Signal generation and broadcasting

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of broadcasting and reception, to the conditional access system for broadcast system, the device generating signals for use in said system. A device for periodically generating a set of messages includes a means of generating multiple messages, the tool randomization for periodic randomization sequence of messages with the formation of many sets of these messages, so the message in each set is located in a random order, means specified output multiple sets of messages. System access control system for broadcasting and receiving from the broadcast contains the above-described device for periodically generating a set of messages and the reception device for receiving the above message. Method of broadcasting includes the steps of broadcasting data, formation of the management team, describing some property mentioned data, periodic broadcast a message with variable repetition rate which varies in response to the control command. Technical result achieved - reduction requirements is enoi system, the conditional access system for broadcast system, the broadcast and reception device for generating signals (including messages), appropriate methods and signals, intended for use in the above systems, devices and methods.

In particular, but not exclusively, the invention relates to a broadcast system designed for the mass market, with some or all of the following preferred characteristics:

is an information broadcasting system, preferably radio and/or television broadcasting system;

is a satellite - based system (although it may be applicable to the cable or terrestrial broadcast);

is a digital system, preferably using broadcast data/signal compression system MPEG, more preferably MPEG-2 system allows the possibility of interactive work.

In addition, in particular, but not exclusively, the invention relates to the validation system subscribers (SAS Subscriber Authorization System), forming part of the system conditional access broadcast system. Under SAS mainly refers to a device, apparatus or system for providing users access rights (sanzinia SAS in radio and/or television broadcasting system, but, equally, it can also be used to authorize users, for example, in computer networks, locations of Parking lots, etc. Preferably, SAS has the function of generating appropriate messages about rights.

The purpose of the known SAS is the management of access rights to television programs that are available as commercial bids and sold in accordance with various commercial modes (subscription mode, the mode pre-order, pulsed mode). SAS, in accordance with its rights and received from a system subscriber management (SMS - Subscriber Management System) information, generates, using the message generator of the so-called "message control rights" (EMM - Entitlement Management Messages) that are transmitted by the transmitter of the message through the multiplexer at the receiver/decoder of the subscriber for his/her authorization.

In known systems, the message transmitter is unable to recognize or control what is passed to them in the multiplexer. According to the present invention, it was found that it is possible that the message transmitter transmits directly one after the other two EMM, which is recto separated, the receiver/decoder will not be able to correctly recognize and decode the second EMM. This can lead to serious problems of validation.

This invention, in the first aspect, is to find a solution to this and other problems.

According to the first aspect of the present invention a device for periodically generating a set of messages containing:

a means of generating multiple messages;

means of randomization, for periodic randomization sequence of messages, with the formation of many sets of such messages so that the messages in each set are arranged in random order; and

the tool output to a specified multiple sets of messages.

Using periodic randomization sequence of messages, the probability that two messages will be transmitted one after the other, after a certain number of repetitions can be made negligibly small.

Preferably the means of generating the message includes a means of storing the generated message and, if so, means of randomization preferably made with the possibility of formation of each of the above set can be a particularly effective way of practical use of the invention, because the messages do not need to re-generate every time a message sequence randomisierte.

To facilitate access to the storage medium preferably has a capability of storing messages in at least a two-dimensional array. Additional dimensions can be added, for example, to represent different operators for which these messages may be generated.

Preferably the device further comprises means, connected to said output medium, for varying the frequency with which output is mentioned multiple sets of messages. In this way, can be considered any Directive of the transmission frequency information coming from the multiplexer.

For the same purpose, the device preferably also includes means connected to the storage medium, to estimate the size of messages stored in the storage medium, and means connected to the output medium, for varying the frequency with which output multiple sets of messages, depending on the mentioned message size.

Preferably the means of generation and randomization are connected through the "device type" PE is standing, the presence of a FIFO device can ensure their effective functioning in the event of failure of one of them. For the same reason, the output medium preferably includes means for storing at least one of these sets of messages, so, again, it could effectively operate in standalone mode.

The device can be equipped with a variety of output media, in this case, the device preferably includes a multiplexer for receiving multiple sets of messages issued by the mentioned variety of output media.

This invention applies to system access control system for broadcasting and receiving, and said control system includes access by broadcasting the above-described device and the reception device for receiving the above message.

The message may be a message about the rights to be broadcast on the specified device for the reception. The message of rights, in turn, can be an EMM or ECM (message control rights Entitlement Control Message). In a preferred embodiment, the implementation of the outputs contain the EMM injector for injection EMM in the data stream intended for broadcast.

This isopycnal above; the system can be used for digital broadcasting of television programs.

The invention also extends to a method of periodically generating a set of messages, including:

generating multiple messages;

periodic randomization sequence of messages with the formation of many sets of such messages so that the messages in each set are arranged in random order; and

conclusion many sets of messages.

Preferably the method includes the step of storing messages generated at the stage of generation, and phase randomization, each set of messages is preferably formed by reading the messages in random order.

The invention also provides a method of controlling user access to the system for broadcasting and receiving, from the broadcast includes the above-described method, the periodic generation of the set of messages, and by receiving step of receiving the above message. The message preferably is a statement of rights, subject to receiving at the stage of admission.

Let us now consider another aspect of the present invention. Traditionally, when broadcasting a digital bit meet a minimum size of two bytes.

In accordance with this invention preferably the output medium, which was mentioned above, is configured to output multiple sets of messages in the form of a digital signal that includes the package (more preferably, a few packets of digital data and the ID of this packet, the identifier has a size of less than two bytes (and preferably one byte or less). Thus it is possible to achieve reduction requirements necessary bandwidth.

Thus, in accordance with the second aspect of the present invention, a device for generating a digital signal comprising a packet of digital data and the identifier of the package that contains:

means for generating the above-mentioned data packet; and

means for generating the above-mentioned ID;

moreover, the means for generating the identifier is configured to generate the identifier, the size of which is less than two bytes.

This identifier may include the authentication parameter and the size parameter, and in this case, for ease of implementation, these parameters preferably have a size of 4 bits each.

This aspect of the present invention also extends to a system for broadcasting and receiving, from the broadcast includes the above-described device, and reception device for receiving the above-mentioned signal.

In addition, in the above-described method, multiple messages can be displayed in the form of a digital signal comprising a packet of digital data and the ID of this packet, the identifier has a size of two bytes.

In accordance with the second aspect of the present invention also proposes a method of generating a digital signal comprising a packet of digital data and the ID of this package. The method includes the following steps:

generating a data packet; and

generate ID;

the ID is less than two bytes.

This identifier is preferably in the EPA is not directly proportional to the actual size of the package.

In accordance with the second aspect of the present invention also features a digital signal, comprising:

the packet of digital data; and

the ID of this package, where the ID is less than two bytes.

Preferably the identifier contains the authentication parameter and the size parameter, these parameters have a size of 4 bits each, and the numerical value of the size parameter is not directly proportional to the actual size of the package.

Let us now consider the third aspect of the present invention. Traditional broadcasting system is usually exposed to severe restrictions on bandwidth.

Therefore, if the above system for broadcasting and receiving includes additional means of broadcast data, preferably it also includes means for forming a control command, describing some property of such data, and the output medium includes a means for periodic broadcast mentioned multiple sets of messages with a variable repetition rate, as well as to change the frequency in response to said control command.

In accordance with a third aspect of the present invention provides the management, describing some property of such data, and

means for periodically broadcasting a message with variable repetition rate; the means of broadcasting messages made by modifying the above-mentioned repetition frequency in response to the control command.

By varying the repetition rate in response to a control command for a specific message bandwidth can be allocated dynamically.

In a preferred implementation, the data represent the signals representing the transmission of programmes (preferably, transmission of digital television or radio), and the means of forming the control commands are executed with the possibility of the formation of the specified command so that it characterized the time of broadcasting a particular program, and preferably also to have the message EMM. This aspect of the invention is particularly suitable for PPV programs (PPV - Pay Per View, pay per viewed transmission), when the demand from audiences for permitting viewing of a particular PPV-transfer usually will vary with the approach of the transfer.

The management team can be with the lnyh companies" (SPB - Server for Programme Broadcaster).

Preferably, the said means of broadcasting messages was made with the possibility of changing the frequency of repetition with the approach of the broadcast time of the program. It is preferable that the above-mentioned means of broadcasting messages was performed with increasing frequency with the approach of the broadcast time of the program, as well as to increase the repetition frequency during the broadcast of the program.

For example, for a particular transmission PPV programs increasing frequency may start with 30, 20, 15, 10 or 5-minute period before the time of broadcast transmission and can be maintained so until then, until the half, three quarters or even the entire transmission. The lowest frequency may correspond to a broadcast every 30 or 25 minutes, while increased frequency can reach up to one broadcast every 2 minutes or one minute or every 30 seconds. Naturally, the actual frequency should not be exactly equal to the specified numbers; possible intermediate values, and a lower frequency may correspond to a period of more than 30 minutes, and a higher frequency - a period of less than 30 seconds.

The third aspect of the invention extends to sistemista for receiving broadcast data and messages.

In accordance with this aspect there is a method of broadcasting that includes the following steps:

broadcasting data;

team building and management, describing some property of such data; and

periodically broadcasting a message with variable repetition rate which varies in response to the control command.

