescopically United, extends the operational adjustment of the unit across the width of the river and allows installation of the unit in the most rapid part of the river.

The use of standardized turbines placed on the frame sequentially along their longitudinal axis, connected cardan couplings and provided with additional supports, allows you to extend the range of power generating units.

In the device solved the complex problems arising from explosao unit protected from damage by floating objects, able to work in winter conditions, increased utilization of the energy of water flow and the reliability of the unit.

The solution to this problem is provided by introducing into the device following new systems, units and components and their relationships with other elements.

1. Starting system unit under the flow of water from one Bank and the adjustment of the position of the turbine relative to the core flow of water.

2. The ratio of the length of the bottom plate and the diameter of the turbine.

3. Bearings in sealed enclosures with built-in nodes compensate for the deformation of the frame and turbines.

4. Support runners with a cross-section in the shape of an oval, circle or line.

5. The hard spacers and flexible elements, nodes move according to the height of the frame relative to the runners.

6. The sealed capsule for generator with multiplier, cardan coupling, pipe lines.

7. The spacer tube, the flexible hollow element for a transmission line.

8. Telescopic pipe spacer element.

9. Generator with multiplier o f the om driveline, placed in the spacer tube.

10. A device for protection from the floating objects.

11. The size ratio determining the position of the turbine relative to the bottom plate.

12. The angles of the sections of the turbine relative to each other.

13. The use of unified turbines.

The comparison of the proposed solutions with other technical solutions (USSR author's certificate 1700276, 1989, F 03 B 13/10) shows that the shading of the lower part of the turbine driver flow ramp is known. But, a known value shading size of about 0.1 of the diameter of the turbine gives the optimal increase the utilization of energy flow only for turbines with a transparency rate of about 70%, namely for rotor turbines with one or more blades of a symmetrical profile. On the plot, shaded ramp decreases the resistance of the return stroke of the blade, the transverse size which is smaller than the height of the ramp. But, if without changing the height of the ramp to reduce the length of the bottom plate and to increase the angle of installation, since some values of the angle decreases the energy efficiency of water flow by the turbine, and that the RA turbines, option is not fully characterize the optimal conditions using the energy of water flow to the turbine. In the case of use of the unit other type of turbines (Novikova, Biryukov, Savonius) the ramp rate of 0.1 of the diameter of the turbine does not provide the most effective shading of the blades, as they can take 0.3 to 0.5 of the diameter of the turbine.

Model and full-scale tests on the rivers showed that for turbines Novikov optimal shading is in the range from 0.1 to 0.4 of its diameter. It in various conditions of operation provides greater utilization of energy of the flow of the water systems by 20% or more. Performance is affected, also, the length of the bottom plate of the driver thread. A significant reduction of power flow is observed with decreasing values of the ratio of the length of the bottom plate to the diameter of the turbine. Thus, the decrease of this ratio of two to one, the utilization rate of power flow in various working conditions falls by 10% or more.

Thus, shading the bottom of the turbines in the range from 0.1 to 0.4 of its diameter and the use of bottom plate, whose length is more than twice elkie turbines Novikov, Biryukov and others, with a utilization rate of energy flow up to 45%, and to provide a solid unit under the stream of water. For such turbines do not need a device to reflect the floating objects.

From other literature sources (Seal and sealing technology, Ed. by A. I. Golubev and L. A. Kondakova// M.: Mashinostroenie, 1986, page 286-350, Fig. 9.15 b and 9.20 (b), of known construction mechanical seals, rotary shaft seals with spherical surfaces. The reliability of these seals is determined by the accuracy of manufacture of the sealed surfaces and rigidity.

The inaccuracy of manufacture (misalignment of the sealing surfaces) can lead to incomplete contact of the sealing surfaces and their softening. In the case of non-rigid design, mounted on an uneven surface, there is a misalignment of the sealing surfaces, which leads to leakage of the sealed rotating shaft. Placing the bearing in a spherical expansion joint deformation allows to compensate the inaccuracy of the Assembly during installation, and also deformation of the frame that occurs when it is installed on an uneven bottom, and deformation of the turbine, who is relatively spherical surfaces of the compensator deformation provides a reliable seal between the rotating shaft of the turbine by eliminating distortions of the frame and the turbine compensator deformation and possible swing of the spherical sealing surfaces and spherical surfaces of the compensator deformations relative to a single common geometric center.

