The method of manufacture of geometrically-complex axisymmetric parts from hard-multiphase alloys and device for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of metal forming and can be used to obtain accurate parts details drive type complex shapes with significant variations in thickness and diameter and with a deep estampame odnotrahniki made of truttiformis multiphase alloys, in particular of heat-resistant Nickel alloys. Profiled workpiece is set to lock, and rotate and expose the local morphology of the peripheral part at temperatures above 0.4 melting point, but below the temperature of collective recrystallization, at a rate of 10-3-102c-1. Local formation lead by the compression of the peripheral portion of the workpiece at least one roller in the direction of its forming mandrel, simultaneously serving for fixing the Central part. The period of rotation of the workpiece relative to the local instrument set no less time intensive stress relaxation in deformed areas. Device for the manufacture of parts contains nodes axial fixation and rotation of the workpiece, equipped with devices for installation mandrels, m fixing rollers. To rotate and move the rollers are designed actuators. The furnace walls are movable part located around the holes for inserting the roller can move in the axial direction together with the roller over the entire length of its stroke. The result is increased productivity and expanding the technological capabilities of the method of manufacturing while simplifying device. 2 C. and 24 C.p. f-crystals, 23 ill.

The invention relates to the field of metal forming, in particular to methods produce accurate parts details drive type complex shapes with significant variations in thickness and diameter, with deep estampame odnotrahniki manufactured from hard-multiphase alloys, in particular of heat-resistant Nickel alloys.

A known method of manufacturing parts from difficult-to-deform alloys by the method of forming fine-grained billet under superplastic conditions, known as "GatorizingTM[1]. At the first stage of the method of severe plastic deformation (extrusion with large hoods) are made super-plastic semi-finished product, which in the second stage is subjected to stamping. This method is padami. However, its capabilities are very limited by the lack of a method of forming consists in the fact that almost every product is made in the corresponding stamp. Therefore, with increasing the range of products a growing number of expensive stamps. In addition, to implement the method, you need a powerful press equipment and massive expensive die tooling.

The closest in technical essence is a method of manufacturing a geometrically-complex axisymmetric parts from hard-multiphase alloys having Central and peripheral, mostly in the form of the rim part, including the installation of profiled workpieces, with the possibility of fixation and rotation and local shaping of the peripheral part at temperatures above 0.4 melting point, but below the temperature of collective recrystallization, at a rate of 10-3-102c-1through a tool for local deformation in the form of a roller having at least three degrees of freedom [2].

This method allows you to produce complex design of axisymmetric parts.

Generalized favorable distribution of the busy condition is the workpiece material in the deformable zone of the peripheral part;

s- the resistance to deformation of the workpiece material in predefiniowanych areas of the peripheral and Central parts;

q - pressure (specific force) of the tool on the workpiece.

However, there is a large class of axisymmetric parts of the Central and peripheral parts, whose peripheral part is not only a complex profile and developed surface, but the volume and surface area significantly greater than the Central part. In addition, often the shape of the peripheral part is nestanaios because it has a tapering or odnotrahniki cavity. The prototype does not resolve the problem of obtaining such details because for the formation of a complex shape and a developed area of the peripheral surface of the part must be laminated massive peripheral portion of the workpiece with large degrees of deformation. This can be done only under conditions of hot deformation, including superplastic providing high plastic properties of the material. Despite the fact that in these conditions the voltage reaches of the little metal to deformation (displacement) of the massive volume of the peripheral part requires a large load - effort and specific efforts that are greater than the pain is TKE this area (restricted) hindered deformation, characterized by the distance between its outer and inner diameters. The rollers during rolling pressure on the inner surface of the rim, but to ensure that the procurement was increased in diameter, the deformation zone should be developed to the outer surface of the rim. The greater this distance, the more pressure (specific force) should influence the tool on the workpiece. The amount of hard end can be estimated by the ratio of the above diameters. If this ratio is greater than the value 1,5 -1,8, then you have to put such pressure and effort that will lead to changes in size and shape and also in previously formed by rolling a thin part of the disk in the canvas. Approximately the same value is limited to the ratio of the axial dimensions of the Central and peripheral parts, i.e., rolled rim and laminated fabric. Consequently, the volume and weight of the rolled peripheral portion of the disc as a whole is also limited.

Used in the prototype techniques prevent deformation of the blade provide a solution to the problem of rolling of a billet with more massive than is permissible, the peripheral part. Thus, in the prototype increases the resistance of the canvas padding material as a result of his podsta is hladiny deformable part to the critical temperature, in which reduced the ductility of the alloy, grow voltage current, and this again leads to an increase in investments. In other cases, ad hoc cooling leads to raznozernistoy. Also, you can significantly reduce the radial strain rate, since this will reduce the contact patch of the workpiece, the deformation zone, which largely increase the influence of the hard end.

One of the conditions for the implementation of local formation according to the method of the prototype is the availability of billets prepared for superplastic deformation of the structure. Preparation of fine-grained structure is carried out on the individual rather time-consuming process associated with the need for intensive deformation of the workpiece.

Thus, in the manufacture of geometrically-complex large-axisymmetric parts from hard-multiphase alloys there is the problem of obtaining an accurate parts with complex shape and developed peripheral part.

The objective of the invention is to provide a method of manufacture of multiphase alloys geometrically-complex axisymmetric parts of Central and developed adaca method is the expansion of technological capabilities through the use of both pieces with fine-grained, and due to the structure and the corresponding structure of the deformation mode.

The problem is solved in that in the known method of manufacture of geometrically-complex axisymmetric parts from hard-multiphase alloys having Central and peripheral, mostly in the form of the rim part, including the installation of profiled workpieces, with the possibility of fixation and rotation and local shaping of the peripheral part at temperatures above 0.4 melting point, but below the temperature of collective recrystallization, at a rate of 10-3-102c-1through a tool for local deformation in the form of a roller having at least three degrees of freedom, the local shaping is performed by the compression of the peripheral part of the profiled workpiece in the direction of its forming by at least one roller on the mandrel, simultaneously serving for fixing the Central part of the profiled workpiece, with the period of rotation of the workpiece relative to the local instrument set no less time intensive stress relaxation in deformed areas.

