Method of producing charcoal

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the management of pyrolysis of wood in uglevyzhigatelnuyu furnaces. The essence of the invention lies in the fact that in the pyrolysis process control the intensity of heat exposure on the raw materials and the adjustment of the heat conducted from the condition that the parameter characterized by the integral function of the intensity of heat exposure, is always in the limits for each stage of the pyrolysis process. The adjustment of the heat produced by changing the spatial position of the container in thermal field of the furnace. The technical result improved quality of coal, the achievement of uniform thermal treatment of raw materials, excluding phenomena such as incomplete combustion and burnout of the coal. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il.

The invention relates to woodworking area, in particular the production of charcoal.

The closest, according to the applicant, to the claimed method is a method of producing charcoal and device for its implementation (and. C. 1834277 6 To 10 In 53/02), which includes the loading of raw materials in a metal retort, heating the raw material through the wall of the retort and cooling of coal before heating the raw material through the wall of the retort the raw material is subjected to preliminary heating of the flue gases.

In the known method thermal field has different temperature characteristics: in the upper part temperature is higher than the bottom, resulting in incomplete combustion of the lower layers of the raw materials and burnout top. End up in a known manner the coal is of heterogeneous quality of the composition, resulting in not ensured its high quality.

The invention is aimed at improving the quality of charcoal.

The required technical result is achieved by the fact that in the pyrolysis process, taking place during combustion of wood, regulate the degree of heat by changing the spatial position of the raw material inside the cavity.

It is known that in the process of upeveryone distribution of the temperature field in the furnace chamber is non-uniform and depends on many environmental parameters and stages of the pyrolysis process. Strong convection heat flow to the arch of the furnace leads to the fact that there is a underburning lower layers of raw materials and burnout top. In addition, various factors affecting the process of pyrolysis of wood, contribute to the formation of thermal instability in the whole volume of the furnace. Attempt any of srbih, the high mobility of gas flows, heat transfer; secondly, the length of the heat transfer process.

A causal relationship between the required technical result and declare the distinguishing characteristics is that, by changing the spatial position of the raw material inside the cavity by moving it from the zone of high temperatures in the zone of low temperatures and Vice versa, to achieve uniform thermal treatment on the treated raw materials, excluding phenomena such as incomplete combustion and burnout of the coal, and, consequently, improve the quality of coal.

To achieve this goal it is proposed to use experimentally established and proven communication degree heat on the wood and the quality of the coal, which ultimately improves the quality of the product by regulating the intensity of heat on the wood. Production of charcoal is changing the spatial position of the sections with the raw material in a non-uniform thermal field.

The invention is characterized by the following essential features.

Restrictive signs - download Siri - raw material is loaded into a removable container mounted inside the cavity. Use the integral function of the intensity of heat exposure time. Adjustment of the pyrolysis process is changing the spatial location of the sections with the raw material on the basis of that parameter, characterized by the integral function of the intensity of heat exposure, is always in the limits for each stage of the pyrolysis process. If the value of integral of a function of the intensity of heat exposure above the norm, is the movement of raw materials in the colder zone of the furnace and Vice versa.

The integral function of the intensity of heat is determined by the formula

< / BR>
where - degree heat;

0- the initial condition defined by the value before the next move of the container;

T - recordable devices the temperature of the container;

t is the time since the change of the spatial position of the container.

In Fig.1 shows the process of regulating the degree of heat exposure on raw materials.

Justification of the method consists in the following. In the process of upeveryone the distribution of t is s, and the stages of the pyrolysis process. Strong convection heat flow to the arch of the furnace leads to the fact that (in conventional furnaces) is the incomplete burning of the lower layers of the raw materials and burnout top. In addition, various factors affecting the process of pyrolysis of wood: its own moisture content, grade, etc., contribute to the formation of thermal instability in the whole volume of the furnace. Attempts in some way to stabilize thermal field does not lead to the desired results because of several reasons: first, as a result of high dynamic gas flow, heat transfer; secondly, in the time consuming process of heat transfer.