If the geometric centers of the spherical surfaces of the joints deformation and sealing rings are not the same, when deformation of the frame and the turbine is turning these spherical surfaces on different centers. As a result, between the sealing surfaces may see a gap or a portion of the seal is not sufficiently pressed against the sealing ring, which may lead to depressurization of the bearing unit.

Thus, the use of the design of the seal between the rotating shaft on the spherical surface, a geometric center of which coincides with the geometric centre of the spherical surface of the expansion joint deformation, increases the reliability of the seal.

In Fig. 1 shows a view in plan of the channel unit is equipped with a turbine Novikova or Biryukov and generator located on the banks of the river. In Fig.2 shows a cross section a-a of the hydraulic unit. In Fig.3, 4, 5 shows cross-section b-B, B-C, D-G, sections of the turbine, determining the position of the blades relative to each other. In Fig.6 shows a front view of D on the unit. In Fig.7, 8 section e-E shown the ways compensators deformations with bearing units in the negatives the CSOs by the turbine, blades which have a profile in the shape of the wing, and also the device reflection of floating objects and a sealed capsule for generator. In Fig. 10, 11, 12 shows a cross-section And K-K, L-L, determine the position of the turbine blades relative to each other. Fig.13 represents the profile of the blades of the turbine type Daria. In Fig.14 shows a front view of M for option main unit. In Fig.15 and 16 in section N-N variants sealed expansion joint deformities with the use of spherical bearings and a sealed capsule for generator. Fig.17 provides a cross section of a runner in the form of a circle. In Fig.18 in cross section P-P showing the control system of the turbine height.

The unit, shown in figures 1-8, contains transverse turbine 1 Novikova (Biryukova) with bearings 2 on its shafts 3, 4, equipped with spherical joints deformation performed in a sealed 5 and unpressurized version 6 and fixed to the chassis with driver thread 7. The frame 7 is connected with the rack 8 by clamps 9, which provides the ability to adjust the position of the frame 7 turbine 1 in height relative to the uprights 8, fastened to the runners 10, which is settled Stantsionnaya element 13 and the cable 14. The runners 10 has a cargo loop 15 for cable mounting (the drawing is not specified), which transports the unit to the original position chosen in the river, and back to the shore manually or improvised means (tractor, winch, and others).

Turbine 1 is assembled from sections 16, the blades 17, which are two S-shaped bent plates fixed to the ends of parallel disks 18. The blades 17 of adjacent sections 16 are rotated relative to each other at angle = 360/nz, where n is the number of partitions, and z is the number of blades. This design of the turbine 1 ensures reliable starting (unwinding) the flow of water and reduces the unevenness of the rotation.

The frame is assembled from the side plate 19, the bottom plate 20 and plate 21, 22 fixed to the spacer tubes 23. The bottom plate 20 is set at an acute angle to the incident flow, and the continuation of its plane intersects with the area in the vertical plane passing through the longitudinal axis of the turbine, and the boundaries of this zone are removed from the axis turbines down at distances of 0.1 D 0.4 D, respectively, where D is the diameter of the turbine. The length of the plate 20 is more than twice the diameter of the turbine is hermeticum version contains spherical bushing 24, installed between two flanges 25 with swing on the field made in these flanges. The spacer element 13 connected to the frame 7 by means of hinges 26, and with the abutment 11 - using the hinge 27 and consists of two telescopically connected tubes 28, 29, compacted ring 30. Adjusting the length of the spacer element is carried out by means of stud bolts 31 and nuts 32. To the coastal part of the tube 28 is fixed to the bracket 33 on which is installed a generator with multiplier 34. In the cavity of the tubes 28, 29 in bearings 35 mounted telescopic shafts 36, 37 connected to the generator 34 via a coupling 38, and with the shaft 3 of the turbine 1 through the drive coupling 39. The cavity 29 is protected from the ingress of water seal 40, sealing a rotating shaft 37.

