Hydropower turbine installation
(57) Abstract:Turbine installation is designed to convert the energy of the river flow into mechanical energy of the turbine shaft. The installation includes a curved tapering chute for supplying water to the cylinder, which is placed inside the turbine with the output shaft. The chute is made U-shaped, rotated 90oso that the outer vertical wall it is located between the horizontal shelves, and the cylinder is located outside of the riverbed. Installation design allows the turbine without abrasive wear from the mist. 4 Il. The invention relates to the field of hydropower turbine installations in relation to the rapid streams with significant natural slope of the riverbed.Known hydropower turbine installation (see patent USSR 10441, MPK7 F 03 IN 13/00, 31.07.1929 g), the effect of which is that water flowing through the narrow corridor formed by the vertical walls, engaging in the spiral chamber, produces a funnel-shaped vortex, rising above the river level, the causes the rotation of the set here the turbine.In this case: 1) water, rising above the level of the river, loses some kinetic enei, does not reduce the weight and the dimensions of the working surfaces of the turbine; 2) hydrodynamic point of view is not fully realized energy potential flow, and implements only the amount of movement of the mass of water of the stream, not the moment the number of its movement, since the spiral chamber with the turbine on it almost posted at the site of the narrowing of the corridor with a slight offset at a fraction of the radius of the funnel-shaped vortex; 3) the working parts of the turbine are subjected to abrasion from sediment in river flow, because it is not the Department before the turbine.Objectives of the invention are:
1) full use of the potential of hydrodynamic energy capacity unit mass (or per cubic meter) of water flowing through the turbine;
2) ensuring the lowest dimensions of the working surface of the turbine at a specific user-defined flow;
3) ensuring the highest abrasive wear of working surfaces of the turbine.These technical results are achieved due to the fact that the installation includes a curved tapering chute for the supply of river water flow /SUP> so that the outer vertical wall it is located between the horizontal shelves, and the cylinder is located outside of the riverbed.The invention is illustrated graphic material, where Fig.1 schematically depicts a hydropower turbine installation; Fig.2 is a view of it from above, and Fig.3 - section K-K of Fig.2; and Fig.4 - cross section a-a of Fig.2.Hydropower turbine installation consists of turbine 1 with a vertical output shaft 4, which is positioned at outside of the riverbed cylinder 3, a curved U-shaped tapering chute 2 for the supply of the river flow to the cylinder 3. Section trench 2 is rotated around its axis 90o. On the lateral surface of the cylinder 3 is made of a vertical slit 5. There is an inclined section of a channel with rigid U-shaped surface 6 and the support 7, which supports a curved U-shaped trough 2 in the horizontal plane, the return channel 8, the required level difference for water discharge from the turbine 1, the discharge from the turbine 10 1, boulders 11.The effect of hydropower installations and solving problems is as follows.In section 6 an inclined channel with smooth and hard surface, the flow velocity of the water increases, becauseThe Chezy coefficient Caboutdirectly related to the inverse of the roughness coefficient "n" (see VI. 11, etc. in p. 48, 125 S. in this book).The roughness coefficient n for boulder beds (see table. X2, category VII, S. 191, ibid) equal to 0.1.The roughness coefficient n for smooth hard surface (see tab. VI. 1, S. 127, ibid) equal 0,013 that more than 7 times less compared to the rate for boulder beds. Therefore, replacement of the surface of the channel with boulder on a hard smooth will increase the flow speed in the same ratio, i.e., up to 7 times ceteris paribus. At a constant water flow in the channel cross-sectional area of the flow will decrease in inverse proportion to the increased speed.The capacity of unit mass of water consumption of 1 ton or 1 m2(at constant density) in a cubic dependence on the average over the cross section of the flow velocity (see equation 11.80, S. 79, ibid.).EMs. SC.=0,5 PV3w; where eMs. SC.energy, R is the density, V - velocity w - area poperen is their cross-sectional 3 times will result in increased power for the same mass of water 9 times. Next, the flow of water from the slope of the riverbed with a hard surface 6 (see Fig.1) includes a curvilinear U-shaped trough 2 with an initial radius of curvature R, the value of which depends on the flow velocity at the entrance to the chute 2 (see Fig.2).The value of R is determined from the pressure flow to the vertical wall of the gutter (see Fig. 2, 4, Sech. And-(A) under the action of centrifugal force caused by the centrifugal acceleration V2/R; where V is the flow velocity, R is the distance of the cylinder 3 from the flow of the river, the value of R is determined from the relation g=V2/R, where g is the acceleration of free fall (see item 122, C. 236. Elementary physics, volume 1. Edited by academician G. S. Lansberge. 1985), i.e., to ensure that water is not poured from a U-shaped curved tapering chute, the value of R must be less than or equal to2/g.The curvature of the troughs on the inner surface of the vertical wall gradually decreases from R to the radius of the cylinder 3 on the inside surface (smooth decrease of the curvature can be built on locally circled points or by law, the spiral of Archimedes on the angular step of rotation of the radius vector and its reduction). In the process of movement of water along the gutters with decreasing radius of its axis turbines the water as they move from R to r is in accordance with the law of the constancy of the angular momentum of the bodies about a fixed point under the action of Central forces, the role of the Central power plays reaction of a vertical wall of the gutter centrifugal forces of water flow (see item 27, p. 28, S. 55, 56. A brief Handbook of physics. N. And. Koryakin, K. N. Bystrov, P. S. Kireev. 1969). Increase the flow velocity at R/r times leads to a corresponding decrease in the cross-sectional area of flow and increasing its capacity.Due to the significant difference between the density of water and the density of suspended solids under the action of centrifugal forces of the suspension is taken out from the cavity of the cylinder 3 through a vertical slit in its wall.Thus, these structural factors of the proposed hydropower turbine installations allow you to convert theoretical energy potential of water flow in bouldery bed with a bias torque of the vertical shaft 4 turbine 1, in accordance with known laws of kinematics and dynamics of fluid motion, while the least need in the area of the working surfaces of the turbine and their work without abrasive wear from the mist. Turbine installation comprising a curved tapering chute for the supply of river water flow to the cylinder, which is placed inside the turbine with an output shaft that is different between the horizontal shelves, and the cylinder is located outside of the riverbed.
FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.
SUBSTANCE: device has metallic hubs of stator and rotor, wherein crowns of stator and rotor are concentrically pressed. Crowns of stator and rotor are made of durable ceramics and are additionally equipped with connections, allowing to exclude non-controlled turning of crowns in hubs and spontaneous axial displacement thereof.
EFFECT: higher reliability and efficiency.
FIELD: turbines using kinetic energy of liquid flow.
SUBSTANCE: proposed turbine has turbine case , stay ring with cascade of stay vanes, wicket-gate mechanism with cascade of adjustable vanes, operating element with cascade of flange-mounted blades and drive shaft coupled with electric generator step-up gear, operating element chamber, and draft tube. It is also provided with straightening mechanism that has cascade of vanes, chain transmission that has sprockets and shafts; external and internal rims are made in cross-sectional areas in the form of ovals. Cascade of blades is made in the form of caterpillar cascade. Operating element blades are cylindrical in shape and hinge-joined through chain transmission whose drive sprocket is coupled with drive shaft. Flanges of operating element blades are provided with supporting rollers mounted in fixed supports and joined with chain transmission shafts at distances of two adjacent operating-mechanism blades; guides are made in the form of oval junctions joined with turbine internal rim in vicinity of their abutting against butt-ends of flanges carrying operating element blades.
EFFECT: enhanced turbine efficiency.
1 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: mobile generator plants.
SUBSTANCE: proposed generator plant has frame that mounts power unit, foot-operated air pump, and compressed-air cylinders whose air lines communicate with generator plant. Control panel is electrically connected to output of electric generator vertically installed on generator plant housing and mechanically coupled with exciter and power unit made in the form of vertical-shaft pneumostatic motor. The latter has sealed case with inlet, outlet, and safety valves closed with cover that accommodates vertical rotor mounted in case and cover bearings and made in the form of shaft with two power drives attached thereto by means of U-shaped frames. Power drives are installed on either side of vertical shaft and spaced 180 deg. apart in horizontal plane. Each of them has a number of similar members symmetrically mounted one on top of other, their quantity being dependent of desired power. Each member is essentially rhombic plate made of light-mass and high-strength metal whose longitudinal axis is longest diagonal parallel to that of other power drive. Through ducts are provided on front ends of rhomb and L-shaped blind ducts, on its rear butt-ends. All these ducts are closed with covers kinematically coupled with drive cylinder piston. Compressed air fed to sealed housing opens covers, and unbalanced forces are built up on each member which set power unit in rotary motion. Air evacuation from sealed housing closes covers with the result that no forces are built up on drive members.
EFFECT: enhanced power output and torque.
2 cl, 21 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device is designed for converting kinetic energy of free flow of water into electric energy. Proposed microhydroelectric station contains hydraulic turbine with horizontal axle of rotation connected with submersed sealed electric generator. Station is provided with carrying frame consisting of sections on ends of which shields are installed to form confuser at inlet of water flow, and diffuser at outlet. Slow speed generator is used as electric generator whose shaft is directly connected with shaft of hydraulic turbine consisting of separate sections mounted on bearing supports. Each section contains one or more blade propulsors displaced through equal angle relative to each other. Each propulsor has two blades pointed in opposite directions being essentially NASA section modified by provision of cavity on lower plane, maximum depth of which being from 10 to 14% of maximum height of section and installed on posts secured on shaft of hydraulic turbine for fixed displacement of blades in radial and angular directions.
EFFECT: reduced cost of manufacture and mounting.