The proposed method is implemented by changing the spatial position of the containers of raw materials in the temperature box furnace. Recording equipment allows to indirectly estimate the temperature of the internal environment of the container and the time-temperature exposure. According to the data obtained is determined by the degree of thermal treatment on the treated raw materials and the decision about the future location of the container in this thermal area or move to a cooler (hot) area. The decision is made on the basis of the calculated parameter, which must fall within preprecujemo method is proposed to use the splitting into several containers of raw materials, in a certain way oriented in the furnace volume. Changing the spatial orientation of the container, it is possible to achieve uniform heat exposure, maximizing the useful volume of the furnace.

An example implementation of the proposed method

Installation involves downloading the wood in removable containers with the subsequent location of the containers inside the furnace, where the process of pyrolysis. Loading of containers is carried out through the loading hatch. The containers are mounted on wheels driven by the rotation of the shaft, mounted and driven through gear transmission. Under the building there is a collection of žižka.

Heat to heat the wood and ensure the process perepilivanija wood in containers receive from the gaseous products of combustion in the furnace. Kindling fuel lead seal housing from the furnace.

At the end of the process perepilivanija and cooling of the coal hatch open and the containers removed from the wheels to unload.

In Fig.2-4 depict uglevyzhigatelnuyu oven, which carry out the inventive method, respectively type, side, top.

The room is;

4 - wheel (yoke);

5 - bearing shaft;

6 is a removable container;

7 - detachable swivel;

8 - driven actuator;

9 - chimneys;

10 - flap;

11 - the detector;

12 - lock hatch cover;

13 - measuring thermocouple;

14 - a collection of žižka;

15 - furnace flue;

16 - furnace.

The process of producing charcoal in the present setting as follows. Open the charging port 3. Four removable container with 6 pre-loaded and dried wood in turn are mounted on wheels 4, wherein the bearing shaft 5 rotates the drive to ensure the supply of detachable hinges wheels to the rods removable containers. After coupling the rotating wheels with demountable container demountable swivel 7 are fixed to ensure rotation of the rod removable container. After all removable containers loaded into the case, closed the boot hatch. The charging port is covered by the perimeter of the clay to asbestos. Open flues 9, then through the furnace door furnace 16 is loaded and the ignition of the fuel. Once the fuel rangerettes pyrolysis. During the course of the pyrolysis process, the measured time recorders, measure the temperature of the roof and hearth furnace temperature recorders (for example, when thermocouples are compared with experimentally obtained boundary temperature curves and determine the intensity of heat exposure on raw materials. In the case of uneven intense heat shall move containers from the hot region to the cold and Vice versa. Moving containers in the furnace body is carried out by rotation of the hollow rotor shaft 5 with a controlled drive 8. When this torque is transmitted from the rotor shaft to the rotating wheel 4 mounted thereon. The rotation of the wheel results in movement of the containers with raw materials, and containers maintain a horizontal orientation due to the articulation 7.

The proposed method can be implemented in both in-patient (factory) and mobile (close to timber harvesting).

1. Method of producing charcoal, including the loading of raw materials into the furnace, pre-drying of raw materials, subsequent heating it in the furnace and cooling the resulting coal, characterized in that the raw material is loaded into p the awn thermal impact on raw materials and on the basis of the obtained data are adjusted heat exposure by changing the spatial position of the container in thermal field of the furnace, however, the intensity of heat is determined by the formula

< / BR>
where is the intensity of the heat exposure;

0- the initial condition defined by the value before the next move of the container;

T - recordable devices the temperature of the container;

T is the time since the change of the spatial position of the container.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the control of the intensity of heat exposure is carried out by registrars temperature, time, and sensor spatial location of the containers of raw materials.

 

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Charcoal kiln // 2256686

FIELD: wood-chemical production.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of resin industry, in particular, to wood-chemical production and also intended for production of charcoal and for complex utilization of wood wastes. The charcoal kiln contains a heat-insulated chamber of pyrolysis and drying used for installation of containers with firewood, a fire box, a scatter, a pipeline with an air blower and a cooler. At that the drying chamber is supplied with a heater and it is stand-alone unit. The scatter represents vertically placed perforated headers fixed in the lower part of the container communicating with a gas duct of the fire-box through a compactor. The fire box is made in the form of in series connected a gas generator and a combustion chamber. The pipeline is supplied with a heat insulation. The cooler is made in the form of a jacket-tubular heat-exchanger, the inter-pipe space of which is connected with the heater of the stand-alone drying chamber and the air blower is located behind the cooler. The invention allows to improve the operational characteristics of the charcoal kiln at production of the high quality charcoal.