In a sealed version of the expansion joint deformations 5 flanges 41, 42 are connected tightly, and with the sphere of the flange 42 is in contact with the gasket 43, mounted on the shaft 3 is also sealed, so that they can move along the axis under the influence of spring 44, which provides a seal between the rotating shaft 3. To ensure the integrity of the transmission of torque from the shaft 3 of the turbine 1 to the oscillator-multiplier 34, the flange 41 is sealed to the pipe 29 through the blades in the shape of the wing 47, rigidly fixed to the shaft 48 through 49 traverse with spherical bearings 50 on the shaft 48, which are mounted in a sealed housing 51, 52, fixed to the frame with the shaper thread 53. Frame 53 by means of parallel arms 54 attached via hinges 55, 56 to the runners 57, installed perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the turbine 46. The cross section of the runner is in the form of a trapezoid 58 oval or circle 59, which reduces the probability of its immersion into the soft ground or jamming between the stones on the river bottom. Runners 57 pivotally attached to the frame 53 by the movement mechanism 60, providing adjustment of the position of the turbine 46 height. Mount the frame to the coast supports 61, 62 through the spacer element 63 and the cable 64. On the rails 57 are provided cargo loops 65 for attachment of the cable 64 and the cable for pulling the unit out of the water improvised means (winch, tractor and other).

Turbine 46 is assembled from sections 66, is fixed on the shaft 48. Each section 66 consists of two blades with a profile in the shape of the wing 47 installed at an angle to the tangent of the circle of rotation of the blades 47. The blades 47 of one section 66 is rotated around the longitudinal axis of the turbine 46 against the stay 47. This ensures reliable start-up (promotion) turbine 46, reduces uneven rotation and ensures high strength and rigidity of the blades 47 of the turbine 46 by reducing their length.

Frame shaper of the thread 53 is assembled from the side plate 67, a bottom plate 68 and additional plates 69, 70, fixed to the spacer pipes 71. The bottom plate 68 is set at an acute angle to the incident flow, and the continuation of its plane intersects with the area of the vertical plane passing through the longitudinal axis of the turbine 46. The boundaries of this zone are removed from the axis turbines down at distances of 0.1 D 0.4 D, respectively, where D is the diameter of the turbine. The length of the bottom plate 68 is more than double the diameter of the turbine 46, which ensures a stable position of the unit in the water flow.

To protect the turbine 46 from contact with floating objects on the bottom plate 68 is installed on the edges of the plates 72, which are oriented mutually parallel and along the bottom plate 68, and to increase the hardness connected with the upper plate 73.

The spacer element 63 connected to the frame 53 by means of hinges 74 and consists of pipe sections 75, 76, 77. The length of the remote is tx2">

Spherical bearings 50, performs the function of spherical joints deformities, installed in a sealed enclosure 51, 52 and secured to the side plates 67. The shaft seal 48 turbines 46 is carried out by contact seals 78 with the spherical surface of the bushing 79, secured tightly on the shaft 48 and forming the spherical surface of the shaft. The spherical surface of the bushing 79 is made coaxial sphere swing bearing 50, i.e., the geometric center of the sphere sleeve 79, made of radius1coincides with the geometric center of the sphere swing bearing 50, made of radius R. the Seal 78 tightened against the sleeve 79 by the spring 80 through the presser sleeve 81. To the bearing housing 51 is attached hermetically sealed capsule 82, in which is placed the generator 83, the shaft of which is connected to the shaft 48 of the turbine 46 through the PTO clutch 84. Electrical cable 85 from the generator 83 is shown hermetically through the sleeve 86 into the cavity of the spacer pipe 63 and forth on the shore.

In another embodiment, the seal is effected by contact of the seals 87 flat surface of the sleeves 88, fastened tightly on the shaft 48 and creates a flat end surface of the shaft. The preload of the seal 87 is produced in the 91, moreover, the elements 89, 90 and 91 together constitute the expansion joint end play of the shaft. This design provides compensation to end the beating of the sleeve 88, produced by the rotation of the shaft due to the deformation of the frame and the turbine in the flow of water.