Local shaping osushestvljaju workpiece, used the workpiece, at least a portion of the profiled peripheral part which has an outer diameter greater than the diameter of the finished part.

Local shaping is performed using the mandrel, the diameter of which corresponds to the external diameter of the profiled blanks, using the workpiece, at least a portion of the profiled peripheral part which has an internal diameter less than the diameter of the finished piece:

the period of rotation of the billets of aluminum alloys chosen not more than 0.25 s;

the period of rotation of the billet of titanium and heat-resistant Nickel alloys chosen in the range of 0.25-100;

the period of rotation for the workpiece due to the structure chosen within 50-100;

the period of rotation for billets with fine-grained structure is chosen in the range of 10-50;

the period of rotation for billets with submicrocrystalline structure is chosen in the range of 0.25-10;

local morphology perform one or more operations, the number of which is selected depending on the pre-profiling of the original piece and its structure;

as the initial take a piece prepared for the CBE is t in a single operation;

as the initial take a piece prepared for superplastic deformation structure, profiled in the Central part and the peripheral ledge, the local morphology perform two operations, and the first operation receive a workpiece in the form of a Cup;

as the original take of the workpiece due to the structure, profiled in the Central part and the peripheral thick wall hanging, local morphology perform two operations, and the first operation receive a workpiece in the form of a Cup with compression of the peripheral part by 50-75% in the temperature-speed conditions of superplasticity;

the first forming operation carried out for several transitions with the use of reverse movement of the roller;

use collapsible mandrel;

the temperature on the deforming surface of the mandrel support in the temperature range of superplastic material of the workpiece;

when getting parts like the glass uniformly tapering profile perform an additional operation of local forming the peripheral portion of the workpiece using a single roller;

upon receiving the details of the type stack is receiving one roller and mandrel with an outer diameter, equal to the minimum inner diameter of the peripheral part;

perform an additional operation of local forming the peripheral portion of the workpiece using two rollers located on different sides of the formed wall.

perform an additional operation of local forming the peripheral portion of the workpiece using two rollers located on different sides of the formed wall, and the mandrel, and the first operation using the roller and mandrel, and the subsequent video;

when the local molding of parts from heat-resistant Nickel alloys provide the heating temperature on the deformable surface of the peripheral portion of the workpiece in the range from a temperature deformation to the temperature exceeding the lower threshold temperature for superplastic, fine-grained material.

A device for the manufacture of geometrically-complex axisymmetric parts having Central and peripheral, mostly in the form of a rim, the part of hard-multiphase alloys containing nodes axial fixation and rotation of the workpiece, which are equipped with devices for installation mandrel, and at me Executive mechanisms to ensure rotation and movement of the rollers [2].

This device uses a large number of drive rollers, any movement, including rotation, which require coordination, both among themselves and with the rotation of the part. The latter complicates the construction and increases the amount actuators, complicates the system management and control. It is impossible satisfactory agreement between the rotational speeds of the rollers in the case of rolling of workpieces with the undercut, the so-called estampame profiles.

In addition, in order to carry out the deformation of the Central part of the shaft requires the introduction into the furnace cantilever rollers at greater depth. This is only possible for parts of a very simple configuration type shaft.

The device may not be used for parts that have well-developed peripheral part in the form of geometrically-complex thin-walled rim with the undercut and significant differences in diameter in the axial direction.

Object of the invention is the ability to manufacture parts like disk, shell, has developed a peripheral part in the form of geometrically-complex thin-walled rim with the undercut and significant differences in diameter in the axial napravlenie for the manufacture of geometrically-complex axisymmetric parts, having Central and peripheral, mostly in the form of a rim, the part of hard-multiphase alloys containing nodes axial fixation and rotation of the workpiece, which are equipped with devices for installation mandrel, and at least one roller with retainer, a working oven with holes in the walls to enter the host part of the fixing rollers and enforcement mechanisms to ensure that the rotation and movement of the rollers, wall oven made with a movable part located around the holes for inserting the roller can move in the axial direction together with the roller over the entire length of a given stroke of the roller.

The fixing unit is equipped with devices for the installation of a collapsible mandrel.

The fixing unit is equipped with shaft and bushings for the transmission of torque to the work piece.

The retainer is further provided with a heat-shielding screen. Working furnace is further provided with a separate chamber for placement of her instrument and pre-warm it.

The camera is combined with a movable part of the wall of the furnace.

The result is the creation of a favourable distribution of the stress-strain state (is specified in tool direction, and in other less level, causing plastic deformation. Under favorable VAT refers not only to the according values of the deformation of the acquired form, but also the formation or maintenance of the necessary deformation of the structure, including accumulation of potentially dangerous to the formation or operation of defects and ensure its homogeneity.

Evaluate the influence of geometrical factors - the size of a shifting amount of the workpiece and strain rate on the ratio of (1) representing in the aggregate a favorable distribution of VAT.

The average pressure q exerted by the roller on the workpiece, is defined as

q=F/S, (2)

where S is the contact area of the workpiece, F - full force of the tool on the workpiece at the contact patch.

The magnitude of this force can be represented through the internal stresses in deformed body

F = niS (3)

where n- the ratio of the stress state. It depends on the size of the hard end,i- the intensity of internal stresses.

With sufficient accuracy for engineering analysis, you can take that with a given deformation skorostnoi- voltage currents. Anddepends on strain rate

= Km, (4)

where K is an empirical coefficient, m - speed voltage sensitivity of the flow.

Using expression (2), (3) and (4), we obtain

q = nKm. (5)

In the last equation is the average for one turn (for the period of rotation of the workpiece relative to the roller) speed of deformation of each local area. Instantaneous speedmdeformation plot can be defined as

m= V/L, (6)

where V is the velocity of crowding of the metal of the workpiece on the tool, L is the length of contact of the workpiece with the tool in the direction of crowding.