Preferably the data are signals representing the transmission of programs, and referred to the management team characterizes the time of broadcasting a particular program.

It is preferable that the repetition rate was changed with the approach of the broadcast time of the program. More preferably, the repetition rate was increased with the approach of the broadcast time of the program, as well as during the broadcast of the program.

In the traditional conditional access systems, problems may occur in case of failure of communication channels between SMS and SAS, given the fact that they are physically located at some distance.

In accordance with the fourth aspect of the present invention proposes a conditional access system for providing subscriber conditional access, including:

management system under the t tool to generate the restore commands subscribers and a means to authorize recovery of subscribers depending on these commands.

By placing the means of generating the restore commands subscribers in SAS, but not in SMS, as was done so far, the exchange of commands between SAS and SMS can be minimized. Therefore, requirements for interoperability SAS and SMS can also be reduced.

In accordance with the fourth aspect of the present invention it is also proposed conditional access system to provide subscribers conditional access, including:

management system subscribers (SMS) to manage subscriber data base with information about the subscribers and the means for generating (preferably from the database) a stop command, which some specific subscription shall cease, and

the validation system subscribers (SAS) to authorize subscribers connected with SMS and configured to receive a stop command, and named the SAS contains a means for generating commands to restore the subscriber for each subscriber depending on a stop command for a given subscriber, and means for permitting recovery of subscribers depending on the restore commands to subscribers.

Preferably the control system is of auska, which some specific subscription should be initiated, and means for generating the restore command subscriber system authorization subscriber is configured to generate the repair command, each subscriber depending on the start command. Thus, SAS can perform not only the restoration of existing subscribers, but also the original recovery and validation of new subscribers.

The validation system subscribers may also contain a database with information about the subscribers, and in this case it preferably also includes means for updating information in the database in accordance with information in the database management system subscribers. This can protect against failures of the communication channel between SMS and SAS.

For the same purpose between the means for generating the restore command subscriber and means for permitting recovery subscriber has a device type of "first - come, first-served basis, in order to distribute the flow of commands and to ensure that in the event of a failure, the team will not be lost.

Means for permitting recovery can content is the resolution. In the preferred implementation, these messages are EMM.

The validation system subscribers may have the possibility of granting special rights (such as free rights for a limited period) for new users. This can provide flexibility in the operation.

This invention applies to the conditional access system designed for the broadcast system and receiving and containing from broadcasting the above-mentioned conditional access system, and the reception device for receiving the above message.

The invention also extends to a system for broadcasting and receiving, including a conditional access system mentioned above. This system is typically used for broadcasting digital television or radio programs.

Preferred features of this invention will now be described by describing one of the examples, with reference to the figures, among which:

In Fig.1 shows the General architecture of a digital television system, the corresponding preferred implementation variant of the present invention.

In Fig. 2 depicts the architecture of the system conditional access system numbers the ASS="ptx2">

Fig. 4 is a schematic diagram of the hardware system authorization subscribers (SAS) in accordance with the preferred implementation of this invention.

Fig.5 is a schematic diagram of the SAS architecture.

Fig. 6 is a schematic diagram of the server of the technical management of subscribers, which is part of the SAS.

Fig. 7 is a block diagram of the automatic recovery of subscriptions sold by SAS.

Fig. 8 is a schematic diagram of the bit array subscription groups used in the procedure of automatic recovery.

In Fig. 9 shows the structure of EMM used in the procedure of automatic recovery.

In Fig.10 detail shows the structure of the EMM.

Fig.11 is a schematic diagram of a centralized server orders, when it is used to receive commands directly through the communications server.

In Fig.12 depicts a diagram illustrating a part of Fig.2, which shows one of the embodiments of the invention.

Fig.13 is a schematic diagram of centralized with the callback.

Fig.14 is a schematic diagram of the communications server.

In Fig. 15 presents the variation of the repetition rate of transmission of EMM depending on the time of the PPV broadcast program.

Fig.16 is a schematic diagram of a message transmitter for generating EMM.

Fig. 17 is a schematic diagram illustrating the method of storing the EMM in the transmitter of the message.

Fig.18 is a schematic diagram of a smart card.

Fig. 19 is a layout of partitions in the memory of the smart card.

Fig. 20 is a schematic diagram describing PPV program.

The overall structure of the broadcasting system and to receive digital TV 1000 according to this invention is shown in Fig.1. The invention includes almost normal system of digital television 2000, which uses the well-known compression system MPEG-2 to transmit compressed digital signals. In more detail, the device of the compression MPEG-2 2002 broadcast center receives a stream of digital signals (typically a stream of video signals). The compression device 2002 is connected to the multiplexer and scrambler 2004 using channel 2006. The multiplexer 2004 takes majestic 2008 center broadcast through the channel of 2010, which, of course, may be different, including telecommunications. The transmitter transmits 2008 electromagnetic signals through the channel ground-to-satellite 2012 for satellite repeater 2014, where it is processed by electronic means and broadcasting through the virtual channel satellite-to-ground 2016 on terrestrial receiver 2018, usually having the form of plates, belonging to the end user or rented them. The signals received by the receiver 2018, are transmitted in a combined receiver/decoder 2020, owned by the end user or rented by them and connected to the TV 2022 end user. The receiver/decoder 2020 decodes the compressed MPEG-2 signal in the television signal to the television 2022.

Conditional access system 3000 is connected to the multiplexer 2004 and the receiver/decoder 2020 and is located partially in the broadcast center, and part of the decoder. It allows the end user to access the broadcast transmission of digital television from one or more broadcast operators. In the receiver/decoder 2020 can be installed smart card that can decode messages related to commercial proposals (one or more television programs about the mode of subscription or pay-per-view (PPV).

Interactive system 4000, also connected to the multiplexer 2004 and the receiver/decoder 2020 and is also located partially in the broadcast center, and part of the decoder allows the end user to interact with various applications via modem back channel 4002.

Next will be described in more detail conditional access system 3000.

As shown in Fig.2, in General, the conditional access system 3000 includes a validation system subscribers (SAS) 3002. SAS 3002 is connected to one or more management systems subscribers (SMS) 3004, one SMS for each operator broadcasting, through an appropriate channel TCP-IP 3006 (although in alternative implementations, instead you can use channels other types). In an alternative embodiment, one or more SMS messages can be used by two operators broadcasting or one operator can use two SMS, etc.

The first device encryption as the encryption blocks 3008, using the "parent" smart card 3010, connect to SAS through the communication channel 3012. The second device encryption as well as encryption blocks 3014, using maternal smart card 3016, connected to the multiplexer 2004 across the 3002 using the communications server 3022 via modem back channel 4002. SAS, along with other signals on request sends in the child map subscription rights.

Smart cards contain "secrets" by one or more commercial operators. "Parent" smart card encrypts the different types of messages, and the "child" smart card decrypts these messages, if they have the right to do so.

The first and second encryption blocks 3008 and 3014 contain chassis, the electronic Board from the VME, the software is stored in electrically erasable programmable read-only memory, up to 20 e-cards and smart card 3010, and 3016, respectively, for each electronic Board, one (map 3016) for encrypting the ECM and one (map 3010) to encrypt the EMM.

Next will be described in more detail the operation of conditional access system 3000 digital television system regarding the various components of the television system 2000 and conditional access systems 3000.

The multiplexer and scrambler

In Fig.1 and 2 shows that in the center of the broadcast digital video signal is first compressed (or transmission rate decreases) with the use of devices, MPEG-2 2002. This compressed signal is then passed to the multiplexer and scrambler 2004 through the communication channel 2006 to MUX it with others like that in the process of scrambling and included in the data stream MPEG-2 multiplexer 2004. The control word is generated within the system and allows the combined receiver/decoder end user to 2020 descrambling program.

In the data stream MPEG-2 also added the criteria of access, specifies how the program is offered to consumers. The program may be offered as one of many modes of subscriptions and/or in one of the many "pay per view" (PPV). In subscription mode, the end user subscribes to one or more commercial offers, or "bouquets", and thus, the rights to view any channel of these bouquets. In a preferred implementation of the bouquet of channels you can select up to 960 commercial proposals. Mode of payment "for viewing" the end user is given the opportunity to buy a transfer request. This can be achieved through pre-order transmission ("preview order") or by purchasing the program immediately after the start of the broadcast ("pulse mode"). In a preferred implementation, all users are subscribers regardless of the mode of viewing the subscription or PPV, but, of course, PPV-the audience does not necessarily have to be a subscriber.

As the PSS is the authorized message is a message, be sent together with one scrambled program; the message contains the control word (which allows you to descrambling program) and criteria access the broadcast program. Criteria of access and the control word is transmitted to the second encryption unit 3014 through the communication channel 3018. In this block the ESM is generated, encrypted and transmitted to the multiplexer and scrambler 2004.

Each service broadcast by the broadcast network operator in the data flow that contains several different components, for example a television program includes video components, component, component, subtitles, etc. Each of these component services for subsequent broadcast on the repeater 2014 scramblies and encrypted separately. For each scrambled service components requires a separate ECM.