To install the unit (in the variant shown in Fig.1-8) in the core of the flow of water, which is determined by measuring the velocity profile in the channel of the river, adjusts the length of the spacer element 13 by means of studs 31 and the position of the frame 7 turbine 1 relative to the uprights 8. Then the unit is transported in the river by a cable (Fig. 1-8 not shown) attached to the cargo loops 15 on the runners 10 (manual, tractor, winch, and others ), and from demolition by the flow of water the unit is retained by the cable 14 connecting the onshore support 12 with the frame 7. After installation of the unit in the core of the flow of water spacer element 13 is fixed to the shore of the support 11 and the cable 14 keeps the unit from demolition by the flow of water.

The device operates as follows. A stream of water flowed at a flow shaper 7, where interacting with the bottom plate 20 installed at an acute angle to the incident flow, presses the hydraulic unit to the bottom of the river and the trail is Bina 1 is transmitted to the oscillator-multiplier 34 through the drive coupling 39, telescopic shafts 37, 36 and the sleeve 38.

When installing the unit on an uneven bottom frame 7 is deformed, and the efforts that occur when exposed to water flow, deformed turbine 1, causing offsets and misalignments of the shafts 3, 4 bearings 2 relative to each other, which can be compensated by a rotation of the spherical bushings 24 in the areas of the flanges 25. In the case of standard bearings for rotation of the turbine are used sealed options compensators strains 5 and transmission of torque from turbine 1 to the generator with multiplier.

In another embodiment (Fig.9-18), in the initial position of the unit, adjust the length of the spacer element 63 is made by selection of the length of sections 75, 76, 77, and changing the position of the turbine 1 to the frame 7 in height - adjustment mechanism 60. The unit faces in the river, fond of water flow, is rotated around the abutment 61 on a rigid spacer element 63 and moving along the arc of a circle, is moved into position, the booster cables 64, mounted on the coast of the support 62. Slipping on uneven soil and small stones at the bottom of the riverbed provide runners is gregate in water flow and optimal shading turbine provides a flow shaper 73, the bottom plate 68 which is set at an acute angle to the incident flow and has a length more than twice the diameter of the turbine. Compensation of deformations of the frame 53 and the turbine 46 that may occur when installing the unit on an uneven bottom and from the effects of water flow on the turbine 46 is provided with a spherical bearing 50, which is protected from water penetration seals 78 in contact with the spherical bushing 79.

This device operates as follows. A stream of water flowed at a flow shaper 73 through the package edges of the plates 72, reflecting the floating objects, acts on the bottom plate 68 mounted at an acute angle to the incident flow, presses the hydraulic unit to the bottom of the river and its main mass, directed the driver to the turbine 46, spins it in spherical bearings 50. Compensation of deformations of the frame 53 and the turbine 46 that may occur when installing the unit on an uneven bottom and from the effects of water flow on the turbine 46, is provided by the swing shaft 48 on the spherical surfaces of radius R, made of geometric centers of the bearings Acting Seal rotary shaft 48 is carried out on areas of R1that coach otnoenie rotary shaft 48 when the swing of the spheres, caused by deformation of the turbine 46 and the frame 53. Torque from the shaft 48 of the turbine 46 through the drive clutch 84 is transmitted to the generator 83, mounted in a sealed capsule 82.

The presence of the coastal system startup unit under the stream of water with the possibility of changing the length of the hard gestationalage element and move the height of the frame with the turbine relative to the runners provides the starting unit in the river and the adjustment of its position relative to the core flow of water in the river, and also increases the efficiency of energy extraction by the unit in water flow. Profiled cross-section of runners (line, oval, circle) virtually eliminates their jamming between the irregularities of the bottom or stones in the river and a deep dive into the soft ground at the bottom of the river. Bottom plate, whose length is more than two times the diameter of the turbine, installed at an acute angle to the incident flow, presses the hydraulic unit to the bottom of the river and provides a stable position during start-up, removal and water flow.

The use of water-wheels, assembled from sections along the longitudinal axis of the turbine, the blades are rotated each otnositelino promotion turbines at its installation in the flow of water without the use of additional funds and also reduces the unevenness of rotation. This is ensured by the fact that at any angle of rotation in the turbine there is always a section that creates an effective torque. The extra bearing between multiple turbines can unify their production and to generate hydroelectric power required by connecting the required number of turbines along their longitudinal axis.