When a constant value compression tool (in the direction of the axis in the proposed method, and between the rollers in the prototype) speed V consists of two components: V- peripheral rotation speed of the workpiece and Vaaxial displacement rate of the instrument (for prototype, this radial velocity Vr). In scalar form of the equation of linear velocities can be written as V = (V2+V2a)1/2. With the latest'll get:

m= V/L = (V2+V2a)1/2/L (7)

The average speed per rotation, what is the period of rotation of the workpiece.

In turn, T = t+, where the time of the idle run of the deformable section, and >>t, therefore, we can assume that T, thenmt/.

Used parameters are interrelated: t = L/Vr; Vr= R; = 2/T, where is the angular velocity, R is the current radius of deformation of the peripheral part, 3,14.

Hence, the instantaneous and average speed can accordingly be represented as:

< / BR>
-1[1+(Va/V)2]1/2. (10)

After substitution of the expression (10) in expression (5) we get:

žqkn-m[1+(Va/V)2]m/2, (11)

or, if we consider that V= R; a = 2/T in another form:

žqkn-m[1+(Va/2R)2]m/2(12)

The expression (12) is true for the proposed method and for the prototype, only in the latter case, instead of Vait will generate a velocity Vr.

In the expression (12) the value of the expression enclosed in square brackets is close to unity, because the formation of large parts of the circumference (2R) significantly exceeds the amount of feed of the tool per revolution (Vaand therefore the ratio (Va/2R)2this small value.

After simplified the equation (13) shows what if we do not take into account the coefficients K and m, reflecting the influence of structure, and it is quite valid during hot deformation SPD, the pressure depends on the period. As it is located in the denominator, increasing q decreases, with a decrease in q increases. However, the change of season varies affects q for the proposed method and the prototype because of the factor n. So the reduction period, the proposed method leads to inversely proportional growth q, because the hard end here does not affect q and the ratio of nis almost constant number that is close in value to one.

In the prototype, the pressure depends on the size of the hard end of the deformation zone. The coefficient of nnonlinear depends on these parameters. With increasing strain rate increases the value of the stresses acting within a deformable region. In the change of intensity of these stressesiand so it has again reached a high voltage currentcorresponding to the increased speed, it is necessary to increase the pressure of the tool.

So in the end, with increasing strain rate, the pressure increases on the tough end. This impact reflects the factorthat varies from 2 to 5. Therefore, the same specific force of the tool on the workpiece corresponding to the condition (1), the proposed method provides a greater level voltage currentin the peripheral part and correspondingly high speed of deformation and performance compared to the prototype.

Thus the lack of mutual influence of the period and the ratio of the stress state can significantly increase the effect of increasing the voltage from decreasing the rotation period, the proposed method under the condition (1).

In the proposed method, the performance can be increased not only by reducing the period of rotation of the workpiece, but by changing the ratio between the velocities Va/V. In the prototype to do that, as noted earlier, it is impossible, because the decrease in Vr. the influence diagrams of the stress state, while increasing the V- increases, as will be shown below, the time, leading to deformation of the formed part.

The choice of the period of rotation is associated with the characteristics of deformation in the local morphology periferiinoi part repeatedly exposed to cyclical effects of the tool due to the fact, that the workpiece is rotated relative to the tool, and the tool is gradually moved in the direction of the generatrix of the peripheral part. While the direct impact of the tool within the local deformation zone operated shift voltage, bias the workpiece material in a given tool direction. After the release of any part of the contact with the tool during its idle run up to repeated exposure tool induces relaxation of the material, and induced the instrument voltage drop. On the microstructural level in the relaxation time decreases the defect density, for example, due to the annihilation of dislocations. Since the deformation zone at the site of the impact tool exceeds, especially for fine-grained structure, the area of direct contact of the workpiece with the tool, i.e. the length of the lesion in the direction of the generatrix substantially more than the amount of feed of the tool per revolution, some of the material during the rotation of the workpiece relative to the tool again again and again exposed to the tool. During the rotation of the workpiece with a period, not exceeding intensive relaxation, the voltage drop in the number of the mechanical properties, in particular, the shear stress and plasticity. Proof of this are specially made experiments. They determined the time of intense stress relaxation currents after unloading tensile sample. It was also compared levels of plasticity voltage and current samples subjected to continuous stretching and intermittent (cyclic) stretch. When this intermittent stretching was carried out with the unloading of the sample with a relaxation time greater than a time of intense stress relaxation. It was found that in the highly temperature-resistant alloy for a time of about 1-5 with voltage drop in a few times. In addition, the voltage level of the cyclically deformed with the set period of the sample was about the same as those subjected to continuous strain and elongation 1.5-2 times more.

In the prototype, when reducing the period of rotation of the workpiece about the workpiece will increase the tangential component of Fefforts, forming a point. This point, together with the radial component of Fract in the same plane rolling, respectively, twisting and stretching the canvas in its minimum cross-section. Significantly reduce component Fris operating on predeterminado part.

In the proposed method, the increase in Fdue to speed hardening does not significantly affect the growth stresses in the formed part, because this force is smaller than in the prototype, because less than in the corresponding direction of the contact area. Another component is the axial force Faalso not so great and can be set within the desired values by the two methods, with the first due to the choice of q in accordance with the above ratios, and the second reception by varying S, because the method may implemented as one transition (large S), and a few transitions (small S), since there is no influence of the hard end. Therefore, the proposed method is easier to fulfill the condition (1).

Thus, the characteristic lies in the fact that the rotation of the workpiece is not more than time intensive strain relaxation areas, is one of the main and sufficient to create a favourable strain state of the material, without allowing the accumulation of defects to deform it with large degrees of deformation, and one needed to solve the problem.

