The method for extracting metals from aqueous solutions

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to hydrometallurgy and can be used for membrane extraction, concentration and purification of metals both in technology and analytical practice. The proposed method for the extraction of metal present in aqueous solutions in the composition of anions, includes the introduction into the solution of water-soluble polyelectrolyte containing groups of the Quaternary ammonium base, ultrafiltration resulting solution through a semipermeable membrane, the elution of the metal with an aqueous solution of the reagent. As the reagent is used a solution containing 0.5 to 1.5 mol/DM3the nitrate ion, the resulting concentrate is washed from the nitrate ions at a ratio of volumes of water and concentrate 3-41. Translation koagulirovannogo when the elution of the metal polyelectrolyte in soluble form carried out by adding to the concentrate solution of reducing agent, after which the resulting solution of the polyelectrolyte again served in the aqueous solution used for ultrafiltration. The method allows for continuous extraction of metals by the method of complexation - ultrafiltration using polyelectrolyte containing groups chetvertiti in the form suitable for re-use. 2 C.p. f-crystals.

The invention relates to hydrometallurgy and can be used for membrane extraction, concentration and purification of metals both in technology and in analytical practice.

Among membrane methods of extraction of metals from solutions with low concentrations can be distinguished low energy method of complexation-ultrafiltration (COF), based on preliminary introduction to the polyelectrolyte solution (soluble ion-exchanger), forming a complex with the target component, and subsequent ultrafiltration. The ultra-filter passes low-molecular components of the solution, but retains high molecular weight polyelectrolyte ions and chemically bonded with ionic groups of the polyelectrolyte [Selective preconcentration of metals in solutions with polymer binding and ultrafiltration / Tokarev, I., Tokarev N. And., Dynarski Y. I., Volchek, K. A., Zhilin Yu N. -(LBA. and technology. issled. and obogs. miner, raw: Review / Institute of Econ. miner, raw materials and GEOL. - intelligence. (VIMS). - M., 1988. - S. 60.].

There is a method of concentration of rhenium from aqueous solutions by the method of COF with ispolzovaniem W. M., Kochergin N. In., Kamishibai A. A. , Besterekov U. B. Selective extraction perrenate anion from aqueous systems by complexation-ultrafiltration. J. struct. Dokl. IV Uses. proc. by membrane methods of separating mixtures (IV VCM), may 27-29, 1987. - M , niitekhim, 1987, T. 4, S. 44-45]. Cationic polyelectrolyte VA-2 (poly-4-vinyl-N-benzyltrimethylammonium) retrieves perrenate ion in a wide range of pH (3-10,5) with a degree of recovery to 96.6-98.6 per cent. The method allowed concentration of rhenium from real wastewater Chimkent lead plant to a working concentration of mother solutions hydrometallurgical plant. When the concentration factor of 16,8 extraction rate amounted to 98.6%. However, information on the elution of rhenium from polyelectrolyte and reuse it in the membrane process, KOF missing.

The closest technical solution and the achieved result is a method of removing metals (cadmium, silver, mercury, copper, lead, chromium, arsenic, potassium) from aqueous solutions by filtering water under pressure (0.5 to 20 kg/cm2) through a semipermeable membrane at pH greater than 3.0 (mainly 4,0-8,0) in the presence of the previously introduced water-soluble polymer material in the concentration of the Rial used compounds of different classes, in particular compounds containing the group of Quaternary ammonium bases. In accordance with the information set forth in the bid resulting from the ultrafiltration range of polymer with metal is concentrated salt solution, for example, sodium chloride or calcium, or a diluted acid. The resulting aqueous solution, in which there are divided polymeric material and metal ions, may be again subjected to ultrafiltration for the concentration of both polymer and metal. Aqueous metal-containing solution for the transfer of metal in an insoluble form can be neutralized or to hold him precipitation of sulfides or electrolysis. One disadvantage of this method is the lack of continuous extraction of metals membrane method, including provisions for the regeneration of water-soluble polymer.

The objective of the invention is to develop a method of continuous extraction of metals in aqueous solutions comprising anions, the method COUP with the technical result of the regeneration of water-soluble polyelectrolyte containing groups of the Quaternary ammonium base.