EFFECT: the invention ensures improved the charcoal kiln operational characteristics at production of the high quality charcoal.

1 dwg

Ablative reactor // 2281313

FIELD: chemical mechanical engineering; reactors for fast pyrolysis of wood and peat.

SUBSTANCE: proposed reactor has pyrolizer equipped with rotor made in form of hollow cylinder with blades rigidly secured on its lateral surface and located at equal distance relative to one another for smooth heating of its lateral surface; reactor is also provided with loading bin. Pyrolizer is provided with turbine mounted under rotor; turbine has several blades rigidly secured on its shaft. Turbine shaft and hollow cylinder of rotor are rigidly interconnected. Loading bin is engageable with hollow cylinder. Pyrolizer is made in form of truncated cone whose larger base is directed upward; it is mounted in housing for rotation about its axis. Rotor is located in upper part of pyrolizer coaxially relative to it for rotation around its axis in direction opposite to direction of rotation of pyrolizer at rate equal to rate of pyrolizer. Blades of rotor and turbine are made in form of right-angled trapeziums whose large bases are directed upward.

EFFECT: high yield of vapor-and-gas product.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: environmental protection.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises furnace, heating chamber, plate, vertical removable retort tightly mounted on the plate for permitting pyrolytic gases to be discharged in the bottom section of the retort, and gas duct for supplying gases to the furnace. The plate is made of heat-resistant material and has opening that receives unmovable device for discharging pyrolytic gases to the gas duct. The plate is provided with gate valve made of a heat-resistant loose material . The retort is tightly mounted on the valve gate. The device for discharging the pyrolytic gases is made of a section or two sections of a pipe. The plate is made of a heat-resistant steel.

EFFECT: improved environmental protection.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: petroleum processing.

SUBSTANCE: hydrocarbon stock processing that can be used in production of activated carbon comprises preliminary thermal treatment thereof using gaseous heat carrier followed by processing at 200-900°C in reactor under reductive gas atmosphere in presence of saturated steam supply, cooling, and discharging activated carbon. Reductive gas is generated by combusting hydrocarbon fuel with air consumption ratio below 1.0 and then mixed with thermochemical processing gases in proportion 1:(0.1-10). In order to control temperature conditions, reductive gas is fed to at least three reaction zones and, prior to be fed to each individual reaction zone, reductive gas is preliminarily mixed in proportion ensuring specified temperature conditions in different zones, whereas process is carried out according to known temperature regimes in production of products with specified parameters.

EFFECT: expanded process possibilities due to enabled temperature conditions control, increased accuracy in achieving specified parameters of product, and reduced power consumption.

2 cl, 1 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; medicine; woodworking industry; methods and devices used for production of the charcoal.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the wood pyrolysis in the retorts. The invention provides for, that on the charging platform the retorts are loaded with the raw, for example, the raw wood. Then the first retort is placed in the chamber with the minimum heating temperature of 200°С and kept there till the complete removal of the water. At the following stage the first retort is moved in the chamber with the heating temperature up to 400°С, and on its place the second retort is located. At the second stage the separation of the wood gas, resins, acids and alcohol is exercised. In the second half of the second stage the first retort is placed back into the chamber with the heating temperature of 200°С, and the second retort is placed in the chamber with the heating temperature of up to 400°С. Then the first retort is relocated into the chamber with the heating temperature of up to 550°С. At that they exercise separation of the mixture of the gases and the solid fractions of the product, the second retort is placed in the chamber with the heating temperature up to 400°С, and the third retort - in the chamber with the heating temperature of 200°С. Upon termination of the process the first retort is placed on the site for cooling. The rest retorts are relocated according to the above mentioned scheme. After cooling the first retort is placed on the turnover device, where the retort contents moved to the receiving hopper. The invention allows to improve the quality and to increase output of the charcoal.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the improved quality and increased output of the charcoal.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction of power stations operated from carbonaceous refuse, and can be used for construction of lower-power power stations using plant refuse as fuel (wood chips of dry and sick trees, milled root crops, canes, branches, grapevine, wood processing refuse). Biopower station contains pyrolysis plant and gas-operated power facility, equipped with moisture separator and gasholder. Pyrolysis plant comprises inclined gasproof thermal enclosure with in-built angularly 45-50° hermetically sealed ribbed pipe retorts connected to vertical hermetically sealed loading and unloading box-type feeders. Upper part of retorts is attached to gas pipelines connected through moisture separator and gasholder with power facility. Exhaust pass of power facility is connected with thermal enclosure in its bottom section. Biopower station is additionally equipped with starting combustor and recovery boiler.

