The device measuring the level of a cryogenic liquid on the basis of discrete monolithic high-temperature superconductors
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to cryogenic engineering. Device for measuring the level of cryogenic liquid consists of a sensor and the secondary recording unit. The sensor is a combination of sensitive high-temperature superconducting (HTS) elements of yttrium ceramics. HTS elements are connected in series in a single chain and are staggered along the length of the sensor inside the dielectric base or on top of him. The heater uses a CHIP resistor or a conductor of a high-resistance alloy. The heating elements turn on sectional or along the entire length of the sensor. The technical result consists in increasing the accuracy, availability of wide range of applications and versatility of use. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill. The present invention relates to the fields of cryogenic engineering, cryogenic engineering.This device can also be used where applicable liquefied nitrogen, oxygen, argon:
1) in industry, in the exercise of certain technological operations;
2) modern magnetic HTS (high Temperature with the e: klapproth for gynecology, Oncology, proctology, ENT, and others, as well as in klapproth for cosmetology and dermatology, equipment for General and local cryotherapy, equipment for freeze/thaw and long-term storage of biological products (blood, bone marrow, and other biomaterials);
4) in agriculture for storing biological substances;
5) Metrology - cooling node electron gun electron microscope;
6) in radio astronomy, when cooled, highly sensitive input stages radios mm waveband;
7) in show business, for special effects.Also there is a need to determine the level of the refrigerant during its transportation in Dewar vessels, such as: 50LD,35LD, 25LD and oxygen/asadabadi stations DTP-70, MKDS-70.Analogue of the invention is the following patent:
S. Siegmann, N. J. Guntherodt "Fullstandsdetector fur Kryogene Flussigkeiten", Int. Patent PCT/CH90/00166, the main drawback of which is the way of realization of the long sensitive element on the basis of HTS (high Temperature superconductor) of the conductor, in contrast, this device is designed as a series of miniature HTS elements connected in a circuit that allows used for assigning chuvstvitelnostyu sharp changes of level and wider measurement range. The measurement accuracy is defined by the location of the HTS elements and limited to their minimum size and width of the dielectric base on which they are located. Therefore, it is possible to create sensors on the length of more than 1.5 meters. In addition, the presence of discrete elements permit allows local, sectional heating, making this type of sensor is advantageous compared to analogue, which is heated along the entire length of the sensing element.Specified in the characterizing part of the formula signs suggest the proposed solution meets the criterion of "novelty". As the set of distinctive signs and restrictive parts unknown of scientific-technical and patent literature, the device meets the criterion of "inventive step".The invention is illustrated in Fig. 1-3, where
Fig. 1 - view of the sensor from above;
Fig. 2 - the image slice of the sensor with the heater on the basis of resistors;
Fig. 3 - the image slice of the sensor with the heater on the basis of a high-resistance alloy;
1 - HTS-sensor - sensitive element (Y-123);
2 - pécs is ceramics or other resistant to the refrigerant dielectric.On the figure 2:
1 - HTS-sensor - sensitive element (Y-123);
2 - heating element: CHIP resistor;
3 - based hosting sensitive HTS sensors;
4 - heat insulator to reduce the influence of the heating element on the medium;
5 - dielectric insulating gasket;
6 - solder (POS 61) providing mechanical and electrical connection;
7 casting compound.Figure 3:
1 - base hosting sensitive HTS elements;
2 - heater;
3 - sensitive HTS element.Device for measuring cryogenic liquid consists of 2 parts: the level sensor and the secondary block.The level sensor is a set of tiny elements, made of a monolithic piece of yttrium ceramics (Y1Ba2Cu3ABOUT7), The HTSC material (Y-123). Item sizes are chosen based on the desired resolution and technological restrictions on their manufacture. It is recommended to use the size corresponding to the CHIP-resistors (1.550.8 mm; 2.01.25 mm; 3.21.6 mm). The ends of the sensors are equipped with contacts through which the connection with pechay interelement switching (it is transferred to the measuring current from sensor to sensor) and removal of indications. The stacking order of HTS elements may be different (chess, intervals, and so on), for example U-shaped. This arrangement of the sensing elements allows to minimize the measurement error caused by the temperature gradient along the length of the base of the transmitter.The work plane HTS elements in contact with the environment, both directly and through the heat-conducting plate. To the opposite side of the sensing elements adjacent the heater. The heater is necessary in order to accelerate the transition elements, in pairs, in normal (non-superconducting state). The implementation of the heater or in the form of a set of standard CHIP resistors (Fig. 1), either in the form of the zigzag conductor located in the thickness of the substrate (Fig. 3).External contacts HTS sensor is connected to the secondary recording unit. One pair of external contacts - current. The second pair - potential. In addition to measuring wires attached to the sensor heating conductors that produce heating of the coil of the sensing element, then through the current contacts (I+I-the sensor is skipped measuring current, which determine the m state. Because the level of superconductivity along the sensor varies in accordance with the level change of the refrigerant, changing the voltage taken from the potential end (U+U-) (noise current is constant). The value of the fixed secondary voltage supply is inversely proportional to the level of the refrigerant in the vessel. The registering unit provides a constant flowing current, measuring intervals of time not more interval resolution (to reduce the introduction of perturbations in the medium) and heating of the heater or the