Effective shading of the turbine is determined by the position of the line of intersection of the plane of the bottom plate with a vertical plane passing through the axis of the turbine diameter D in the area bounded by the sizes of from 0.1 D to 0.4 D down from the axis. This improves the utilization rate of energy flow by optimizing the conditions of flow the flow of water to the turbine blades.

Misalignments of the shaft relative to the bearings, resulting in deformation of the turbine from interaction with water flow and deformation of the frame that is installed on an uneven river bottom, are eliminated due to the swing shafts of the turbines on areas of expansion deformation or the use of spherical bearings. This ensures reliable operation of the bearings without distortions and salinvan which provides reliable sealing of the bearing. This allows the use of standard bearings and to increase thereby the reliability and efficiency of the unit.

The placement of the generator with multiplier in the capsule, which is tightly connected with the bearing housing, and performing a kinematic connection between the shaft of the turbine and generator by means of cardan couplings provide reliable operation with standard devices (generator, multiplier and the PTO clutch is part of the unit under water. When the PTO clutch compensates for misalignments of the shaft of the turbine, resulting from its deformation from the interaction with the flow, and frames from installation on uneven river bottom.

A device for the reflection of floating objects provides reliable protection turbines from jamming and damage to floating objects.

The placement of the generator with multiplier on the shore of a rigid spacer element and the transmission of torque from the turbine to the generator via a cardan transmission placed in the cavity of the spacer element, to ensure reliable operation of the generator on the beach and convenient service at any time of year without taking the unit out of the river. Creating hermetic sealing system bearing units and the PTO clutch. The combination of the above characteristics also provides reliable operation and convenient maintenance unit under winter conditions.

1. Run-of-river hydroelectric containing lateral or rotary turbine bearing on its shaft mounted on the fixed to the shore or bottom support frame resting on the runners, and the generator is kinematically associated with the turbine, wherein the channel unit is equipped with a system running in the water flow and adjust the position of the turbine relative to the core flow of water, and connected with the frame shaper stream containing a bottom plate mounted at an acute angle to the incident flow and shading from him the lower part of the turbine, and the length of the bottom plate more than twice the diameter of the turbine, and the bearings of the shafts of the turbine is placed in the spherical joints deformations of the frame and turbines.

2. The unit under item 1, characterized in that the line of intersection of the plane of the bottom plate with a vertical plane passing through the longitudinal axis of the turbine, is located below the axis and removed from it at a distance of from 0.1 D to 0.4 D, and the gap between the turbine and the bottom plate is I, what system its launch in the flow of water includes a rigid spacer element, the hinge connecting with the abutment frame, attached to the other shore support through flexible power element, and the frame is on the skids, with the possibility of moving in height.

4. The unit under item 2, characterized in that the generator is placed on the shore, and the kinematic connection with the shaft of the turbine made by cardan transmission.

5. The unit under item 3, characterized in that the turbine shaper thread provided with a protective device to reflect the floating objects made in the form of a package of ribs - plates, oriented along the bottom plate and forming guide channels for the flow of water, swept the turbine.

6. The unit under item 5, characterized in that the spherical expansion joint deformations placed in a hermetically sealed enclosure, seal the rotating shaft on the spherical surfaces of the housing or the shaft, which is coaxial spherical bearing surfaces of the compensator deformations.

7. The unit under item 6, characterized in that the seal is made on the flat end surface of the housing or the shaft and gopalakrishan in the capsule, tightly connected with the bearing housing, the kinematic connection between the shaft of the turbine and generator implemented by the PTO clutch, and a transmission line from the generator to the onshore electrical laid through the tube, tightly connected to the capsule and displayed above the water level.

9. The unit under item 8, characterized in that the transmission line is laid in a sealed cavity rigid spacer element.

10. The unit under item 2, characterized in that the turbine is placed on a frame sequentially along their longitudinal axis, provided with additional supports and interconnected cardan couplings.

 

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FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.

SUBSTANCE: device has metallic hubs of stator and rotor, wherein crowns of stator and rotor are concentrically pressed. Crowns of stator and rotor are made of durable ceramics and are additionally equipped with connections, allowing to exclude non-controlled turning of crowns in hubs and spontaneous axial displacement thereof.

EFFECT: higher reliability and efficiency.

2 dwg

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