How to develop powerful layers of minerals

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to mining and can be used in underground reservoir of minerals. The reservoir is divided into sloping layers, hold precinct preparatory development, contouring pillars of minerals, after which produce a consistent practice of the pillars of minerals in the upstream and narabatyvaem layers of lava ahead of mining pillars of the upstream layer. The pillars of the mineral narabatyvaem layer work under goaf love the upstream layer after completion of the process of rock collapse of the main roof in the mined-out space of love the upstream layer, and line Stopes love narabatyvaem layer placed at an angle to the cracks formed in the roof rock formation in the development of poles of the upstream layer. For a seam, the main roof which presents difficult collapsing rocks, the distance between the faces narabatyvaem and upper layers, working in one direction, taking more than four steps of rock collapse of the main roof in myrabo the mi, formed in the rocks of the main roof, the angle between the lines Stopes love narabatyvaem layer and cracks is equal to 5-15o. The objective of the proposed method is the efficiency of mining thick layers of minerals in the application of pillar systems development by eliminating the dynamic loads on the lining love nakabatay layers, leading to the wood thrown rocks and deformation of shields. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 3 ill.

The invention relates to mining and can be used in underground mining of thick layers of minerals to improve the effectiveness of the management of mountain pressure in the love.

Known methods of developing powerful layers of minerals, including the separation of layers on layers, conducting precinct development workings and mounting cameras, contouring within the layers of the pillars of minerals, and simultaneous mining of pillars in the upstream (nakabatay) and narabatyvaem layers by means of longwall mining (In kN. A. C. Burdakova, N. To.Grin'ko, A. B. Kovalchuk. Technology of underground mining of bedded deposits of minerals. - M.: Nedra, 1978, S. 118-122). When otrabotannykh methods are dynamic collapse of rocks immediate and main roof in the mined-out space, leading to wood thrown rocks in the bottom space of love, the increased load on the support, the clamping and deforming shields in love narabatyvaem layers.

Known methods of developing powerful layers of minerals, including the separation of layers on layers, conducting precinct development workings and mounting cameras, contouring within the layers of the pillars of minerals, and consistent development of layers in descending order by lavas with a complete collapse of the roof rocks in the developed space (In Russian). Normative and methodological documents for the conduct of mining operations on the Starobin potassium salt Deposit. Publisher: Slutskaya printing the Republic of Belarus, 1995, 125-127 C., ed. St. USSR 492661).

The disadvantages of these methods are dynamic increased loads on the lining love narabotany layers, causing tightening of the support units in love narabatyvaem layers. This is because when developing an upper layer in the rocks of the immediate and main roof there are cracks operational origin, oriented at an angle 0 to 3oto the line of the stope. The surface of these cracks are angled 50-80oto th is is 0,9-0,95 width of the coverage of the combine. The distance between the cracks occurring in the upper layers of rocks immediate and main roof, increases with distance from the reservoir. In the rocks of the main roof, the distance between the cracks of up to tens of meters.

Prigruzka on lining lava from the roof rocks depends on the stability of arch systems, formed from rock blocks the direct and main roof, hanging in the developed space. In violation of the sustainability of these systems and their destruction of the minimum load on the support will be determined by the weight of the rocks above the lining. The load on the support is observed when passing lava narabotano layer under the cracks formed in the main roof when developing the upstream layer. During these periods of time due to increased intensity lowering of the rock blocks may reduce thrust forces between them and the slippage of rock blocks of the main roof by separating them cracks, leading to destruction of the joint systems. The movement comes not only block the main roof, but a significant number of weaker rocks above this block, causing more load on lawnow crap systems, occurring in small periods of time, are the biggest threat to mechanized roof supports Stopes and condition of the roof in the bottom space of love. As a rule, the collapse of the roof rocks in the bottom space of love and clamping supports "on" occur in these time periods. It should also be noted that the prediction of the places of occurrence of these random processes is almost impossible.

The objective of the proposed method is the efficiency of mining thick layers of minerals using layer-based development systems by eliminating the dynamic loads on the lining love narabatyvaem layers, leading to the wood thrown of the roof rocks in the bottom space of love and deformation of shields.

The task is solved in that the reservoir is divided into sloping layers (sloping layers - layers parallel to the bedding planes of the rocks), conduct precinct preparatory development, contouring pillars of minerals, after which produce a consistent practice of the pillars of minerals in the upstream and narabotano layers of lava ahead of mining pillars of the upstream layer.

For a seam, the main roof which presents difficult collapsing rocks, the distance between the lavas are taking more than four steps of rock collapse of the main roof in the mined-out space of love the upstream layer.

In the period of love undermined layer under the cracks formed in the rocks of the main roof at the working faces of the upstream layer, the angle between the lines Stopes love narabatyvaem layer and these cracks is equal to 5 - 15o.

The essence of the presented method is illustrated by the diagrams shown in Fig.1, figs.2 and Fig.3.

In Fig. 1 and Fig.2 shows schematic diagrams of the formation of cracks in the rocks of the main and immediate roof layer and the interaction of rock blocks within mined-out space of love during the mining of pillars, respectively upstream and narabatyvaem layers;

in Fig.3 is a diagram of the location of love narabatyvaem layer relative to the cracks, forming the Lasta mineral;

min- power upstream layer;

mn- power narabatyvaem layer;

1 - cracks in the rocks of the immediate roof, formed in the course of the lava upstream layer;

2 - cracks in the rocks of the main roof, which is formed during the mining of longwall upstream layer;

AB - line stope lava narabatyvaem layer;

L is the distance between the cracks occurring in the main roof in the course of the lava upstream layer (step collapse of the main roof);

- the angle between a line stope lava narabatyvaem layer and cracks in the roof rocks formed during the mining of longwall upstream layer;

kd - sloping surface cracks fracture that occurs in the rocks of the main roof in the course of the lava upstream layer.