entire length of the sensor, or sectional. When the sectional heat level of the refrigerant is determined by the partition number and its ultimate resistance. Sectional heating is preferred because it has minimal insertion perturbation in the medium, however, requires a more complex control system and analysis of the location of the surface of cryohydrate. While the implementation of the registering unit is different from the standard (constant current source and inducing device), because it requires the presence of an adaptive system reading.The device provides a measurement of the level of cryogenic liquid with the maximum possible accuracy of the air, and as a consequence drop crystals of frost on the working surface of the sensor, which distinguishes this type of device from the other level sensors (capacitive, ultrasonic, and so on ). The invariance of the physical characteristics of sensitive HTS elements makes this transmitter from resistive. The ability to make the sectional heat is an advantage of this device over those types of sensors, where heating is provided throughout the length of the sensor - level meter. The above technical result leads to an expanding Arsenal of technical means of measuring the level of cryogenic liquid (level gauges).The specified device can be manufactured at the enterprises of the R. F., which corresponds to the criterion "industrial applicability". 1. Device level measurement of cryogenic liquids, consisting of a sensor comprising a sensitive and heating elements, and the secondary recording unit, wherein the sensor transmitter is a set of sensitive high-temperature superconducting (HTS) elements of yttrium ceramics, connected in series in a single chain and staggered on destory or conductor of a high-resistance alloy.2. The device under item 1, characterized in that the heating elements may be incorporated sectional or along the entire length of the sensor.3. The device under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the HTS elements made of yttrium ceramics Y-123 (Y1Ba2C3ABOUT7).
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises fuel level indicator and rheostat pickup made of an analogue-digital converter with the balance input. The three-position switch is connected with the lever indicator. The device additionally has three resistive dividers, voltage stabilizer, and shunting resistor made of a 0.003-0.006-Om resistor. The rheostat level pickup is mounted inside the fuel tank vertically, and its linear horizontal size at this level is directly proportional to the area of the tank section in the horizontal plane at this level.
EFFECT: expanded functional capabilities.
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises pressing unit reinforced by electrodes with simultaneous forming of insulator between the electrodes. The space that is defined by surfaces of the electrodes is filled with casting plastic mass. The pressure tightness is provided by tightening the insulator with electrodes by means of a nut.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
FIELD: the invention refers to measuring technique and may be used for controlling bulk and liquid materials.
SUBSTANCE: the oscillating indicator of a level has a sensible element( a probe) 1 connected with an anchor 2, a driving arrangement 4 in the shape of a coil with a ferromagnetic core and also a sensor 5 of the displacements of the anchor, a drive-pulse generator 6 and an amplifier 7 and a relay block 9 successively connected. The amplifier is spanned with a regulated negative feedback fulfilled in the shape of a resistor 8. The sensor 5 of the displacements of the anchor may be fulfilled in the shape of a coil with a ferromagnetic core. At that the section of the anchor 2 between the coils is fulfilled out of non-magnetic material that prevents electromagnetic connection between the coils providing protection from high frequency oscillations in the system anchor-coil-amplifier.
EFFECT: allows to control the levels of the bulk and liquid materials being present in aggressive mediums, under pressure,( discharge)and at temperature till 200 degrees.
FIELD: instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: level meter sensor comprises hollow rigid base with the port in its bottom end, diaphragm, strain gage converter with box, flexible spacer arranged over periphery of the box, and tube whose one end is mounted pressure-tightly in the port of the support and the other end is connected to the space of the box. The diaphragm is made of a rigid material and mounted on the flexible spacer for permitting cooperation with the strain gage converter.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and simplified structure.
FIELD: the invention refers to the field of instrument making and designed for control of the level of dielectric and current conducting liquids in hydraulic systems (fuel, freezing, accumulative etc) for example the level of oil or cooling agent in transport vehicles.
SUBSTANCE: the liquid level meter has a two-electrode capacitance sensor with an external 10 and interior 11 electrodes electrically connected with an electronic scheme having a stabilized source of power supply, an amplifier, a generator and a trigger. According to the first variant the capacitance sensor is fulfilled in the shape of a coaxial condenser "C". The interior electrode 11 of the sensor is fulfilled tubular and is mounted inside a fluoroplastic probing rod 12. The interior electrode 11 is connected to the input of a phase comparator which is additionally introduced in the scheme and whose output is connected with input of the trigger and the output of the last is provided with a line of delay and has two outputs - direct and inverse connected with a transistor key fulfilled with possibility of fulfillment of an operation "switched on" or "switched off". At that the electronic scheme is fulfilled on a digital integrated microchip. According to the second variant the interior electrode 11 of the coaxial condenser "C" is fulfilled tubular and is additionally provided with a protective shield 22. The shield 22 is fulfilled in the shape of a spiral spring out of bronze and electrically connected with the external electrode - the body 10 of the coaxial condenser "C".