For improving the productivity and the straps relaxation and to reduce the axial velocity of the tool during the period, i.e., the feed of the tool per revolution of the workpiece. The linear velocity of the tool will be determined by the product of the number of revolutions of the feed per revolution. In addition, when reducing the axial velocity will also decrease the corresponding force that acts as a tensile relative to the formed area of the peripheral portion, i.e., will improve conditions for the implementation of equation (1).

Use the method as a pot pinola improves VAT at least when the deformation of the peripheral part of the billet due to the structure, in which the voltage reaches more than fine-grained structure. This is facilitated by the friction force directed in the opposite direction to the above forces, seeking to change the shape and size progarantirovany peripheral part.

Finally, we note that the formation of the peripheral part in the direction of its generatrix is not the only and definitely possible for local shaping parts with advanced peripheral part. Such details can be manufactured in a different way and from a workpiece made otherwise than in the proposed method. In particular, preparation, peripheral case frame. This, however, does not provide the solution. Moreover, in the process of pre-forming the peripheral part, for example the same rolling, to the required dimensions this will prevent all of the disadvantages inherent in the prototype.

Additional points of the relaxation time depends on several factors, temperature, nature of the alloy structure. The higher the temperature superplastic deformation (SPD) and the smaller the grain size, the faster processes of stress relaxation. Thus, for example, for heat-resistant alloys during deformation at a temperature corresponding to the lower interval SPD requires a longer period, and for fine-grained conventional alloys deformed at high temperatures SPD, short period - 5. For titanium alloys 5, and for aluminum alloys of 0.25.

Relatively small periods of repeated impacts during the formation of the peripheral part are especially favorable for the local deformation of workpieces with fine-grained structure, since it quickly processes of relaxation and this structure provides a high technological plasticity of the workpiece material. The effect of the nature of the alloy for a period of rotation and the relaxation time is ambiguous, vieweg alloys. However, the first material having a low thermal conductivity compared to the second. I.e., the local temperature increase due to deformation can accelerate relaxation, at the same time, the selected heat should not lead to unacceptable overheating. Experimental verification showed that the period of rotation for forming titanium and heat-resistant blanks should be not higher than 100 C.

Additional significant features also develop and clarify the possible solutions to the task.

In accordance with the method forming the peripheral part is made by means of clamps.

The presence of friction developed on the contact surface between the workpiece and the mandrel in the proposed method, unlike the prototype allows for less contact pressure (pressure, pressure) to provide rotation of the workpiece when the local morphology. Moreover, in the proposed method, only one of the three vectors of deformation has an effect in the form of torque on the Central part. However, the voltage in the Central part of this small moment, because they unlike the prototype reduced the higher value of the polar moment of resistance of the center of the Cup relative to the canvas, the deformation of the peripheral zone is performed in two stages, first with getting forms not narrowed Cup with a diameter of not smaller diameter bottom, and then compression on a collapsible mandrel or without mandrel by drawing walls up to the final size.

Local shaping carry out a few operations, the number of which is determined depending on the degree of pre-profiling of the workpiece and patterns. This is due to the fact that the original workpiece can be obtained by different metallurgical methods, such as casting, forging, powder metallurgy, or a combination thereof.

In particular, if there are blanks, profiled in the shape of the glass, prepared for superplastic deformation structure, the number of operations of the local formation can be reduced to almost one operation.

At the same time, the method is feasible, if you use the blank is prepared for superplastic deformation structure, profiled in the Central part and the peripheral ledge.

Moreover, use of the workpiece, profiled in this way, tselesoobraznomu ledge, providing the subsequent deformation transformation of the microstructure in micro - or submicrocrystalline.

Regardless of the final shape of the component, it is recommended to first operation of the local formation to obtain the shape of the workpiece type glass using a mandrel. In some cases this may be the final part shape.

If you want to receive details with a long, thin-walled peripheral part of the recommended shaping to make Paladino for several transitions. This creates optimal conditions for the application of deforming load. By varying the path of movement of the tool roller, changing its inclination relative to the axis of rotation of the workpiece, and the embedding depth of roller succeed in a wide range to adjust the degree of deformation at each transition, and thereby to provide the most favorable conditions of deformation of the peripheral part. This fact is very important for the case of using the workpiece, which in the peripheral part in the initial state formed a coarse grain structure. As is known [3], a coarse grain structure characterized by a very limited resourcepro attempt the manufacture of hard materials axisymmetric parts with well-developed thin-walled peripheral part. Therefore, when using the workpiece, in which a peripheral portion has a coarse structure, you must at first transitions to ensure its transformation into a microcrystalline with a grain size of 1-10 μm or submicrocrystalline with grain size less than 1 μm, i.e., to prepare a structure capable of superplastic deformation.

The choice of specific values of the degrees of deformation and temperature-speed conditions, at least part of the transitions required to provide training patterns for superplastic deformation, is determined by many factors: chemical and phase composition of the alloys, the final profile of the peripheral part, the requirements on the structure and mechanical properties of the final parts. The degree and temperature-speed conditions of deformation is chosen sufficient for the passage of the material dynamic recrystallization, which is formed of the microcrystalline structure. It should be noted that the microcrystalline structure can be formed in the peripheral part for several transitions. On the first transition form a partially recrystallized structure and then on the second, which may be the final form in accessories the specific efforts and to contribute to a more complete stress relaxation. This is important especially for multiphase alloys. In particular, for example, precipitation hardening Nickel alloys the first step is to eliminate the hardening effect of the second phase due to its coagulation, disorders of coherent communication with the matrix and its partial dissolution. A small degree of deformation on the first transition significantly accelerates the processes of coagulation second phase, and the choice of the maximum period of rotation of the workpiece creates more favorable conditions for stress relaxation due to the processes of dynamic polygonization and recrystallization, leading to formation of partially recrystallized structure.

In addition, the use of multiple transitions allows to reduce the temperature from transition to transition, and this contributes to a further refinement of the microstructure in the peripheral part to submicron sizes. The presence in the peripheral part of submicrocrystalline structure allows to considerably reduce the period of stress relaxation, thus increasing the efficiency of the process.