Broadcast program

The 2004 multiplexer receives the electrical signals containing the encrypted EMM, from the SAS 3002, encrypted ECM from the second encryption unit 3014 and compressed programs from the compression device 2002. The multiplexer 2004 scramblase program and transmits the scrambled program, scrambled EMM and scrambled ECM in the form of electrical signals to the transmitter 2008 center 2014 through channel ground-to-satellite 2012.

Reception programs

Satellite 2014 relay receives and processes the electromagnetic signals transmitted by the transmitter 2008, and transmits these signals to ground-based receiver 2018, usually having the form of plates belonging to the end user or rented by him, through the channel of the satellite-earth". The signals received by the receiver 2018, are transmitted in a combined receiver/decoder 2020, owned by the end user or rented by them and connected to the TV end user 2022. The receiver/decoder 2020 further demultiplexes the signals in order to receive scrambled programs since encrypted and encrypted EMM ECM.

If the program is not scrambled, i.e., a data stream MPEG-2 ECM is not transmitted, the receiver/decoder 2020 performs decompression of data, and converts the signal into a video signal for transmission to the television 2022.

If the program is scrambled, the receiver/decoder 2020 extracts from the data stream MPEG-2 corresponding ECM and transmits the ESM in the "child" smartcard 3020 end user. It is inserted in the slot of the receiver/decoder 2020. Child smartcard 3020 controls whether the user's authority to decrypt the ECM and to have access to this program. If scrambled. If the end user has such rights, the ECM is decrypted and extracted the control word. The decoder 2020 may then descrambling the program using the control word. Then is decompressed data stream MPEG-2 and its conversion into a video signal for further transmission in the TV 2022.

Management system subscribers (SMS)

Management system subscribers (SMS) 3004 contains a database 3024, which manages, inter alia, all the files end users, commercial offers (such as tariffs and promotion), subscriptions, information related to PPV, and data regarding consumption and authorization of the end user. SMS can be physically removed from the SAS.

Each SMS 3004 passes in the SAS 3002 via the corresponding communication channel 3006 messages that cause the conversion or creation of message management rights (EMM) to be transmitted to the end user.

SMS 3004 also transmits in the SAS 3002 messages that do not involve any conversion or creation of EMM messages, but suggest only changing the state of the end user (regarding authorisation, PR debetowa).

As will be described below, the SAS 3002 sends messages (usually requesting information, such as information feedback request or account information) in the SMS 3004, so it is obvious that the relationship between these two systems is two-way.

Messages control rights (EMM)

EMM is a message intended for an individual end user (subscriber) or group of end users (as opposed to the ESM, which is intended only for one scrambled program or set of scrambled programs, representing part of a commercial offer). Each group can contain a given number of end users. Such organization as the group aims to optimize the use of bandwidth; thus, access to one group may be allowed to reach a large number of end users.

For the practical implementation of this invention uses a variety of special types of EMM. Individual EMM designed for individual subscribers and are typically used when providing PPV services; they contain the group identifier and the position of the subscriber in the group. The so-called EMM "is but to administer some subscription services. This EMM contains the group ID and the bit array of the subscribers of the group. Audience EMM designed for the entire audience and can for example be used by operators to provide some free services. "Audience" is the totality of subscribers having a smart card with the same identifier operator (OPI Operator Identifier). And, finally, "unique" EMM is addressed to the unique identifier of the smart card.

The structure of the EMM model is shown in Fig.3. In General, EMM, which is implemented as a sequence of bits of digital data consists of a header 3060, actually EMM 3062 and signature 3064. Title 3060, in turn, consists of a type identifier 3066 to identify the type of EMM - individual, group, audience, or any other ID, size 3068, which specifies the size of the EMM, optional address 3070 for EMM, operator ID 3072, and a key identifier 3074. Actually EMM, of course, varies depending on its type. And finally, the signature 3064, which typically has a size of 8 bytes, contains information to combat the distortions of the other data in the EMM.

The validation system subscribers (SAS)

The message is its turn, generates a message confirming receipt of messages generated by the SMS 3004, and transmits the confirmation to the SMS 3004.

As shown in Fig.4, at the level of hardware SAS in a known manner consists of a mainframe-computer 3050 (in the preferred embodiment, the implementation of computer DEC) associated with one or more keyboards 3052 for entering data and commands, one or more video display units (VDU - Visual Display Unit) 3054 for displaying output information, and tools data storage 3056. May be some redundancy of hardware.

At the level of software in the preferred embodiment, the implementation of SAS running under a standard open source operating system VMS performs complex software architecture which will be described below in General terms with reference to Fig.5; it is obvious that the software can be alternatively implemented in hardware.

In General, SAS contains the branch subscription 3100 for the granting of rights in the subscription mode for monthly automatic restoration of rights, region branch PPV (pay per view) 3200 for the granting of rights for PPV programs, and the EMM injector 3300 to send messages EMM, below the SSI must be granted other rights, such as the right single payment (PPF - Pay Per File) in case of downloading computer software in the personal computer user, there are also other similar areas.

One of the functions of the SAS 3002 is to manage access rights to television programs, available as a commercial offer in the subscription mode or sold in PPV mode-transmission in accordance with various commercial modes (mode pre-order, pulsed mode). SAS 3002, in accordance with the rights and information received from the SMS 3004 generates for subscriber messages EMM.

Area branch subscription 3100 includes an interface commands (CI (Command Interface) 3102, server technical subscriber management (STM - Subscriber Technical Management) 3104, the message generator (MG - Message Generator 3106 and a cryptographic unit (CU - Ciphering Unit 3008.

Area branch PPV 3200 contains a server entry (AS-Authorization Server) 3202 relational database 3204 to store necessary information about the end users, database local block list 3205, database servers 3206 for the specified database, a centralized server orders (OCS - Order Centralized Server) 3207, server for broadcasters (SPB) 3208 generator substitutable not described, and an encryption unit 3008.

The EMM injector 3300 consists of a set of message sources (ME - Message Emitters) 3302, 3304, 3306 and 3308 and software multiplexer (SMUX - Software MUltipleXer) 3310 and 3312. In the preferred implementation, there are two ME, 3302 and 3304, message generator (MG) 3106, and the other two ME, 3306 and 3308, message generator (MG) 3210. ME and 3306 3302 connected to the SMUX 3310, a ME 3304 and 3308 are connected to the SMUX 3312.

Each of the three major components of SAS (region branch subscription region branch of the PPV and the EMM injector) below will be considered in more detail.

Area branch subscription

Consider first the region of the branch subscription 3100, in which the interface commands CI 3102 is intended primarily for sending messages from the SMS 3004 in the STM server 3104, and OCS 3206, and from OCS in SMS. The interface accepts commands from the SMS as input as direct commands and batch files containing commands. It parses the messages coming from the server, STM, and can generate the exact message if the received message contains an error (a value outside the range, the parameter is omitted, and so on). It logs incoming commands in text form in the trace file 3110 and in binary form in the file is the W can be disabled and the file size is limited.

We now turn to a detailed description of the STM server 3104 using Fig. 6. The STM server is in fact the main element region branch of the subscription and its task is free of rights, the connection of new subscribers and rehabilitation of existing subscribers. As shown in Fig. 6, the commands are transmitted in the message generator MG 3106, but in a different format than the one in which they are transferred to the STM server. The STM server is adapted to send a confirmation message for each command in CI only in the case when the corresponding command is successfully processed and sent to the MG.

The STM server contains a database of subscribers 3120, which stores all the information about the subscribers (the number of smart cards, business proposals, status, group and position in the group, and so on). The database performs semantic validation commands sent CI 3102, for compliance with the content of the database and updates the database when commands are valid.

The STM server also manages the buffer is a FIFO type 3122 between the STM server and MG, as well as backup disk FIFO 3124. The purpose of the FIFO buffers is the averaging of the flow of commands from the CI, if the MG is unable for some time to meet any p is ERANA, since the STM server clears the FIFO buffers (i.e., forward in MG) when you restart. FIFO buffers are implemented as files.

The STM server contains in its core server automatic recovery 3126, which automatically generates recovery, and, at the request of the operator, free of law. In this sense, the generation of restorations can be considered as comprising generating rights for the first time, although it will be understood that the generation of new rights is initiated in the SMS. As will be obvious, both of these commands can be treated as approximately the same commands and EMM.

Accommodation STM apart from SMS, and automatic server recovery - in SAS, but not in the SMS 3004 (as in known systems), is a particularly important distinction, because it greatly reduces the number of commands that you want to transfer SMS from SAS (given that SMS and SAS can be located in different places and they can manage different operators). In fact, the two main commands from the SMS is to run a new subscription and termination of existing subscription (for example, in the case of non-payment). By minimizing the exchange of commands between SMS and SAS decreases the possibility of failure in transmission of the conditional access systems 3000.

Automatic recovery is shown in the block diagram shown in Fig.7. In order to reduce the required bandwidth, and assuming that in the overwhelming number of recovery are standard, recovery is performed by groups of subscribers; in preferred implementations, the number of individual subscribers in the group is equal to 256. The flowchart begins with an initial step 3130 and proceeds to step 3132, which produces monthly activating the recovery (although, of course, be understood that other frequency recovery). With a frequency of one month to the end user is granted rights to the current month and the next month, after which the rights are exhausted, if they are not restored.