EFFECT: development of nonwaste technology of thermal refuse utilisation.

1 dwg

FIELD: woodworking.

SUBSTANCE: declared group of inventions concerns method of wood biomass treatment in the form of combustive chips with receiving of bio-oils and wood coal, including drying, pyrolysis of wood biomass, wood coal tempering, selection of bio-oils from gas-vapor pyrolysis and coal in a one module, withdrawal of forming gas-vapor mixture of pyrolysis volatile products, at that formed pyrolysis gas-vapor with minimal temperature is withdrawaled from the area of active thermal decomposition with selection of bio-oils and directed to combustion chamber simultaneously to fed air, which is necessary for burning of deresined gas-vapor, at that fuel gases, formed during burning of deresined gas-vapor, at first dispose its heat for wood coal tempering, process of raw materials pyrolysis and then is directed for blending and forming of raw drying heat carrier, and also to the drying- retort module for wood biomass treatment in the form of combustive chips with receiving of bio-oils and wood coal, containing vertically installed body, divided by overclampings for drying chamber, chamber of wood biomass pyrolysis, mounted in top and bottom parts of facility body for charging of raw materials and discharge of coal, combustion chamber, unit of bio-oils selection and the first gaseous circuit in the form of gas flue with gas blower for feeding of gas-vapours pyrolysis chamber of wood biomass and coal tempering into combustion chamber, located in pyrolysis area of wood biomass and coal tempering, at that module is additionally outfitted by blending chamber for forming of drying heat carrier, connected through the gaseous circuit to combustion chamber, and the second gaseous circuit in the form of gas flue with regulating cap for feeding of smoke fumes from combustion chamber to the bottom part of drying area of wood biomass.

EFFECT: usage of mentioned above inventions provides increasing of utilisation level of wood refuses with receiving of bio-fuel with high energy density, increasing of method dedicated throughput and module and providing of ecology at the expense of toxic discharges into environmental absence.

4 cl, 5 dwg

Wood pyrolyser // 2346023

FIELD: heating systems, drying.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used when utilising industrial wood residue. Dried raw material is put into pyrolysis chamber 1. Into drying chamber 2 live wood is put. Industrial wood residue supplied to silo 26 is fed to gas-generating furnace 5 with screw feeder 14. Gases generated in gas-generating furnace 5 are supplied via gas duct to pyrolysis chamber 1. At wood warming-up stage there supplied is generator gas, with the help of gas blower 4, from pyrolysis chamber 1 through outlet branch pipe 27 and condenser 3 to burner device 7, where it is burning. Flue gases appearing during generator gas burning provide for an additional heating of raw material through pyrolysis chamber 1 wall. After that flue gases are supplied to drying chamber 2 through outlet branch pipe 31 of combustion chamber 6.

EFFECT: improving process efficiency and reducing operating costs.

1 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: furnace for wood waste pyrolysis includes burner, retort, heat supply and furnace gas outlet pipes. The retort is enameled from inside.

EFFECT: reduced heat exchange of retort with environment, accelerated pyrolysis process, improved performance of wood carbonisation furnace.

1 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be applied in thermal decomposition of solid waste. Waste is fed to pyrolysis chamber volume by auger 10. Heating of carbon-containing waste is implemented by contact of solid waste to heating pipe 4 surface. Pyrolytic gas is discharged through pipe 13, and hot solid waste is poured from pipe 12 to lower part of discharge device 8 to cooling chamber 14 where it begins to cool down. When a certain solid waste level in discharge device 8 is achieved, level sensor signal activates star valve 15 of upper gate unit. As solid remainders discharged to cooling chamber 14 cool down, thermal sensor 25 generates signal for activation of star valve 16 of lower gate unit.

EFFECT: enhanced operational efficiency of pyrolysis chamber.

2 cl, 3 dwg

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