Hydropower turbine installation


(57) Abstract:

Turbine installation is designed to convert the energy of the river flow into mechanical energy of the turbine shaft. The installation includes a curved tapering chute for supplying water to the cylinder, which is placed inside the turbine with the output shaft. The chute is made U-shaped, rotated 90oso that the outer vertical wall it is located between the horizontal shelves, and the cylinder is located outside of the riverbed. Installation design allows the turbine without abrasive wear from the mist. 4 Il.

The invention relates to the field of hydropower turbine installations in relation to the rapid streams with significant natural slope of the riverbed.

Known hydropower turbine installation (see patent USSR 10441, MPK7 F 03 IN 13/00, 31.07.1929 g), the effect of which is that water flowing through the narrow corridor formed by the vertical walls, engaging in the spiral chamber, produces a funnel-shaped vortex, rising above the river level, the causes the rotation of the set here the turbine.

In this case: 1) water, rising above the level of the river, loses some kinetic enei, does not reduce the weight and the dimensions of the working surfaces of the turbine; 2) hydrodynamic point of view is not fully realized energy potential flow, and implements only the amount of movement of the mass of water of the stream, not the moment the number of its movement, since the spiral chamber with the turbine on it almost posted at the site of the narrowing of the corridor with a slight offset at a fraction of the radius of the funnel-shaped vortex; 3) the working parts of the turbine are subjected to abrasion from sediment in river flow, because it is not the Department before the turbine.

Objectives of the invention are:

1) full use of the potential of hydrodynamic energy capacity unit mass (or per cubic meter) of water flowing through the turbine;

2) ensuring the lowest dimensions of the working surface of the turbine at a specific user-defined flow;

3) ensuring the highest abrasive wear of working surfaces of the turbine.

These technical results are achieved due to the fact that the installation includes a curved tapering chute for the supply of river water flow /SUP> so that the outer vertical wall it is located between the horizontal shelves, and the cylinder is located outside of the riverbed.

The invention is illustrated graphic material, where Fig.1 schematically depicts a hydropower turbine installation; Fig.2 is a view of it from above, and Fig.3 - section K-K of Fig.2; and Fig.4 - cross section a-a of Fig.2.

Hydropower turbine installation consists of turbine 1 with a vertical output shaft 4, which is positioned at outside of the riverbed cylinder 3, a curved U-shaped tapering chute 2 for the supply of the river flow to the cylinder 3. Section trench 2 is rotated around its axis 90o. On the lateral surface of the cylinder 3 is made of a vertical slit 5. There is an inclined section of a channel with rigid U-shaped surface 6 and the support 7, which supports a curved U-shaped trough 2 in the horizontal plane, the return channel 8, the required level difference for water discharge from the turbine 1, the discharge from the turbine 10 1, boulders 11.

The effect of hydropower installations and solving problems is as follows.

In section 6 an inclined channel with smooth and hard surface, the flow velocity of the water increases, because

The Chezy coefficient Caboutdirectly related to the inverse of the roughness coefficient "n" (see VI. 11, etc. in p. 48, 125 S. in this book).

The roughness coefficient n for boulder beds (see table. X2, category VII, S. 191, ibid) equal to 0.1.

The roughness coefficient n for smooth hard surface (see tab. VI. 1, S. 127, ibid) equal 0,013 that more than 7 times less compared to the rate for boulder beds. Therefore, replacement of the surface of the channel with boulder on a hard smooth will increase the flow speed in the same ratio, i.e., up to 7 times ceteris paribus. At a constant water flow in the channel cross-sectional area of the flow will decrease in inverse proportion to the increased speed.

The capacity of unit mass of water consumption of 1 ton or 1 m2(at constant density) in a cubic dependence on the average over the cross section of the flow velocity (see equation 11.80, S. 79, ibid.).

EMs. SC.=0,5 PV3w; where eMs. SC.energy, R is the density, V - velocity w - area poperen is their cross-sectional 3 times will result in increased power for the same mass of water 9 times. Next, the flow of water from the slope of the riverbed with a hard surface 6 (see Fig.1) includes a curvilinear U-shaped trough 2 with an initial radius of curvature R, the value of which depends on the flow velocity at the entrance to the chute 2 (see Fig.2).

The value of R is determined from the pressure flow to the vertical wall of the gutter (see Fig. 2, 4, Sech. And-(A) under the action of centrifugal force caused by the centrifugal acceleration V2/R; where V is the flow velocity, R is the distance of the cylinder 3 from the flow of the river, the value of R is determined from the relation g=V2/R, where g is the acceleration of free fall (see item 122, C. 236. Elementary physics, volume 1. Edited by academician G. S. Lansberge. 1985), i.e., to ensure that water is not poured from a U-shaped curved tapering chute, the value of R must be less than or equal to2/g.

The curvature of the troughs on the inner surface of the vertical wall gradually decreases from R to the radius of the cylinder 3 on the inside surface (smooth decrease of the curvature can be built on locally circled points or by law, the spiral of Archimedes on the angular step of rotation of the radius vector and its reduction). In the process of movement of water along the gutters with decreasing radius of its axis turbines the water as they move from R to r is in accordance with the law of the constancy of the angular momentum of the bodies about a fixed point under the action of Central forces, the role of the Central power plays reaction of a vertical wall of the gutter centrifugal forces of water flow (see item 27, p. 28, S. 55, 56. A brief Handbook of physics. N. And. Koryakin, K. N. Bystrov, P. S. Kireev. 1969). Increase the flow velocity at R/r times leads to a corresponding decrease in the cross-sectional area of flow and increasing its capacity.

Due to the significant difference between the density of water and the density of suspended solids under the action of centrifugal forces of the suspension is taken out from the cavity of the cylinder 3 through a vertical slit in its wall.

Thus, these structural factors of the proposed hydropower turbine installations allow you to convert theoretical energy potential of water flow in bouldery bed with a bias torque of the vertical shaft 4 turbine 1, in accordance with known laws of kinematics and dynamics of fluid motion, while the least need in the area of the working surfaces of the turbine and their work without abrasive wear from the mist.

Turbine installation comprising a curved tapering chute for the supply of river water flow to the cylinder, which is placed inside the turbine with an output shaft that is different between the horizontal shelves, and the cylinder is located outside of the riverbed.


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