In step 3134 accesses the subscriber database by groups and individual subscribers in the group to determine whether to restore the rights individually for a specific subscriber.

In step 3136 set the bit array of the group of subscribers in accordance with the contents of the database of subscribers, as shown in Fig.8. Bit array contains the group identifier ("Gl" for group 1) 3138 and 256 zo is the leniency from will restore the rights of a particular subscriber. The figure shows a typical set of binary data.

In step 3142 in the message generator 3106 passed the appropriate commands, including the bit array of the group of subscribers. In step 3143 message generator sets the date of exhaustion of rights, to specify the smart card the date after which this subscription EMM becomes invalid; this date is usually set equal to the end of next month. In step 3144 the message generator generates a command-based messages EMM group subscribers and requires encryption block 3008 encrypt messages EMM and EMM messages will then be sent to the EMM injector 3300, which in step 3146 inserts these messages in the data stream of MPEG-2.

Step 3148 indicates that the above procedure is repeated for each group. Finally, the process is completed and ends at step stop 3150.

The above-described flowchart shown in Fig.7, actually refers specifically to the restoration of the subscription. Similarly STM operates free of audience rights and new subscribers.

In the case of free rights of audience for some is silky generator command messages to generate the corresponding audience EMM (for all audiences) with the date of exhaustion of rights, a specified number of days (or weeks). MG calculates the exact date of exhaustion of rights on the basis of the STM team.

In the case of new subscribers, they are processed in two stages. First, when buying a smart card to the receiver/decoder 2020, according to the desire of the operator to the subscriber free rights for a specified period of time (usually several days). This is achieved by generating a subscriber of the bit array that contains the corresponding date of exhaustion. Then, the subscriber transmits a fully decorated paper to the operator in charge of a given subscriber (SMS). Once the papers are processed, SMS transmits in the SAS command for a specific subscriber. After taking the SAS start-up command, STM sends to the MG command to assign a new unique subscriber address (with a specific group number and position in the group) and to generate a special so-called EMM message subscription "offer" (as opposed to the conventional EMM group subscription used for recovery) to grant specific rights to the subscriber until the end of next month. Since then, the recovery subscriber may occur automatically, as described above. On these two is S="ptx2">

It should be noted that the EMM subscription for quotation is used for new subscribers and to re-activate existing subscribers. EMM group subscription is used to restore and pause.

In Fig. 9 the actual model EMM subscription, presents itself (i.e., ignoring the header and signature) by the above procedure consists of the following main parts: typically a 256-bit array subscription (or group of subscribers) 3152, 128 bits encryption key management 3154 for EMM encryption, 64 bits for each encryption key processing 3156, to allow smartcard 3020 to decrypt the control word to provide access to the broadcast program, and 16 bits to the date of exhaustion 3158 to specify date, after which the smart card will ignore the EMM. In fact, in the preferred implementation there are three key processing, one set for the current month, one is set for next month and one for recovery purposes in the event of a system failure.

In more detail, EMM group subscription must contain all of these components, with the exception of encryption keys management 3154. EMM signed the SRT bit array of all subscribers group 3152 ID, group ID, followed by a position in the group, then cryptographic keys management 3154 and three key processing 3156, followed by the corresponding date of exhaustion 3158.

The message generator MG 3106 is used to translate commands issued by the server STM 3104, EMM, to send the message source 3302. As shown in Fig. 5, first MG issues actually EMM and forwards them to the encryption unit CU 3008 for encryption using key management and processing. CU is EMM signature 3064 (see Fig.3) and transmits the EMM back to MG, where it is added to the title. The EMM messages that are passed in the message source, are so full of messages EMM. The message generator also determines the start and end time of the broadcast and the speed issue EMM messages and forwards these data in quality guidance together with EMM messages in the message source. MG only once performs the generation of this EMM, and that the ME performs the cyclic transmission.

As shown in Fig. 5, the message generator contains its own database EMM 3160, in which the EMM is stored during its life cycle. As soon as the time interval for issuing the message ends, he is destroyed. The database used is active, ME not continued to send recovery. In this situation, the MG performs the appropriate operations and submits them to ME.

After generating EMM MG assigns EMM unique ID. When the MG transmits EMM in ME, he also sends EMM ID. It provides identification of specific EMM as in MG, and ME.

Regarding the scope of the branch subscription should also be noted that the message generator contains two FIFO 3162 and 3164, one for each of the messages related to the message source 3302 and 3304 in the EMM injector 3300, for storing encrypted messages EMM. Because the area branch of the subscription and the EMM injector can be spaced at a considerable distance, using FIFO can provide full continuity of EMM transmission even in case of failure of channels 3166 and 3168 between them. Two exactly the same FIFO available in the area branch of the pay-per-view (PPV).

Feature, in particular, the message generator and, in General, conditional access systems relates to a method, which decreases the actual size EMM 3062 by combining the size parameter and the identifier, to save memory. This will be described using Fig.10, which shows as an example the EMM (this PPV-EMM, which is pron consists of two parts: the identifier (ID) 3172 and parameter packet size 3174

(required in order to identify the start of the next packet). All Pid is placed in exactly one byte of information, 4 bits are reserved for ID and four bits for the size. As to size using a binary number of four bits is clearly not enough, there is a special correspondence between these bits and the actual size; this correspondence describes a lookup table stored in memory 3178 generator messages (see Fig.5). Usually it is the following line:

0000=0

0001=1

0010=2

0011=3

0100=4

0101=5

0110=6

0111=7

1000=8

1001=9

1010=10

1011=11

1100=12

1101=16

1110==24

1111=32

As can be seen, the size parameter is not directly proportional to the actual size of the package - connection quadratic rather than linear. This provides a greater range of valid values for the packet size.

Region branch of the pay-per-view (PPV)

With regard to the area branch of the pay-per-view (PPV) 3200, shown in detail in Fig.5, the server validation AS 3202 has as its client centralized server orders OCS 3207, which requests information about each subscriber that is associated with the R transactions. If the subscriber is authorized to order, AS creates an invoice and sends it to OCS. Otherwise, it signals the OCS that the order is not authorized.

Only at the end of the transaction set AS updates the database end users 3204 using servers (DBAS) 3206, if at least one transaction is authorized; thus optimizes the number of calls to the database.

The criteria according to which AS authorizes the purchase, are stored in a database accessed using DBAS. In one implementation, the database is the same database that is available STM.

Depending on user settings, the authorisation may be rejected (PPV_Forbidden, Casino_Forbidden,...). Such criteria are updated STM 3104 on behalf of the SMS 3004.

Checked and other parameters, such as acceptable limits for purchase (via credit card or automatic payment, or number of purchases with mark entry per day).

In the case of payment by credit card test credit card number in the local black list stored in the database of the local black lists 3205.

If all checks USP is in the file; this file is then sent in the SMS for processing (the actual statement to the consumer); and

2. Updates the database, mainly for the establishment of new limits purchases.

This mechanism of "test-and-generate-account-if-all-in-order" is used for each command that the subscriber may request during a single connection (can be ordered, for example, 5 movies in one session).

It should be noted that AS has a limited amount of information about the subscriber compared with those possessed by SMS. For example, the AS does not store the name and address of the subscriber. On the other hand, AS has the number of the smart card subscriber, consumer category of the subscriber (so different subscribers can be made different proposals) and various flags that indicate, for example, whether the subscriber to perform purchases on credit, or credit suspended, or smart card is stolen. The reduced amount of information can help to reduce the amount of time spent on the authorization request to a particular subscriber.

The main purpose of DBAS 3206 is to increase database performance from the point of view AS by parallelizing access (so the school is to odluciti. This DBAS can only be connected to one AS.

OCS 2307 works mainly with teams PPV. It operates in several modes.

First, it processes the command generated by SMS, such as product updates (for example, if the account is already recorded with the help of SMS, OCS account does not generate), update "wallet" in the smart card 3020, and termination/resumption of session.

Different stages of this procedure are:

1. Identification of the relevant subscriber (using AS 3202);

2. If it is valid, the formation of an adequate command for message generator for the purpose of sending the corresponding EMM. Commands can be:

Teams of product,

Update wallet,

Destroy the session.

It should be noted that these operations do not involve billing, because the billing is already known from SMS. These operations are similar to those buying "free product".

Secondly, OCS processes the command received from subscribers via the communications server 3022. These commands can be received either through the modem connected to the receiver/decoder 2020, or be activated by voice through the phone 4001 or activated keys using MINITEL, PRESTEL or podobe SMS. These latter two modes will be described in more detail below.

In the above-described mode of the second type OCS works with commands received directly from the end user (subscriber) via the communications server CS 3022. Such commands are requests order products (for example, a particular transmission PPV), team change subscription options and overrides the parent code (the parent code is a code by which parents can restrict the child's right of access to specific programs or groups of programs).

The method by which these commands are processed, will be described below in more detail with reference to Fig.11.