Expand the technological capabilities of the method contributes to pickup the Naya deformation is carried out by analogy with the inverse extrusion. This increases the efficiency of the process.

One of the recommended conditions when receiving items with significant variations in thickness and diameter in the adjacent sections is the implementation of local forming the peripheral part using a mandrel. This facilitates compliance with conditions (1), which ultimately increases the precision and details on the geometry and size.

Structurally, the mandrel can be made solid or collapsible. The choice of the execution of the mandrel is determined by the profile of the peripheral part. In those cases, when the peripheral portion of the part has a profile with decreasing outer diameter and ends with the formation of the flange, i.e., after forming unable to remove the mandrel from the internal cavity of the workpiece, use a collapsible version of the mandrel.

The mandrel can be both external and internal, depending on the profile of the inner and outer surfaces.

The frame is usually made of a more heat resistant material, for example of cast high-alloy Nickel alloy. To provide structural strength of the mandrel is made that Miramas the workpiece, it is intense heat, especially if you are using a local podstugivaniya mandrel through the fixing unit of the Central workpiece with a mandrel. In this case it is recommended to strictly control the temperature of the mandrel so that the temperature on the deforming surface of the mandrel corresponded to the temperature interval of superplastic material of the workpiece.

In the manufacture of thin-walled parts like the glass of a monotonically changing profile to the local morphology of the peripheral part perhaps one roller one roller and the mandrel. In some cases, the mandrel constructive can be done in such a way that does not repeat the inner profile of the peripheral portion of the workpiece, and has a size sufficient for fixing the workpiece and to maintain the formed cantilever part of the workpiece and prevent warping. Therefore, it is structurally with an outer diameter equal to the minimum inner diameter of the peripheral part.

In the manufacture of the bigger parts with advanced peripheral part of the recommended local forming the peripheral part to carry out with ispolzovaniem roller and the mandrel.

Parts are manufactured with double-sided, relatively Central, peripheral part shall be made through the local shaping of the peripheral part at the same time the two rollers moving in opposite directions from the Central part. The use of this technique allows to significantly increase the productivity of the process. Or can the local morphology of the peripheral part of the lead consistently one roller to reverse its movement. Selecting one of these two methods is defined as the economic feasibility of their use and form get the details.

When the local molding of parts from HRSA to improve tool life and stiffness of the mandrel, it may be podstugivaniya. However, this can be a temperature difference between the temperature of deformation of the workpiece and less heated roller and the mandrel. So in such cases it is necessary to maintain the heating temperature on the deformable surface of the peripheral portion in the range from a temperature deformation to the temperature exceeding the lower threshold temperature for superplastic melczer the t to deform in a non-optimum superplastic conditions. Consequently, after the local formation in the surface layers of the peripheral part of the items will be work hardening. When the final heat treatment of the part is to consolidate on the order of 1-2 grain size will be the development of zonal raznozernistoy, abruptly deteriorates the mechanical properties of the finished parts.

It is known that deformation of the workpiece, especially of Nickel alloys, even in the most favorable conditions, when the stress relaxation can be stored residual stresses associated with the geometry changes that do not affect the process of formoobrazovanija details, but during subsequent high temperature heating can lead to the development of zonal raznozernistoy. For the complete elimination of residual stresses and possible development of raznozernistoy after shaping parts of Nickel alloys recommended preheating temperature aging the alloy to a temperature below the temperature of complete dissolution of the strengthening phase and exposure for 1-24 h

For details with maximum precision and stability of the form and dimensions of the part it is also recommended that the last transfer operation, contracture deformation with the introduction of the rollers in detail by an amount not exceeding the size of the tolerance on the dimensions of the finished piece.

In Fig. 1 is a diagram of a device designed to implement the method.

In Fig. 2-11 lists the types of details that allows you to get the proposed method.

In Fig. 12 shows the pictures of the parts, the types of which are presented respectively in Fig.3,7,9.

In Fig. 13 shows a photograph of the items, the type of which is shown in Fig. 11.

In Fig.14 shows a photograph, which reflects the completion of the technological process of manufacturing parts (the upper part of the furnace is removed).

In Fig. 15 shows a photograph, which shows directly the working area is in the process of manufacturing parts (the upper part of the furnace is removed).

In Fig. 16 is a diagram perform mainly the first operation of forming parts like the glass using a single roller and the mandrel.

The dashed line shows the initial profile of the peripheral part and the initial position of the clip.

In Fig.17 is a diagram of the final operation of forming parts like the glass of a monotonically changing profile using a single roller.

The dashed line p is monotonically with changing conical profile using a single roller and the mandrel.

The dashed line shows the initial position of the clip.

In Fig. 19 shows a sketch of the parts after forming with a collapsible mandrel.

In Fig.20 is a diagram of the operation of forming the flange in the periphery of the parts like the glass of a monotonically changing profile using a single roller and a collapsible mandrel. The dashed line shows the initial position of the clip.

In Fig.21 is a diagram of the operation of shaping the workpiece with double-sided relative to the Central peripheral part with a monotonically changing profile using a single roller and a collapsible mandrel. The dashed line shows the initial position of the clip.

In Fig. 22 is a diagram of the operation of forming the type of a glass with a monotonically changing profile using the outer mandrel and one roller. The dashed line shows the initial position of the clip.

In Fig. 23 is a diagram of the operation of forming the type of a glass with a monotonically changing profile using rollers located on different sides of the peripheral part.

In Fig.16-23 position 5 shows the workpiece. Position 11 shows the roller, and positions 19 shows one piece, and positions 20,2 what I procurement and rollers.