EFFECT: increases sensitiveness and accuracy of measuring of the level of liquid.
6 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: invention refers to control-measuring technique and is assigned for control and signaling about border of interface between mediums petroleum product-water in installations for purification water from petroleum products or watered petroleum products from water.
SUBSTANCE: sensor has flange, three electrodes with sleeves on their low ends filled with fresh water, moreover two of them are covered with dielectric insulation. Electrodes with sleeves are located inside tube of protective screen and are fastened in flange with aid of stuffing boxes-insulators. Screen in upper part has diaphragm ring with openings along circumference coinciding with openings in screen forming swinging compensator and is fastened to flange with aid of screws. Electrodes of sensor together with sleeves and electronic part form oscillating contour going in resonance at presence in space between electrodes of electric conductive medium (water) with following triggering of executive elements and at presence of water between electrodes of petroleum product resonance of contour stops.
EFFECT: increases reliability of work of sensor.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: physics, measurement.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of facilities for automation of different liquids level detection in industrial and household reservoirs, and also for detection of liquids availability and flow in pipelines. Method is based on application of two thermistors that have identical thermal characteristics, and includes heating of one of the thermistors by electric current and its cool-down due to heat transfer to environment, periodic measurement of voltage drop at thermistors, calculation of informative parameter, its comparison with threshold value and making decision on availability or unavailability of liquid at controlled level. At that one of thermistors is periodically heated by short pulses from power supply source. After heating is completed, ratio of non-heated and heated thermistors' voltages are repeatedly measured, and as informative parameter scaled time derivative is calculated by means of specified ratio measurement results array processing. Device for method implementation contains two thermoresistors, which are installed in sensitive element, connected to power supply source and which have temperature resistance coefficients (TRC) of the same sign and identical coefficient of heat emission in gas. Besides, it also contains analog-digital transducer and comparator, reference inlet of which is connected to source of reference signal, and outlet is connected with actuating device. Moreover, device is equipped with pulse switch and serially connected regulator of heating time and synchroniser, and also calculator of scaled derivative. For alarm on liquid flow availability, device is additionally equipped with the second comparator that is connected parallel to the first one, and the second actuating device.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of liquid level detection by increase of device actuation fast-action, reduction of power inputs and expansion of its application field.
13 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: measuring technology.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to a measuring device for determination of an amount d(V(z)) of conducting liquid of the conductivity LF by a capacity with vertically (z-direction) varied filling points. There is provided conductivity metre which among others has at least two electrodes extended in a z-direction. The capacitance parametres and/or the metres are ensured so that it/they can be described by means of at least one parametric function, fpi (V(z)) depending on V(z). At least one said parametric functions shall have exponential dependence on V(z). There is also described measuring element, and also method for determination of total amount of flowing liquid d (V).
EFFECT: simplified design of the device and method of measuring conductivity of the conducting liquid.
42 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method if based on measuring capacitance of a double-electrode capacitive liquid level sensor, which in turn in any sequence measures capacitance of the double-electrode capacitive liquid level sensor and capacitance of the same sensor is measured after connecting a capacitive sensor of dielectric properties to it, after which the level h from the upper end of the double-electrode capacitive liquid level sensor is calculated using the formula:
, where h is the level of the liquid in the reservior; CA is capacitance of the double-electrode capacitive liquid level sensor; CB is overall capacitance of the double-electrode capacitive liquid level sensor connected in parallel to the capacitive sensor of dielectric properties; A, B and D are structural parametres of the double-electrode capacitive liquid level sensor and capacitive sensor of dielectric properties. The device for measuring liquid level has a double-electrode capacitive liquid level sensor made in form of a coaxial capacitor, and two cylindrical electrodes. The lower end of the inner electrode of the double-electrode capacitive liquid level sensor is connected to one of the electrodes of the capacitive sensor of dielectric properties through the closing contact of a reed relay, and the lower end of the outer electrode of the double-electrode liquid level sensor is connected to the second electrode of the capacitive sensor of dielectric properties.
EFFECT: high accuracy of measuring the level of different liquids, as well as elimination of measurement errors caused by change in dielectric permittivity of the measured liquid.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: sensor for monitoring the level of a liquid has a housing and a printed-circuit board on which there is a substrate having one or two identical film resistors (thermistors) and contact pads (conductors). The printed-circuit board is in form of a plate, one short side of which is rigidly attached to the base of the housing and on the edge of the opposite free side there is a hole whose diameter is 2…4 times larger than the width of the substrate lying over the hole and made from thin heat-insulating material. Each film resistor (thermistor) is in 'point' form with dimensions in the range (0.15…0.5) mm • (0.5…0.5) mm and thickness not more than 0.0005 mm. The boundary surface between each film resistor (thermistor) and contact pads of the substrate (conductors) is in form of broken lines consisting of straight sections.
EFFECT: high mechanical strength of the structure.