Orders subscribers of the product include the following steps:

1. Identification using AS a subscriber who makes a call via CS 3022, ordering a specific product;

2. Checks the validity of the subscriber's request, again using AS (where the request is using the receiver/decoder 2020, which is achieved by examining data from the smart card 3020);

3. Elucidation of the purchase price;

4. Checking in does not exceed the price limit of the credit of the subscriber, and so forth;

5. Receiving a partial account from AS;

6. Filling dopolnitvah 3212 for further processing; and

8. Sending the appropriate command (or commands) in the message generator PPV 3210 to generate the corresponding EMM (EMM).

EMM (or more EMM) is sent(are) either through the modem channel 4002, if the user has placed an order of a product using a receiver/decoder 2020 (more details are described below), or, otherwise, is transmitted by broadcast. The only exception takes place when the modem channel fails (in the case when the consumer places an order using the receiver/decoder); in this case, the EMM is transmitted by broadcasting over the air.

Change subscription options requested by the subscriber include:

1. The identity of the caller (using AS);

2. The parcel information in the interface commands CI; CI, in turn, forwards this information to the SMS; and

3. Through CI OCS then takes the response from the SMS (in the form of the cost of the changes, if possible).

If the change is requested using a receiver/decoder, OCS generates a confirmation SMS. Otherwise, for example, in the case of a call on the phone or via Minitel, a confirmation is requested from the subscriber, and this response otsylaet use AS); and

2. The parcel in MG teams generate the corresponding EMM containing the corresponding password override.

If you override the parent code command override code, for security reasons, cannot come from the receiver/decoder. This command can only come from SMS, via phone or Minitel, etc., Therefore, in this particular case, the messages EMM only vemayca through the ether and never transmitted over the telephone line.

From the above examples of different modes OCS clear that the user can have direct access to SAS, and, in particular, OCS and AS, and that the communication servers are connected directly to the SAS, and, in particular, to the OCS. This important feature is associated with a decrease in user transmission time of his command in SAS.

This feature is illustrated hereinafter by using Fig.12, from which you can see how the set-top-box end-user, and, in particular, the receiver/decoder 2020, has the ability to communicate directly with the communications server 3022 associated with the SAS 3002. Instead of the communication between the end user and the communications server 3022 system SAS 3002 via SMS 3004, communication is carried out directly with the SAS 3002. the by the voice channel via phone 4001 and the corresponding telephone line (and/or via MINITEL or similar relationship, if there is one), when end users still have to enter sets of voice commands or code numbers, but compared with communication via SMS 3004 time communication is reduced.

The second is a direct connection is provided from the receiver/decoder 2020, and the input data is performed automatically by inserting the end user's own child smartcard 3020, resulting in the end user shall be released from work to enter the relevant data, which, in turn, reduces the required time and the probability of errors during input.

The next important feature that follows from the above, relates to reducing the time it takes to transfer the generated EMM to the end user in order to initiate the viewing end user selected product.

Generally speaking, in accordance with Fig.12, this feature is achieved, again, by providing the receiver/decoder 2020 end-user the possibility of direct communication with the communications server 3022 associated with the SAS 3002.

As described above, the combined receiver/decoder 2020 is directly connected to the communications server 3022 via modem back channel 4002, so that by the Oder 2020 on the backward channel 4002. For communication between CS 3022 and the receiver/decoder 2020 Protocol is used (as described below), so that CS receives the ACK corresponding EMM, thus increasing the reliability of the procedure.

Then, for example, in case pre-order the SAS 3002 receives messages from the end user via a smart card and decoder 2020, through a modem and over a telephone line 4002, requesting access to the same gear/product, and returns the corresponding EMM telephone lines 4002 and modem decoder 2020, preferably to the modem and decoder would be placed together at the end user's set-top box (STB - Set-Top-Box). Thus the end user is provided the option of viewing the transmission/product without the need to transmit the EMM in the data stream MPEG-2 2002 through the multiplexer and scrambler 2004, channel ground-to-satellite 2012, the satellite 2014 and channel satellite-to-ground 2016. This substantially reduces the time and the desired throughput. Provides for certain that as soon as the subscriber will pay for the purchase, in the receiver/decoder 2020 comes EMM.

In the mode described above OCS 3207 third type, OCS deals with requests callbacks issued by the SAS. EP 2020 executes the callback SAS through the reverse modem channel 4002, directing the information required for SAS from the receiver/decoder.

In accordance with the instructions of the interface commands 3102 generator messages branches subscription generates and sends to the receiver/decoder 2020 EMM callback. For security reasons, this EMM is encrypted using a block encryption 3008. The EMM may include the time/date when the receiver/decoder should "Wake up" and perform your own callback, without a direct request; EMM usually may also contain phone numbers that the terminal will dial the number of subsequent attempts after a failed call and the delay between the two calls.

After receiving the EMM or the achievement of the set time/date the receiver/decoder 2020 is associated with the communications server 3022. OCS 3207 first identifies the subscriber using the AS 3202 and verifies certain information, such as the owner of the smart card and the subscriber. Then OCS requests the smart card 3020 forward different encrypted information (such as the appropriate number of sessions when the session was viewed, how many times the subscriber is allowed to re-view the session view session, the number of remaining tokens, the number of pre-booked session is oval block 3008. OCS adds this information to the file information callback 3214 for further processing and transmission to the SMS 3004. For security reasons, this information is encrypted. The whole procedure is repeated up until from the smart card will not read all available information.

Particularly preferred feature means the callback is the fact that before reading the smart card (immediately after a subscriber identity using AS 3202, as described above) using the SAS 3002 checks that the receiver/decoder is genuine, and not a pirated version or a computer simulation. This test is performed as follows. SAS generates a random number that is accepted by the receiver/decoder, is encrypted and then returns to the SAS. SAS decrypts this number. If the decryption is successful and extracted the original random number, it is concluded that the receiver/decoder is genuine, and the procedure continues. Otherwise, the procedure is aborted.

Other functions that can be performed on the callback are erasing stale sessions from the smart card or the filling of the purse (this will be described below in the section "Smart and CS 3022. On the hardware layer, in a preferred implementation, they are machine DEC four processors. At the level of the software architecture shown in Fig.14, in many respects, the communications server CS are common. One important difference from the traditional configuration follows from the fact that the servers should serve as the receiver/decoder 2020 and voice communication through phones 4001, and also, possibly, MINITEL or similar systems.

It should however be noted that in Fig.14 shows two centralized server orders 3207 (OCS1 and OCS2). Of course, can be any desired number of OCS.

The communications server includes two main server (CS1 and CS2), as well as a number of frontal servers (1 Frontal and Frontal 2); although the figure shows only the two front server, usually 10 or 12 on each master server. Indeed, although shown two main server, CS1 and CS2, and the two front server 1 Frontal and Frontal 2, can be used any number of them. You usually want some redundancy.

CS1 and CS2 are connected with OCS1 and OCS2 via TCP/IP channels 3230 upper level, while CS1 and CS2 are connected with 1 Frontal and Frontal 2 through updat the MINITEL, PRESTEL or similar), "VOX" (voice) and TRM (connection via the receiver/decoder). They are connected to the bus "BUS" to exchange signals with a front end servers.

CS1 and CS2 communicate directly with the receiver/decoder 2020 through their modem back channels 4002, using an open network Protocol X25. Between the communications server 3022 and the receiver/decoder 2020 Protocol is used relatively low level, in one preferred implementation is based on the international standard CCITT V42 Protocol that provides reliability, because error detection and retransmission, and uses the subroutine checks the checksums to verify the integrity of retransmission. It is also envisaged mechanism interrupts in order to prevent the transfer of invalid characters.

On the other hand, voice telephone communication is carried out via the front communication servers, each of which is able to simultaneously serve up to, say, 30 voice connections from the connection 3234 with the local telephone network via a high-speed T2 (E1) standard ISDN telephone lines.

Three special features of the software component via the first, data conversion Protocol relatively low level received from the receiver/decoder, the Protocol information of a relatively high level of output in the OCS; secondly, distribution or control of the number of simultaneously existing connections; and thirdly, the provision of multiple parallel channels without interference. With regard to the latter function, the server communication play some kind of role multiplexer when interacting with a specific channel defined ID (identifier) of the session that is actually used in the entire chain of communication.

In conclusion, with regard to the area branch of the pay-per-view (PPV) 3200 shown in Fig.5, the server for broadcasting programs (SPB) 3208 connected to one or more broadcasters programmes RV 3250 (which are usually remote from SAS) for admission to the program. SPB filters for future use information corresponding to the transmission PPV (sessions).

A particularly important feature is that the filtered information transfer program is transmitted in SPB MG, which, in turn, sends a Directive (the management team) in ME to change according to the circumstances of the frequency cyclic wideguy frequency, set for such an EMM. This feature can be considered as dynamic allocation of bandwidth for a specific EMM. Cyclic issuance of EMM is described in more detail in the next section, concerning the EMM injector.

Below will be described the circumstances under which adjusts the cyclic frequency, with reference to Fig.15, which shows how the cyclic frequency 3252 increases for a short time (say 10 minutes) before the transmission of certain programmes PPV until the end of the program, from a low cyclic frequency, say once every 30 minutes, up to high cyclic frequency, say once every 0.5 to 1 minute, in order to satisfy at this time, the expected additional requests from users to transmit PPV. In this way, bandwidth can be allocated dynamically, in accordance with the predicted user requests. This can help to reduce bandwidth requirements.