Examples of the method

The device for implementing the method (Fig.1) contains the nodes fixation 1 and 2, which are coaxial and are equipped with actuators (Fig.1 not shown) for relative axial movement along the guides 3 and 4, performed on the frame (Fig. 1 not shown), and the rotation of the workpiece 5, including reverse. Nodes fixation associated shaft 6 with installed bushings 7, through which the transmission of torque to the workpiece 3. On the frame also mounted the carriage 8 with the actuator (Fig.1 shown) to move along the guide 9 of the frame, i.e., along the axis of rotation of the workpiece. On the carriage 8 is mounted to the retainer 10 with the roller 11. Actuators for moving the roller in Fig. 1 is not shown. Position 12 shows a high-temperature furnace to heat and maintain the desired temperature in the workpiece during deformation. Furnace is equipped with a movable shutter 13 with an opening 14 for the input roller. The oven also has holes 15 and 16 to enter parts of the nodes fixation 1 and 2. The retainer 10 is equipped with a heat shield 17. The device is also equipped with a separate camera 18 with the ability to hold the tool in the off position and pre naked is where it is refuelled 19, 20.

Example 1. The aim was to obtain details of the type of glass with double-sided tapering in the direction from the Central part of the conical profile of the peripheral portion of the titanium alloy BT25(Ti-6,5 Al-4Zr-2Mo-l,5Sn-lW). Local morphology was carried out using a profiled workpiece having a Central and a peripheral part in the form of bilateral ledge. The preform with an outer diameter of 450 mm and a thickness of one protrusion 25 mm and another flange (30 mm was obtained by punching, while it was formed homogeneous globular microcrystalline structure type microdroplets (5 μm). As a source for stamping was used cylindrical blank cut from a casting with a diameter of 390 mm Workpiece with the cast structure was subjected to multistage deformation with rotation direction of deformation of the 90oin the two-phase region on the press force 1600 TC kvazistaticheskikh conditions. As a result of such processing to upset the puck was formed microcrystalline structure, which was then predeterminada using isothermal die block at 950oC. Before the local morphology stamping was subjected to rough m Formation scheme details type glass with double-sided tapering in the direction from the Central part of the conical profile of the peripheral portion of the titanium alloy VT shown in Fig.3.

The local morphology of the items was carried out in the device, the concept of which is shown in Fig.1. The workpiece with a mandrel secured in the fixing unit. Then shut the oven and was carried out by heating the furnace to a temperature of deformation (950oC). At the same time through a sleeve mounted on the shaft of the fixing unit procurement, provided the rotation of the workpiece with a view to ensuring its uniform heating. The first operation of the local forming the peripheral part was carried out by using a mandrel and a single roller, made of alloy GS6U (Ni-9Cr-10Co-9,7 W-5,5 Al-2,6 Ti-l,6Mol,lV). The heating temperature of the billet and mandrel in the working of the furnace was 950oC. the Roller was heated in the chamber pre-heating to a temperature of 100-200oWith below. The movie was introduced into the process furnace together with the retainer through a window made in the movable wall of the oven. When the attachment clip to the retainer was podstugivaniya by compressed air flowing through the channels made in the retainer. Local shaping was carried out in several steps using a single roller and the mandrel. The period of rotation of the workpiece relative to the roller was 25 C.

the cups. On the first pass, the thickness of the first projection was reduced from 25 mm to 15 mm Similarly carried out locally forming a second ledge for two transitions to a thickness of 12 mm using a reverse movement of the roller. We used another mandrel, since the inner diameter of the second protrusion is smaller than the second.

Then replaced cylindrical mandrel on collapsible corresponding to the internal profile of the peripheral part, and made the local shaping of the walls of the glasses obtained in the first operation using two instruments: a collapsible mandrel and roller for temperature and high-speed modes mentioned above. First produced the final shaping of the first ledge, and then using the same roller - second ledge.

A photograph of the finished piece shown in Fig.12. As can be seen in Fig. 12, the macrostructure of the parts immediately after the final forming of a homogeneous fine-grained throughout the cross-section details.

Example 2. For shaping parts like glass with double-sided tapering in the direction from the Central part of the conical profile of the peripheral part and/P> The operation of the local formation was carried out as follows.

Used two rollers and two clamps. On the first operation was carried out locally forming protrusions on the form type cylindrical Cup with the simultaneous introduction of rollers, and moving in opposite directions from the Central part of the billet. On the second operation using a collapsible mandrel carried out the final shaping local protrusions parts simultaneously by two rollers.

The result was the item received is similar in form and structure, as in example 1.

Example 3. The aim was to obtain details of type a glass-sided tapering in the direction from the Central part of the conical profile of the peripheral portion of the titanium alloy VT. Local morphology was carried out using a profiled workpiece having a Central and a peripheral part in the form of a unilateral ledge. Preform with an outer diameter of 450 mm and a thickness of the protrusion 25 mm was obtained by punching, while it was formed homogeneous globular microcrystalline structure type microdroplets (5 μm). Modes of training patterns and the glass-sided tapering in the direction from the Central part of the conical profile of the peripheral portion of the titanium alloy VT shown in Fig.7.

The operation of the local shaping was carried out as follows. On the first forming operation was performed using a single roller and the mandrel, the second operation is only used by the clip.

The final stage of the local formation was combined with the calibration procedure. When this was tested on the profile of the peripheral portion of the disc, with specific efforts in the contact area, causing the plastic deformation of the workpiece with the value not exceeding the tolerance on the drawing. Such an operation has helped to stabilize the size and shape of the finished part and contributed to the almost complete relaxation in her residual stresses.

Example 4. The first operation of the local shaping of the parts were made in a similar manner as in example 3. At the same time, the second operation was performed using a collapsible mandrel and roller. Formation scheme of the disk by this option are shown in Fig.18.

Example 5. The first operation of the local shaping of the parts were made in a similar manner as in example 3. The second operation was performed using a mandrel with an outer diameter equal to the minimum inside the yli made disks with uniform microcrystalline structure, fully satisfactory in form and size requirements of the drawing.