The technical result is achieved str is a water-soluble polyelectrolyte, the group containing a Quaternary ammonium base, ultrafiltration resulting solution through a semipermeable membrane and elution of the metal with an aqueous solution of the reagent. As a reagent for the elution of metal using a solution containing 0.5 to 1.5 mol/DM3the nitrate ion, wash concentrate from the nitrate ions is carried out at a ratio of volumes of water and concentrate 3-41, and translation koagulirovannogo when the elution of the metal polyelectrolyte in soluble form carried out by adding to the concentrate solution of reducing agent, after which the resulting solution of the polyelectrolyte again injected into the metal-containing aqueous solution used for ultrafiltration.

The difference of the proposed method lies in the fact that the elution of the metal implement solutions with a content of nitrate-ion 0.5 to 1.5 mol/DM3. As nitrosoureas solutions can be used solutions of sodium nitrate or nitric acid.

Another difference lies in the fact that the washing of the concentrate from the nitrate ions is carried out at a ratio of volumes of water and concentrate 3-41. This ratio at the chosen concentration of eluting solution allows effective / the CSOs ammonium base, nitrosoureas solution is coagulation of the polyelectrolyte, and the washing water does not lead to its dissolution.

A distinctive feature of the proposed method is the translation of koagulirovannogo when the elution of the metal polyelectrolyte in soluble form by adding a solution of a reducing agent. As a solution of the reducing agent used, for example, a solution of hydrazine.

The developed method allows to effectively carry out the elution of metal on 95-98% and in continuous transfer mode turning into sludge when the elution of the metal polyelectrolyte in a fully soluble form, which allows to use it in the next cycle.

Example 1.

When ultrafiltration extracting rhenium received 20 ml of a solution of polyelectrolyte VA-212 with a concentration of 1 wt. % and the content of rhenium 11 mg/DM3. Through ultrafiltration installation was skipped 60 ml of a solution of sodium nitrate with a concentration of 1 mol/DM3when this was obtained filtrate concentration of rhenium 3.6 mg/DM3that corresponds to the degree of elution of 98%. Adding nitrosoureas solution to the solution of polyelectrolyte happened coagulation of the polyelectrolyte. Suspension polyaluminum 80 ml of deionized water. Then, to the suspension of polyelectrolyte was added 20 ml of a solution of hydrazine (0.05 mol/DM3), when this happened its dissolution. Through ultrafiltration installation was skipped 60 ml of deionized water, after which the resulting solution of the polyelectrolyte was again used to extract rhenium.

Example 2.

It formed after elution of technetium suspension of polyelectrolyte VA-212 after washing with water (see example 1) (volume of suspension to 20 ml, the content of PE - 1 wt.%) was added 20 ml of hydrazine with a concentration of 0.1 mol/DM3when this happened the dissolution of polyelectrolyte. After passing through the ultrafiltration installation 60 ml of deionized water, the resulting solution of the polyelectrolyte was reused for the extraction of technetium.

Thus, the proposed method allows a continuous extraction of metals by the method of complexation-ultrafiltration using as the polymeric material of the polyelectrolyte containing groups of the Quaternary ammonium base, due to the regeneration of water-soluble polyelectrolyte, which includes the elution of metal and translation of the polyelectrolyte in soluble form, the thieves in the structure of the anion, includes an introduction to the solution of water-soluble polyelectrolyte containing groups of the Quaternary ammonium base, ultrafiltration resulting solution through a semipermeable membrane, the elution of the metal with an aqueous solution of reagent, wherein the reagent is used as a solution containing 0.5 to 1.5 mol/DM3the nitrate ion, the resulting concentrate is washed from the nitrate ions at a ratio of volumes of water and concentrate 3-41, and translation koagulirovannogo when the elution of the metal polyelectrolyte in soluble form carried out by adding to the concentrate solution of reducing agent, after which the resulting solution of the polyelectrolyte again served in the aqueous solution used for ultrafiltration.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that as nitrosoureas solution using a solution of sodium nitrate or nitric acid.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the solution of reducing agent used solution of hydrazine.

 

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