Cyclic frequency other EMM may also vary. For example, the cyclic frequency EMM subscription may vary by sending the multiplexer and scrambler 2004 relevant directives of the exchange rate.

The EMM injector

Chtoto means output for the generator of the message, describes in detail using Fig.16. Their function is to receive messages EMM and their cyclic transmission (like a carousel) through the appropriate channels 3314 and 3316 software multiplexers 3310 and 3312 and later in hardware multiplexer and scrambler 2004. In response, the multiplexer and scrambler 2004 generate global Directive transmission speed to control all cyclic frequencies messages EMM; for ME this takes into account various parameters, such as cycle time, the size of the EMM, etc. In the figure EMH and EMM_Y are groups EMM for operators X and Y, while EMM_Z are other EMM, for the operator X or y

Next, we consider in detail one of the sources message ME; note that the rest of ME operate in exactly the same way. ME running the directives from the Ministry of defense, the principal of which is the time of the beginning and end of the broadcast and the frequency of issue, and the issue of the session, if the EMM is an EMM PPV. As for the frequency of issuance, the preferred implementation of the relevant Directive can take one of five values, from Very fast (very often) to Very slow (very rare). The Directive does not specify numerical values, but instead shows ME the Directive on the actual imeetsya the following five frequency of issue:

1. Very fast (very often) every 30 sec

2. Fast (often), every moment

3. Medium (moderate) - every 15 minutes

4. Slow (rarely) every 30 min

5. Very slow (very rare) - every 30 min

ME has a first and a second database 3320 and 3322. The first database designed for those EMM, date of broadcasting which has not yet come; they are stored in the database sequentially in the files sorted by time. The second database is designed to EMM for immediate broadcast. Emergency system failure ME organized in such a way as to be able to re-read the corresponding recorded file and run the correct broadcast. All stored in the database files are updated upon request from MG, which provides the mapping between the incoming directives and already sent to ME EMM. Broadcast EMM also stored in RAM 3324.

Using FIFO 3162 and 3164 in the message generator in combination with databases 3320 and 3322 source of the message enables the operation of both of them in offline mode, if the channel 3166 between them will be temporarily damaged; ME will still be able to broadcast EMM.

Software multiplexer (SMUX) 3310 and 3312 provide the interface in General restrictions on the number of ME, which can be connected to one SMUX, does not exist. The multiplexer SMUX accumulate EMM and then forward them according to the type of EMM in the appropriate hardware multiplexers. This is necessary because the hardware multiplexers accept messages EMM different types and put them in different places MPEG-2 stream. In addition, SMUX direct global directives transfer speed from hardware multiplexers in ME.

A very important feature of ME is that it gives the EMM in a random order. The reason is the following. The source of the message is not able to determine or control what he sends to the multiplexer. Therefore, it is possible that he may send two EMM, which must be received and decoded in the receiver/decoder 2020, directly one after the other. Under such circumstances, in a situation where EMM is not enough separated, it is possible that the receiver/decoder and smart card will be unable to properly receive and decode the second EMM. Cyclic transmission of EMM in a random order can resolve this problem.

Below using Fig. 17 will be described the method by which randomization is achieved; in the preferred realization of high q what is the proper storage of EMM databases 3320 and 3322 (which are used for redundancy purposes) and in RAM 3324. For specific cyclic frequency and operator EMM remain in two-dimensional arrays, classes 3330 (say, in the order from a to Z) and numbers in classes 3332 (0 to N). Addition of a third dimension corresponding to the cyclic frequency 3334, so it turns out that the number of two-dimensional arrays is equal to the number of cyclic frequencies. In a preferred embodiment, the implementation has 256 classes, and each class has 200 to 300 messages EMM; there are five of cyclic frequencies. The last dimension is added to an array of different operators; there are as many three-dimensional arrays, how many operators. Storing data in this form can provide a quick search if MG wants to delete a specific EMM.

Storing messages EMM is carried out according to the hash algorithm (also known as "one-way hash function"). It is based on a function of the modulus, so that the first classes are filled alternately, and then begin to use major number of classes, the number of EMM in each class remains approximately constant. In the example considered here 256 classes. When the MG sends ME in EMM with ID 1, this EMM is assigned to the class "I", and it is the first" n " (based on a function of the modulus), and he takes the second number in the first class, and so on

Search for a specific EMM, for example, when MG is requesting the removal of specific EMM, is carried out using a procedure reverse to the above. The hashing algorithm is applied to the ID of the EMM for a class definition, then the set number in the class.

The actual randomization occurs when messages EMM cyclically retrieved from memory 3324 using funds randomization 3340, which are implemented in hardware and/or software of the source messages. The extraction is carried out randomly and, again, based on the hashing algorithm. First, a random number is selected (for the above example in the range from 1 to 256) to determine the appropriate class. Secondly, it selects another random number to determine the required number in the class. This is the second random number is chosen with regard to the total number of EMM in this class. As soon as this EMM is selected and the broadcasting is executed, it moves to the second identical memory area in the ROM 3324, again using a hash function. Thus, as broadcast messages EMM first region reduces energy is STU emptied, before the new cycle broadcast EMM it is replaced by the second memory area, and Vice versa.

After two or three cycles of the EMM broadcast as described above, the chances that any two EMM intended for a single end user, will be transferred directly one after the other, from a statistical point of view, negligible.

At regular intervals until data is saved messages EMM, PC 3050 calculates the number of bytes of memory and calculates the transmission rate to generate messages with global directives transfer rate from the multiplexer and software multiplexer.

The above-mentioned standby database 3320 and 3322. In a preferred implementation, they represent a sequential file in which you stored the backup version of the content of RAM 3324. In case of failure of the source of the message and subsequent restart or, in the more General case, when ME is restarted for any reason, between RAM and databases is formed a channel through which written EMM loaded into memory. In this way, can be eliminated the risk of losing messages EMM in case of failure.

Exactly the same as the number in the class corresponds to the session number.

Smart card

Child smart card or smart card subscriber, shown schematically in Fig. 18 and contains an 8-bit microprocessor 110, such as a microprocessor Motorola 6805, with bus input/output connected to a standard array of contacts 120 that are using are connected to the corresponding array of contacts reader smart card receiver/decoder 2020, with the conventional configuration. The microprocessor 110 is connected via a bus with preferably masked ROM 130, a RAM 140, and electrically erasable programmable read-only memory 150. Smart card complies with ISO 7816-1, ISO 7816-2 ISO 7816-3, which determine some physical parameters of the smart card, the position of the contacts of the chip and some communication between the external system and, in particular, the receiver/decoder 2020) and a smart card, respectively, and therefore will not be described. One of the functions of the microprocessor 110 is a memory management smart card, as described below.

Electrically erasable programmable read-only memory 150 contains dynamically generated sections operators 154, 155, 156 and dynamically generated data sections, which will be described below using Fig.19.

As shown makers) 151 of 8 bits, which contains a permanent identifier of the smart card subscriber set by the manufacturer of the smart card 3020.

When installing the smart card microprocessor 110 sends a signal to the receiver/decoder 2020, which contains the identifier of the conditional access system used by the smart card, and the data formed on the basis of the data stored in the smart card, including ID smart card. This signal is stored by the receiver/decoder 2020, which then uses the recorded signal to determine compatibility with smart card conditional access system used by the receiver/decoder 2020.

Electrically erasable programmable read-only memory 150 also contains a permanent partition of the random number generator 152, which contains a program for generating pseudo-random numbers. These random numbers are used for diversification of the output signals of the transaction generated by the smartcard 3020 and sent back to the device broadcast.

Below the section random number generator 152 presents a constant control section 153 $ 144 bytes. Permanent control section 153 - a special section of the operator used by the program in the ROM 130 when dynamically creating (and deleting) has stripped the card for creating and deleting partitions.

The program dynamic creation and deletion of partitions is provided in response to specific EMM create (or delete) a specific section that are passed to the SAS 3002, are accepted by the receiver/decoder 2020 and transmitted to the smart card 3020 subscriber. To create such an EMM operators need special codes-keys for partition management. This does not allow the operator to delete the partitions belonging to a different operator.

Below management section 153 is a sequence of partitions "ID operator 154, 155, 156 for operators 1, 2N, respectively. Usually at least one partition ID of the operator is pre-loaded in electrically erasable programmable ROM of the smart card subscriber 3020, so that the end user can decrypt the programs broadcast by this operator. Subsequent sections of the IDs operator can later be created dynamically using management section 153 in response to the output signal of the transaction generated by the end user (subscriber) using his smart card 3020, as will be described later.

Each section of the operator 154, 155, 156 contains the ID of the group to which belongs smartcard 3020, and the position of the smart card group subscription with the address of this group (but not the position of the smart card in the group), as well as individual EMM (subscription), addressed only this smart card group. In each group can be up to 256 smart card-members, and this feature greatly reduces the required bandwidth needed to broadcast EMM.

In order to further reduce the required bandwidth needed to broadcast EMM group subscription data group in each section of the operator 154, 155, 156, and all such sections in an electrically erasable programmable read-only memory smartcard 3020 and other child smart cards are continuously updated to allow the specific smart card to change its position in each group, thereby populating the "holes" created by, for example, to delete a card member of the group. Holes are filled in SAS 3002, because the list of these holes is in the STM server 3104.