The rationale for the importance of distinguishing features.

Development pillars mineral undermined layer under the goaf love the upstream layer after completion of the process of rock collapse of the main roof in the mined-out space of love the upstream layer eliminates the influence of dynamic sediment of the main roof, the development of reservoirs, the main roof which presents difficult collapsing rocks, the distance between the faces narabatyvaem and upper layers, moving in the same direction, taking more than four steps of rock collapse of the main roof in the mined-out space of love the upstream layer.

This is because at a distance from the lava upstream layer, the smaller the four steps of the collapse of the main roof, an articulated system, formed of blocks of the main roof in the mined-out space, lose their stability and dissolved, and the process of collapse of the roof associated with the development of the upstream pole ends.

At the location of the line stope lava narabatyvaem layer at an angle (Fig.3) to the cracks formed in the rocks of the main and immediate roof strata during the mining of pillars upstream layer, reduces the load on the support of lava transmitted from the side of the roof rocks. This is because one of the ends of undermined rock blocks the immediate roof lies on the array of minerals ahead of the longwall face and pinched ahead of the longwall face upstream rocks. Resulting in significant charedi longwall face. At the location of the line stope lava narabatyvaem layer at an angle (Fig. 3) to the cracks formed in the rocks of the main roof, undermined the unit main roof of ASD based their front end AV on rocks lying on the array of minerals ahead of the longwall face. This eliminates the possibility of slippage of the rock block main roof on the crack, leading to a sharp increase in loads on the lining.

The maximum effect from the use of the proposed method in the period of love narabatyvaem layer under the cracks formed in the rocks of the main roof, is achieved when the value of the angle between the line stope AB (Fig.3) lava narabatyvaem layer and the crack of AVI, divide blocks of the main roof, equal to 5-15o. With these angles is the reliable jamming of the front ends of the main blocks of the roof ahead of the longwall face, resulting in a reduction prigruzki from the main roof on the immediate roof and the support of lava. When the value of the angle between the line stope AB (Fig. 3) lava narabatyvaem layer and the crack of AVI, divide blocks of the main roof less than 5othe efficiency of the method is reduced due to vozrastnoi line stope AB (Fig. 3) lava narabatyvaem layer and the crack of AVI, divide blocks of the main roof, large 15othe efficiency of the method decreases with the increase of the step of rock collapse the immediate roof. However, it should be noted that in comparison with the known methods have a positive effect in the implementation of the proposed method is achieved over the entire range of change of angle from 0 to 90o.

The step size of rock collapse of the main roof which knowledge is necessary when implementing the proposed method, as well as the orientation of the cracks operational origin, formed in the roof rock formation in the development of poles of the upstream layer is determined by the shaft, laboratory or analytical studies with the specific geological conditions of coal extraction.

The area of rational use of this method connected with working underground salt and coal seams with a capacity of more than 3.5 m in the application development systems with separation of layers on layers.

This method allows you to exclude up to 30-50% of blockages love and gripping the lining of love "on" total recorded during the refinement of the whole post fossil. Eclectic collapse of the roof and replacement of the deformed lining, with the reduction of the cost of replacement of the deformed lining Stopes. In addition, when using the proposed method increases the safety of miners.

A specific example of using the proposed method when developing the Third potash layer on the First mine IN Belaruskali.

The third potash reservoir with a capacity of 4.5 m is mined at depths of 600-800 m from the surface. The angle of incidence - layer 1-3o.

System testing of layer - long poles with a separation layer on two coats. Layers work sequentially in descending order: first work out the upstream layer, then nakabatay. The length of the love of the upstream layer is 180-190 m, narabatyvaem-140-150 m Between excavation areas to leave pillars of minerals sizes, which eliminates the crushing of pillars rock pressure.

According to statistical studies, the steady step of rock collapse of the main roof (L, Fig.3) in the developed space love narabatyvaem layer is 20-30 m

Visually observable in the wellbore space love the upstream layer cracks, which occur sdoa, set at an angle of 0 to 3oto the line of the stope.

When implementing the proposed method in these circumstances the pillars mineral narabatyvaem layer work under goaf love the upstream layer ahead of in excess of 120 m after the completion of the process of rock collapse of the main roof in the mined-out space of love the upstream layer.

Line Stopes love narabatyvaem layer placed at an angle of 10othe cracks formed in the roof rock formation in the development of poles of the upstream layer.

The use of the proposed method in this conditions allows to exclude dynamic loads on mechanized shield lavas narabatyvaem layer with grip shields "on" and rubble bottom space of love. Increases the safety of miners.

1. How to develop a powerful reservoir of minerals, including the separation layer on the sloping layers, conducting precinct development workings, counting the posts of a useful mineral, and consistent practice of the pillars of minerals in the upstream and Nadra the mineral narabatyvaem layer work under goaf love the upstream layer after the process of collapse of the roof rocks in the developed space love the upstream layer, and line Stopes love narabatyvaem layer placed at an angle to the cracks formed in the roof rock formation in the development of poles of the upstream layer.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that for a seam, the main roof which presents trudnoprohodimi rocks, the distance between the faces narabatyvaem and upper layers, working in one direction, taking more than four steps of rock collapse of the main roof in the mined-out space of love the upstream layer.

3. The method according to p. 1 and 2, characterized in that the period of love narabatyvaem layer under the cracks formed in the rocks of the main roof at the working faces of the upstream layer, the angle between the lines Stopes love narabatyvaem layer and cracks is equal to 5-15o.

 

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