Example 6. The aim was to obtain details of titanium alloy VT type glass with unilateral widening in the direction from the Central part of the conical profile of the peripheral part. The first operation of the local shaping was carried out using a single roller and the inner mandrel similarly as in example 3. After the first operation the thickness of the peripheral part was 12 mm. Then produced a change of the inner mandrel on the outside. At the same time replaced the clip and change its angle relative to the axis of rotation of the workpiece so that it was possible to perform local shaping the inner surface of the peripheral part.

As a result of processing by this option managed to get the item with a developed inner and outer surfaces of the peripheral part.

Example 7. The aim was to get the item same as in example 6. The first operation of the local formation to perform in the same manner as in example 6. In contrast to example 6 of the second operation of the local formation was carried out by two rollers, which were the location in order to get the item with a developed inner surface of the peripheral part.

Example 8. The aim was to obtain details of type a glass-sided tapering in the direction from the Central part of the conical profile of the peripheral portion of the titanium alloy VT with the original coarse-grained structure.

Local morphology was carried out using a profiled workpiece having a Central and a peripheral part in the form of a unilateral ledge. The preform with an outer diameter of 450 mm and a thickness of the protrusion 50 mm was obtained by punching, while it was formed coarse-grained structure with a grain size of 200-500 μm. The first operation of the local forming the peripheral part was carried out by using a mandrel and a single roller, is heated in a production furnace to 990-960oC. Local forming the peripheral part on the profile type glass with a constant outer diameter was carried out in three transition from reverse movement of the roller. On the first transition, the thickness of the peripheral part decreased to 35 mm On the second and third transitions temperature deformation was decreased by 10-20oC. the Period of rotation of the workpiece relative to the roller was 100 with the first transition, the second and third passages, respectively, 25 and 10 C. If e is STI billet, conducted after the third transition, showed that in the peripheral part formed of the microcrystalline structure with a grain size of 5-7 μm, similarly as in example 1. Next was replaced cylindrical mandrel on collapsible corresponding to the internal profile of the peripheral part, and produced crimping the walls of the glasses obtained in the first operation, on a collapsible mandrel for the same modes. First replaced the pot on collapsible and made the final shaping of the peripheral part in the same way as in example 4. The final operation of the local shaping was carried out for the two transitions, and in the first transition period of rotation of the workpiece relative to the roller was 25, and the second transition - 5 North To the first operation period of rotation of the workpiece relative to the roller was more than a second surgery. This is due to the fact that in the coarse-grained state requires a longer time to stress relaxation than in fine condition. In the latter case, it significantly increases the length of the grain boundaries, which contribute to activitysee process grainboundary sliding, promoting effective stress relaxation PR is ronim tapering in the direction from the Central part of the conical profile of the peripheral portion of the Nickel alloy powder EP (Ni-13Cr-10,lCo-4,3 Mo-3,2 Al-2,6 Ti-3,4 Nb-2,8 W). Form finished parts and blanks for forming the same, as in example 3. For local morphogenesis used the blank is prepared for superplastic deformation microcrystalline structure type microdroplets with a grain size of 2-3 microns, obtained by powder metallurgy. While its peripheral portion profiled to the shape type glass with a wall thickness of 12 mm, ready for final local morphogenesis, which was carried out by using a single roller similarly as in the second operation example 3. The heating temperature of the workpiece with a mandrel was 1050oC. the Roller used is the same as in example 1.

As a result of processing by this option practically in a single operation of the local formation was obtained the item with one-sided tapering in the direction from the Central part of the conical profile of the peripheral part of the hard Nickel alloy EP.

As a result of processing by this option was the item received is in the form similar to that as in example 4.

Example 10. The aim was to obtain details of the type of glass of the Nickel alloy composition (Ni-16Cr-13Co-4Mo-4W-2,lAl-3,7 Ti) c with the tion was carried out, using profiled workpiece having a Central and a peripheral part in the form of a unilateral ledge. Procurement outer diameter of 410 mm and a thickness of the protrusion 25 mm was obtained by punching, while it was formed homogeneous microcrystalline structure type microdroplets (5 μm). As a source for stamping was used cylindrical blank cut from hot-pressed rod with a diameter of 230 mm Stamping was carried out in the press with force 1600 TC kvazistaticheskikh conditions. The billet was heated to a temperature of 1050oWith that stamp was heated to 950oC.

The operation of the local forming the peripheral part was carried out by using a mandrel and a single roller similarly as in example 3. The heating temperature of the billet and mandrel in the working of the furnace was 1050oC. the Roller was heated in the chamber pre-heating to a temperature of 100-200oWith below. The movie was introduced into the process furnace together with the retainer, and the attachment clip to the retainer was podstugivaniya by compressed air flowing through the channels made in the retainer. In the local formation was obtained by directly after rotary extrusion microstructure in the peripheral part preserved fine-grained with a grain size of ~5 µm. To eliminate residual internal stresses caused by the change in geometry was held annealing disk in a two-phase +-region mode: heating of the disk to 850oC, holding for 1 h, then heated to 950oC, holding for 2 h, the rise of temperature up to 1050oC, holding for 8 hours If you need to get into the details more coarse-grained homogeneous throughout the cross-section structure further carry out the rise of temperature up to 1150oWith, exposure for 2 h, cooled to room temperature. As a result of this heat treatment in the peripheral part was formed of a homogeneous structure with a grain size of 20-30 microns. Thus, when using a cooled tool to conduct additional regulated annealing in two-phase +-region excludes the possibility of the development of raznozernistoy in the peripheral part.