This reduces fragmentation, and the number of members in each group is maintained approximately equal to the maximum number of 256 members.

Each section of the operator 154, 155, 156 associated with one or more "objects operator data" stored in the electrically erasable prograa 157-165 is located below the partition identifier of the operator. Each of these objects is marked with:

a) ID 1, 2, 3N, relevant associated operator 1, 2, 3N, as shown in the left part of Fig.19;

b) ID indicating the type of the object; and

c) the data section reserved for data, as shown in the right part of each respective object data of the operator of Fig.19. It should be understood that each operator corresponds to a set of data objects such as collections of data objects other operators, so that the description of data types in the object data operator 1 is also applicable to data objects of all other operators. In addition, it should be noted that the data objects are located in physically adjacent locations on the electrically erasable programmable read-only memory, and that the order is unimportant.

Deleting a data object creates a "hole 166 in the smart card, i.e. the number of bytes that were previously occupied by the deleted object, do not engage immediately. "Freed" so the number of bytes, or "hole", marked:

(a) the operator ID of 0; and

b) ID, indicating that the bytes are free for the reception of the object.

Next, the created data object fills the hole identified by the identifier is Eski erasable programmable read-only memory 150.

Turning to the set of data objects corresponding to each operator, will be described below examples of such data objects.

The data object 157 contains the key EMM used to decrypt encrypted messages EMM taken by the receiver/decoder 2020. This is the key EMM permanently stored in the data object 157. This data object 157 may be created in advance, before the sale smartcard 3020, and/or may be created dynamically when creating a new partition operator (as described above).

The data object 159 contains the key of the ESM, which is forwarded to the appropriate operator (in this case, the operator 1) to allow the end user to decrypt a specific "bouquet" of programs for which it has subscribed. Usually new keys ECM is sent every month with EMM group subscription (recovery), which restores all rights of the end user to view the broadcast from the operator (in this case, the operator 1). The use of separate keys EMM and ECM allows you to sell the rights to view in different ways (in this implementation is by subscription and individually (pay-per-view - PPV) and also improves protection. Mode of payment-per-view (PPV) will be described below.

Pascalc is for example, by turning off the receiver/decoder or reinstall hours, to prevent expiry of the validity period of the old key, ECM, overriding the timer of the receiver/decoder 2020. In accordance with this section of the operator 154 contains an area (typically having a size of 2 bytes), containing the date of expiry of the validity of the keys of the ESM. Smartcard 3020 has the opportunity to compare this date with the current date, which is contained in the received ECM, and to prevent the decoding, if the current date exceeds the expiration date of validity of key ECM. Date of expiry of the transmitted using EMM messages, as described above.

The data object 161 contains a 64-bit array subscription, which is an accurate representation of the programs of the broadcast network operator that you subscribed to the subscriber. Each bit corresponds to one program and is set to "1" if the subscription program feature, and "0" if not.

The data object 163 contains a number of tokens that can be used by the client in PPV mode for acquisition of the rights to view the upcoming broadcast, for example, in response to a free announcement or any other announcement. The data object contains 163 Tacke client. Tokens can be purchased, for example, a loan with a reverse modem channel 4002, or, for example, using a voice server in combination with a credit card. For each transfer may be charged as one token, and in a few.

The data object 165 contains a description of the PPV transmission, as shown in the reference table. 167 in Fig.20.

Structure 167, describing the PPV broadcast that contains the fields "session ID" 168 identifying the session view (corresponding to the program, as well as the time and date of broadcast), "session mode" 169 specifying how acquired right view (for example, in pre-order), "the index of the session" 170 and "viewing session" 171.

When receiving programs in PPV mode receiver/decoder 2020 determines whether the program is sold in PPV mode. If so, the decoder 2020 checks, using the data stored in the structure 167, describing PPV-transfer stored whether in the field "session ID" of this program. If the "session ID" stored there, then the control word is retrieved from the ECM.

If the "session ID" is there not saved, with the help of a special application, the receiver/decoder 2020 gives the end user a message indicating that he verom communication 3022, to buy the program. When using tokens, if the end user answers "Yes" (using the remote controller 2026 (see Fig.2)), the decoder 2020 sends the ECM in the smart card, the smart card reduces purse smart card 3020 25 tokens, saves the field "session ID" 168, "session mode" 169, "index session" 170 and "viewing session" 171 in the structure description PPV-transfer 167 and extracts from the ESM and decrypts the control word.

In the print order, the EMM will be transferred to the smart card 3020 so that the smart card will retain the field "session ID" 168, "session mode" 169, "index session" 170 and "viewing session" 171 the structure 167 description PPV-transfer using EMM.

Field index "session" 170 are provided for distinguishing broadcast transmissions from each other. This tool allows to perform validation for a subset of broadcast transmissions, for example, for 3 of the 5 events. As soon as the ESM index session other than the current value of the field "index session" 170 stored in the structure 167 description PPV broadcast that is transmitted to the smart card, the value of the field "session view" 171 decreases by one. When the value of the field "session view" reaches zero, the smart card will refuse to decrypt the ECM with the index of the session,from the way, which the broadcast network operator wants to define a transfer to which it relates; the value of the field "session view" for each program can take any value.

The microprocessor 110 smart card implemented a program for the calculation and comparison for the detection of such a moment, when the limit on the number of views of any program.

These fields "session ID" 168, "session mode" 169, "index session" 170 and "viewing session" 171 patterns 167 description PPV-transmission can be extracted from the smart card using the procedure "callback", as described above.

Each receiver/decoder 2020 contains an identifier that can identify the receiver/decoder in a unique way, or may classify it one way or another in order to allow him to work only with a specific individual smart card, a specific class of smart cards the same, or corresponding, manufacturer, or any other class of smart cards, which is designed for use exclusively with this class of receivers/decoders.

Thus, the receiver/decoder 2020, which was delivered to the consumer is one of the broadcast operators, protected from ISOE is this the first handshake communication between a smart card and a receiver, electrically erasable programmable read-only memory smartcard 3020 may contain a field or bit array that describes the category of the receiver/decoder 2020, with which it can work. They can be set either during the manufacture of the smart card, or using a special EMM.

Bit array stored in the smart card 3020 usually contains a list of up to 80 receivers/decoders, each of which is identified by the corresponding ID of the receiver/decoder to which a smart card can be used. According to each of the receiver/decoder is set to "1" or "0" indicating, respectively, whether or not a smart card be used with this receiver/decoder. The program in memory 2024 receiver/decoder finds the ID of the receiver/decoder in the bit array stored in the smart card. If the ID is found, and the corresponding ID value is "1", the smart card is "allowed"; if not, the smart card will not work with this receiver/decoder.

Additionally, if usually due to agreements between operators, it is desirable to authorize the use of specific receiver/decoder other smart cards, "the first" smart cards will be posiadania can differentiate its subscribers in accordance with predetermined criteria. For example, some subscribers may be classified as "VIP" (very important person). Accordingly, each broadcast network operator can divide your subscribers into multiple subsets, each subset may consist of any number of subscribers.

The subset belongs to a particular subscriber, is set in the SMS 3004. In turn, the SAS 3002 transmits to the subscriber EMM, which records information (usually of length 1 byte) of the subset to which the subscriber belongs, in the corresponding section of data of the operator, for example, 154, electrically erasable programmable ROM of the smart card. In turn, as the broadcast network operator broadcasts programs, together with the program is transferred to the ESM, usually of 256 bits, which indicates that the subset of subscribers can view the program. If, according to the information stored in the section of the operator, the subscriber is not entitled to review, as determined by the ECM, the viewing program is prohibited.

This tool can be used, for example, to turn off all the smart cards of this operator in a specific geographic region during the broadcast of a particular program, in particular, programs,e clubs and other sports organizations can sell broadcast rights outside their local region, at the same time prohibiting local fans watching the event on TV. So fans of the local region are encouraged to purchase tickets and attend the event.

Each of the features associated with sections 151 to 172, is regarded as a separate invention, regardless of whether you create a partition dynamically.

It is obvious that the present invention has been described above solely as examples, and various modifications are possible within the present invention.

Each feature described in the description and (where appropriate) the claims and the figures can be provided independently or in a suitable combination.

In the above preferred embodiments of some of the tools of the invention are implemented using software. However, in experienced hands, of course, clear that any of these tools can be implemented in hardware. Further, it is clear that the functions performed by the hardware, computer software, and the like are performed on or with the use of electric and other similar signals.

Cross-reference to the implementation of signals and broadcasting" (case number attorney PC/ASD/19 707), "Smart card for use with a receiver of encrypted broadcast signals and the receiver (case number attorney PC/ASD/19708), "System for broadcasting and receiving conditional access system for her" (attorney PC/ASD/19710), "Booting a computer file from the transmitter through the receiver/decoder in a computer" (case number attorney PC/ASD/19711), "Transmission and reception of television programs and other data (case number attorney PC/ASD/19712), "Loading data" (case number attorney PC/ASD/19713), "the Organization of computer memory" (case number attorney PC/ASD/19714), "Development of a control system of television and radio" (attorney PC/ASD/19715), "removing the sections of data from a stream of broadcast data (case number attorney PC/ASD/19716), "access control System" (case number attorney PC/ASD/19717), "data processing System" (case number attorney PC/ASD/19718), "System for broadcasting and receiving, as well as the receiver/decoder and a remote controller for it" (attorney PC/ASD/19720). The disclosure content of these documents is included here by reference. The list of applications includes the present invention.