FIELD: engine manufacturing.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method of operation of self-contained power station powered by diesel-generator set. According to proposed method of operation of self-contained power station powered by diesel generator set equipped with additional flywheel and disconnect clutch with automatic control members, additional flywheel is mounted on separate shaft which is connected with diesel-generator set by means of disconnect clutch. Preparatory operation is carried out to set power station into operation with subsequent overcoming of short-time starting resistances from consumer. Additional flywheel is connected to shut down diesel generator set by means of disconnect clutch. Power station is started under no load, and its coming to rated speed is detected by readings of generator shaft speed pickups. Load is connected and intensity of generator shaft speed drop is checked. Information is automatically transmitted to controller wherefrom, at termination of generator speed drop, signal is transmitted to disconnect clutch, and rotating additional flywheel is disconnected from diesel generator set, thus changing the set for accelerated mode of restoration of initial rated speed.
EFFECT: provision of power saving operation at stable conditions for overcoming designed resistance torque and short-time overloads exceeding capabilities of chosen supply source.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device is designed for converting kinetic energy of small and medium rivers into elastic energy. Proposed hydraulic unit contains hydraulic turbine installed on frame with bearings on its shaft, generator mechanically coupled with hydraulic turbine, stream shaper and device in form of plates to protect hydraulic unit from floating debris. Hydraulic unit has intermediate vertically and horizontally installed shafts with bearings interconnected by conical gears. Vertical shaft is arranged in well built near bank and communicating with river by channel made under level of maximum possible thickness of ice cover. Part of horizontal shaft connected with hydraulic turbine is arranged in said channel. Upper end of vertical shaft is connected with generator through ground horizontal shaft and step-up reduction unit. Stream shaper is made in form of flaps installed on shaft for turning to direct water stream of river to its central part between which turnable gate is installed for contacting with one of flaps to direct water stream to right-hand or left-hand side of hydraulic turbine.
EFFECT: provision of reliable operation all year round.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: plant is designed for generating electric energy and pumping of water. Proposed device contains floating base in form of catamaran with channel between housing of catamaran in which water wheel with blades on its outer surface is mounted, and electric generator mechanically coupled with shaft of water wheel. Diameter of water wheel is less than its length. End faces of water wheel are covered, and front profile of water wheel blades is made to logarithmic spiral. Moreover, plant is furnished with water pump, and drive of electric generator is made in form of step-up harmonic gearing whose flexible gear is coupled with end face of water pump. Output shaft of step-up gearing is aligned with shafts of water wheel and electric generator, being coupled with water pump by step-up belt drive. Drive sheave of step-up belt drive is installed on shaft of electric generator. Controllable clutches are installed on shafts of belt drive.
EFFECT: improved reliability and enlarged operating capabilities of plant.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: machines or engines for liquids.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises converter for converting flow power into kinetic energy of rotation and hydraulic turbines connected in series. The hydraulic turbine is made of hollow load-bearing shaft-cylinder with conical deflectors on the bases. The semi-cylindrical blades are secured to the shaft-cylinder along the generatrix of the cylinder or at an angle to the generatrix. The load-bearing shaft-cylinder is inscribed into the inner ends of the semi-cylindrical blades, and their outer ends tightened by means of rings define multi-blade cylinder provided with variable buoyancy that is controlled by ballast in the hollow section of the shaft-cylinder. The hydraulic turbine can be submerged into water completely or partially and interposed between the bearings and connected with the actuating mechanism through flexible links, clutches, and gearings. The actuating mechanism comprise one or several massive inertia flywheels made of disk or drum or cylinder connected through clutches and gears with the consumer.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
3 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: electromechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed generator primarily designed to supply with power borehole instrument of face telemetering system in the course of boring has internal stator and rotor; the latter mounts turbine in its front part that has casing carrying rectangular- or trapezoidal-section helical blades. These blades are free to vary their angle of lift depending on conditions of borehole washing with drilling fluid. Blades may be made of flexible material and have two parts of which one part is joined with turbine casing and other (loose) part is free to bend in transverse plane. In addition, blades may have variable stiffness in cross-sectional area and variable height of cross-section profile; loose parts of blades may be joined with ring. Blade turn limiter responding to maximal discharge of drilling fluid may be provided on the turbine casing.
EFFECT: enhanced operating reliability and extended variation range of drilling fluid discharge through generator turbine.
7 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: hydraulic power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed hydraulic turbine generators are designed for creating stationary and portable hydraulic plants of modular type. Generators have rotor with central shaft non-rotating around horizontal axis or vertical axis (as version) on which chain drive gears are rigidly fitted, each being coupled through independent chain drive with planet pinion members arranged radially and uniformly around central shaft. Each member has blade reduction gear consisting of gear of chain drive and of large and small cylindrical gears, the latter being coaxial and rigidly coupled with gear of chain drive of blade reduction gear, and large cylindrical gear is rigidly secured on axle of blade installed horizontally for generator (or vertically, as version). Each blade rests by ends of its axle for rotation on brackets secured on hubs by bases. Hubs are installed on both ends of shaft for rotation and tops of brackets at both ends of central shaft are connected by ring rims being drive wheels connected with energy converters by flexible drive.
EFFECT: provision of effective and reliable operation.
3 cl, 4 dwg