Sources of information

1. U.S. patent 3519503, CL 22 F 1/10, 1970.

2. RF patent 2119842, CL 21 To 1/32, 22 F 1 /10, 1998.

3. O. A. Kaibyshev, Superplasticity of alloys, Intermetallides and Ceramics, Springer Verlag, Berlin (1992).

-3-102c-1through a tool for local deformation in the form of a roller having at least three degrees of freedom, characterized in that the local shaping is performed by the compression of the peripheral part of the profiled workpiece in the direction of its forming by at least one roller on the mandrel, simultaneously serving for fixing the Central part of the profiled workpiece, with the period of rotation of the workpiece relative to the local instrument set no less time intensive stress relaxation in deformed areas.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the local shaping is performed using the mandrel, the diameter of which corresponds to the inner diameter of the peripheral part of the profiled blanks, using the workpiece, at least a portion of the profiled Perry is characterized in that what local shaping is performed using the mandrel, the diameter of which corresponds to the external diameter of the profiled blanks, using the workpiece, at least a portion of the profiled peripheral part which has an internal diameter less than the diameter of the finished part.

4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the period of rotation of the billets of aluminum alloys choose not greater than 0.25 with.

5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the period of rotation of the billet of titanium and heat-resistant Nickel alloys chosen in the range of 0.25-100 C.

6. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the period of rotation for the workpiece due to the structure chosen in the range of 50-100 C.

7. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the period of rotation for workpieces with fine-grained structure is chosen in the range of 10-50 C.

8. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the period of rotation for workpieces with submicrocrystalline structure is chosen in the range from 0.25 to 10 C.

9. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the local morphology perform one or more operations, the number of which is selected depending on the pre-profiling source zag prepared for superplastic deformation of the structure, profiled in the shape of the glass, and the local morphology perform in a single operation.

11. The method according to p. 9, characterized in that as the source, take a piece prepared for superplastic deformation structure, profiled in the Central part and the peripheral ledge, the local morphology perform two operations, and the first operation receive a workpiece in the form of a Cup.

12. The method according to p. 9, characterized in that as the source, take a piece of coarse-grained structure, profiled in the Central part and the peripheral thick wall hanging, local morphology perform two operations, and the first operation receive a workpiece in the form of a Cup with compression of the peripheral part by 50-75% in the temperature-speed conditions of superplasticity.

13. The method according to any of paragraphs.11 and 12, characterized in that the first forming operation carried out for several transitions with the use of reverse movement of the roller.

14. The method according to p. 11, characterized in that the use of a collapsible mandrel.

15. The method according to any of paragraphs.1 and 11, characterized in that the temperature on the deforming surface is 16. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that when receiving parts like the glass uniformly tapering profile perform an additional operation of local forming the peripheral portion of the workpiece using a single roller.

17. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that when receiving parts like the glass uniformly tapering profile perform an additional operation of local shaping using a single roller and mandrel with an outer diameter equal to the minimum inner diameter of the peripheral part.

18. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the implement additional local operation of forming the peripheral portion of the workpiece using two rollers located on different sides of the formed wall.

19. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the implement additional local operation of forming the peripheral portion of the workpiece using two rollers located on different sides of the formed wall, and the mandrel, and the first operation using the roller and mandrel, and the subsequent clips.

20. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that when the local molding of parts from Asti blanks in the range from a temperature deformation temperatures exceeding the lower threshold temperature for superplastic, fine-grained material.

21. Device for the manufacture of geometrically-complex axisymmetric parts having Central and peripheral, predominantly in the form of a rim part of the hard-multiphase alloys containing nodes axial fixation and rotation of the workpiece, which are equipped with devices for installation mandrel, and at least one roller with retainer, a working oven with the holes in the wall to enter a part of the fixing unit and rollers and enforcement mechanisms to ensure that the rotation and movement of the rollers, characterized in that the walls of the furnace are made with a moving part, located around the holes for inserting the roller can move in the axial direction together with the roller over the entire length of a given stroke of the roller.

22. The device according to p. 21, characterized in that the fixing unit is equipped with devices for the installation of a collapsible mandrel.

23. The device according to p. 21, characterized in that the fixing unit is equipped with shaft and bushings for the transmission of torque to the work piece.

24. The device according to p. 21, characterized in that the retainer additionally sabiniana separate chamber for placement of her instrument and pre-warm it.

26. The device according to p. 25, characterized in that the camera is combined with a movable part of the wall of the furnace.

 

Same patents:

The invention relates to the field of metallurgy, in particular to receive antifriction alloys based on aluminum, and can be used in the manufacture of bearings

The invention relates to the field of metallurgy, in particular to a rolling production, and is designed to manufacture flat profile that is used as a structural material in the active zones of nuclear reactors in the chemical and oil industry

The invention relates to the field of metallurgy, in particular to a method for deformed semi-finished products of complex shapes of high strength aluminum alloys and goods made of these semi-finished products in the form of frames, fittings, beams, etc

The invention relates to the technology of laser processing of metals and can be used in mechanical engineering in strengthening the working surfaces of parts made of titanium and its alloys to improve their durability, resistance to seizure and wear resistance

The invention relates to metallurgy and can be used in production for the manufacture of products from titanium alloys, such as bolts and springs from titanium alloy W 16
The invention relates to a thermomechanical processing of aluminum alloys and can be used in the production of plate heat exchangers, disposable utensils, etc

The invention relates to the field of metallurgy, in particular to high-strength welded alloys reduced density system aluminum - copper - lithium, and can be used in aerospace
The invention relates to the field of thermo-mechanical processing of light alloys, can be used in machine parts are manufactured from thin sheet alloys containing beryllium, with the aim of increasing the deformability and mechanical properties of the material

The invention relates to the field of heat treatment of titanium and its alloys

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure, in particular the manufacture of parts drive type with a conical, hemispherical and other axisymmetric forms of maloplastichnye and hard materials, for example, of heat-resistant alloys

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure, in particular to the settlement of the blanks on the press with two movable desks in the process of manufacturing allocating wheels

The invention relates to a pressure treatment of metals, in particular, to methods for producing alloy wheels automotive wheels

The invention relates to a cold sheet metal stamping and can be used for details disc type wheels, and other parts with holes, produced by the extraction or moulding

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used to obtain large parts such as disks, rings, flanges, bandages, etc

The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used in the manufacture of a wide range of wheels for vehicles, including automotive, aviation, and rollers for transport on tracks
Up!