1. A device for periodically generating a set of messages containing a means of generating multiple messages; cf is and sets of such messages, so that the messages in each set are arranged in random order, and the means specified output multiple sets of messages.

2. The device under item 1, in which the said means of generating a message includes a means of storing the generated message.

3. The device according to p. 2 in which the said means of randomization performed with the possibility of the formation of each of the above-mentioned set of messages by reading messages from the mentioned tools storage in a random order.

4. The device under item 2 or 3 in which the said storage medium configured to store messages in at least a two-dimensional array.

5. Device according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, further containing means, connected to said output medium, for varying the frequency with which output is mentioned multiple sets of messages.

6. Device according to any one of paragraphs.2-4, optionally containing means, connected to said storage medium, to estimate the size of messages stored in the storage medium, and means connected to said output medium, for varying the frequency with which output is mentioned is the Boma of the preceding paragraphs, in which the said means of generating and the means of randomization is connected through the device of a type first - come, first-out (FIFO).

8. Device according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, in which the said output medium includes a means for storing at least one of these sets of messages.

9. Device according to any one of the preceding paragraphs, equipped with a variety of output media and also contains a multiplexer for receiving multiple sets of messages issued by the mentioned variety of output media.

10. Device according to any one of paragraphs.1-9, in which the said output medium is configured to output multiple sets of messages in the form of a digital signal comprising a packet of digital data and the ID of this package, and the size of the ID is less than two bytes.

11. The device according to p. 10, in which the said identifier includes an authentication parameter and the size parameter.

12. The device according to p. 11 in which the said authentication parameter and the size parameter has a size of 4 bits each.

13. The device according to p. 11 or 12, in which the numerical value of the size parameter is not one who tion containing means for storing a reference table, defining the correspondence between the numerical value of the size parameter and the actual size of the package.

15. System access control system for broadcasting and receiving, from the broadcast contains a device according to any one of paragraphs.1-9 and reception device for receiving the above message.

16. The access control system according to p. 15, in which the said message is a message about the rights to be broadcast on the specified device for the reception.

17. System for broadcasting and receiving, which includes the access control system according to p. 16.

18. System for broadcasting and receiving on p. 17, additionally comprising a means of broadcasting data and the means for forming the control commands describing some property of the mentioned data and in which the said output medium includes a means for periodic broadcast mentioned multiple sets of messages with a variable repetition rate and to change the frequency in response to said control command.

19. The system under item 18, in which said data are signals representing the transmission of programmes, and the above-mentioned means forming a control command configured to farmerama.

20. System on p. 19, in which the said means of broadcasting messages made with the possibility of changing the frequency of repetition with the approach of the broadcast time of the program.

21. The system under item 19 or 20, in which the said means of broadcasting messages made with the possibility of increasing the frequency of repetition with the approach of the broadcast time of the program.

22. System according to any one of paragraphs.19-21, in which the said means of broadcast messages is performed with increasing frequency during the broadcast of the program.

23. The way the periodic generation of the message set containing the following steps: generating a set of messages; periodic randomization sequence mentioned messages, with the formation of many sets of such messages, so that these sets of messages are generated periodically and messages in each set are arranged in random order, and the conclusion mentioned multiple sets of messages.

24. The method according to p. 23, including the step of storing messages generated at the stage of generation, and in which at the stage of randomization each of the mentioned set of messages form by reading the messages in random order.

25 is causehe the packet of digital data and the ID of this package, moreover, the size of the ID is less than two bytes.

26. The method according to p. 25 in which the said identifier includes an authentication parameter and the size parameter.

27. The method according to p. 26, in which the numerical value of the size parameter is not directly proportional to the actual size of the package.

28. The way to control user access to the system for broadcasting and receiving, by the broadcast method comprising periodically generating a set of messages on p. 23 or 24 and the reception step of receiving the above message.

29. The method according to p. 28 in which the said message is a message of rights, subject to receiving at the stage of admission.

30. The method according to p. 28 or 29, in which the said multiple sets of messages displayed in the form of a digital signal comprising a packet of digital data and the ID of this package, and the size of the ID is less than two bytes.

31. The method according to p. 30, in which the said identifier includes an authentication parameter and the size parameter.

32. The method according to p. 31, in which the numerical value of the size parameter is not directly proportional to the actual rasmani and the ID of this package, containing means for generating the above-mentioned data packet and the means for generating the above-mentioned identifier, and the said means for generating the identifier is configured to generate the identifier, the size of which is less than two bytes, the above mentioned ID includes the authentication parameter and the size parameter and the numerical value of the size parameter is not directly proportional to the actual size of the package.

34. The device according to p. 33, in which the said authentication parameter and the size parameter has a size of 4 bits each.

35. The device under item 33 or 34, further containing a means for storing a reference table defining the correspondence between the numerical value of the size parameter and the actual size of the package.

36. System for broadcasting and receiving, from the broadcast includes a device according to any one of paragraphs.10-14 or 33-35 and reception device for receiving the aforementioned digital signal.

37. Method of generating a digital signal comprising a packet of digital data and the identifier of the package that includes the following steps: generating the above-mentioned data packet, and itow, the said identifier includes an authentication parameter and the size parameter and the numerical value of the size parameter is not directly proportional to the actual size of the package.

38. The digital signal data comprising the packet of digital data and the identifier of the package, where the size of the above-mentioned identifier is less than two bytes, the above mentioned ID includes the authentication parameter and the size parameter and the numerical value of the size parameter is not directly proportional to the actual size of the package.

39. The digital signal on p. 38, in which the said authentication parameter and the size parameter has a size of 4 bits each.

40. Broadcasting system containing means for broadcasting data, the means for forming the control commands describing some property of such data, and means for periodically broadcasting a message with variable repetition rate, and referred to the means of broadcasting messages made by modifying the above-mentioned repetition frequency in response to said control command.

41. The system according to p. 40, in which said data are rings is the possibility of the formation of the specified command so so she characterized the time of the broadcast of a particular program.

42. System p. 41, in which the said means of broadcasting messages made with the possibility of changing the frequency of repetition with the approach of the broadcast time of the program.

43. The system under item 41 or 42, in which the said means of broadcasting messages made with the possibility of increasing the frequency of repetition with the approach of the broadcast time of the program.

44. System according to any one of paragraphs.41-43, in which the said means of broadcast messages is performed with increasing frequency during the broadcast of the program.

45. System for broadcasting and receiving, from the broadcast which includes the system according to any one of paragraphs.19-22 or 40-44 and reception device for receiving broadcast data and messages.

46. Method of broadcasting that includes the following steps: broadcasting data; team building and management, describing some property of such data, and periodically broadcasting a message with variable repetition rate which varies in response to the control command.

47. The method according to p. 46, in which said data are signals representing transmission="ptx2">

48. The method according to p. 47, in which the said repetition rate varies with proximity broadcast time of the program.

49. The method according to p. 47 or 48, in which the said repetition rate increases with the approach of the broadcast time of the program.

50. The method according to any of paragraphs.47-49, in which the repetition frequency is increased during the broadcast of the program.

51. Conditional access system for providing subscriber conditional access, containing management system subscribers to manage subscribers, containing a database with information about the subscribers, and the validation system subscribers, connected to the said control system subscribers, to authorize subscribers, and referred to the validation system subscribers includes means for generating commands recovery subscriber in response to data received from the control system subscribers, and means for permitting recovery of subscribers depending on these commands.

52. System on p. 51, in which the control system subscribers includes means for generating a stop command, which some specific subscription shall terminate and womanwomen capable of receiving the specified command shutdown and generating commands to restore the subscriber for each subscriber depending on a stop command for a given subscriber.

53. Conditional access system on p. 52, in which said control system subscribers includes means for generating a start command for which some specific subscription should be initiated, and the above-mentioned means for generating commands restore subscribers authorize subscribers configured to generate the repair command, each subscriber depending on the above command.

54. The conditional access system according to any one of paragraphs.51-53, in which said validation system subscribers contains a database with information about the subscribers.

55. Conditional access system on p. 52 or 53, in which said validation system subscribers contains a database with information about the subscriber and means for updating information in the database in accordance with information in said database management system subscribers.

56. The conditional access system according to any one of paragraphs.51-55, containing a device type of "first - come, first-served basis between the means for generating the restore commands subscribers and means to authorize recovery by the system recovery subscribers includes the output medium for the message authorization rights for subscribers.

58. The conditional access system according to any one of paragraphs.51-57, in which said validation system subscribers made with the possibility of granting special rights to new users.

59. Conditional access system designed for the broadcast system, and receiving, from the broadcast containing the system according to any one of paragraphs.51-58 and reception additionally contains a device for receiving the above message.

60. System for broadcasting and receiving, including a conditional access system according to any one of paragraphs.51-59.2

 

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