The method is highly efficient catalytic conversion of carbon monoxide

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention is intended for the chemical industry and can be used to obtain ammonia. The reactor includes a cylindrical housing 2, filled with at least one layer of the catalyst 4, the supply pipe 10 for supplying the gas containing carbon monoxide, the outlet 11. The reactor comprises a device 12 for the acceleration of the flow that contains the element with the constriction 13. With the passage of the gas stream containing CO and water through the device 12 and its speed increases by 1.5-5 times. Accelerated stream 14 enters the reaction space 3, where the conversion of CO in the CO2. The ratio of the diameter of the element 13 to the bore diameter of the inlet pipe 10 of 0.45-0,85. The element 13 may be a Venturi pipe. The way high-performance, prevents surface compaction of the catalyst and its destruction. 5 C. and 13 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il.

The technical field to which the invention relates

The present invention relates to a method of highly efficient catalytic conversion of carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide (CO2), which includes the following stages:

- the flow at a given speed containing monova with the formation of the gas flow, containing carbon dioxide.

In the following description and in the claims under the "reaction space" basically refers to the space in which is containing the catalyst device in which the reaction of conversion of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide according to the following scheme:

CO+H2O(steam)<-->2+H2< / BR>
The reaction of conversion of carbon monoxide is of great industrial importance because it allows to get one of the main reagents for many synthesis reactions (for example, for the reaction of ammonia synthesis), in particular hydrogen (H2).

The present invention relates also to the reactor and an apparatus for implementing the above method, and also to the way the reactor modernization and installation for the catalytic conversion of carbon monoxide.

As is well known in the field of catalytic conversion of carbon monoxide is keenly felt the necessity to create easy ways of conversion, providing high process productivity at low operating costs, low capital investment and low energy consumption.

Art

For commercial reagents missed essentially in the axial radial or radial - axial direction through the reaction space with at least one layer of the catalyst.

One such method is described, for example, in EP-A-0372453.

With all its advantages such known methods have a major disadvantage associated with the presence of water, for example, in the form of droplets in the stream containing carbon monoxide gas.

It is obvious that the water flowing together with carbon monoxide in the reaction space, irreversibly destroys the surface layer in the reaction space of the catalyst and makes it very compact or dense.

It was due to the local thermal stress, which occurs because of the instantaneous evaporation of the water when it gets heated to a high temperature catalyst, as well as with mechanical shock impact that water has on the surface layer of the catalyst.

The main result of this compaction of the surface layer of the catalyst is a noticeable increase in the pressure drop flowing through the catalytic mass gas flow, and decrease the activity of the catalyst, which, in turn, leads to a decrease of the conversion output (and thus the OK known methods of conversion of carbon monoxide has been known for over twenty years, however, to date the only solution to this problem was based on manually removing from the reactor lost its quality of catalyst and replacing it with a new catalyst.

Moreover, it quickly seal catalyst violates the natural course of the entire process, since the catalyst usually should be replaced at least once a year (usually at intervals of from 3 to 9 months).

Obviously, this method of solving the above problems cannot be considered acceptable in an industrial environment as it relates to the need to stop all associated with the conversion process of the installation, interruptions in the process of obtaining final products and determines the high costs of maintenance and repair equipment and high energy consumption.

Summary of the invention

The present invention was based on the task to create such a method of conversion of carbon monoxide, which would have high performance and the implementation of which would not be associated with either high operational costs and large capital investments, nor with large maintenance costs and great races who it is to make available such a method of conversion of carbon monoxide, in which the surface seal of the catalyst was not done in the same way as in the known methods.

This problem is solved using the proposed in the present invention the above method of conversion of carbon monoxide, which differs in that it provides for the following preliminary stage:

acceleration containing a carbon monoxide gas stream before it enters the reaction space.

Due to the acceleration containing carbon monoxide flow fed into the reaction space gas, capable of being spray is contained in a gas water droplets of small diameter, in particular for drops with diameter from 100 to 600 μm, which is accompanied by at least partial evaporation of these droplets in the stream fed to the reaction space of the gas, which in principle remains unsaturated with water vapor.

In addition, it has been unexpectedly discovered that after acceleration of the gas flow are all formed by spraying drops of water gather in the centre supplied into the reaction space of the gas stream and fall on very Nebolchi, significantly reducing the pressure drop across the catalyst associated with his seal.

And finally, above the water spray on a separate droplets of small diameter significantly reduces the destruction of the catalyst due to the mechanical shock of impact of the droplets on the surface of the catalyst.

Thus, the proposed in the present invention method, on the one hand, at least partially reduces the water content of the stream entering the catalytic mass of the gas, and on the other hand, significantly reduces the size of the part of the catalyst that remaining in the gas stream drops of water have a shock that causes a decrease in the efficiency of the catalyst.

Preferably the stream containing carbon monoxide gas to accelerate so that its speed was increased 1.5-5 times, thereby ensuring efficient and complete metamorphosis in small drops all contained in the gas stream of water.

Containing carbon monoxide, the gas stream is preferably passed through the reaction space is essentially in the radial or radial-axial direction.

Thus the presence of traces of water in postupayushie what I have on it, since the part of the catalyst, which act in the gas stream of small water drops very low and not commensurate in size with the rest of the catalyst.

To implement the above method in the present invention proposes a reactor for highly efficient catalytic conversion of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide, including:

- essentially cylindrical outer casing;

at least one layer of a catalyst which is inside the outer casing;

- supply pipe which communicates with the housing and through which at least one layer of catalyst is a stream containing monascin carbon gas;

and characterized in that it includes

device for accelerating the flow of gas located in the direction of movement of gas to the at least one catalyst layer.

Alternatively, the present invention proposes an installation for efficient catalytic conversion of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide, including:

the reactor in which the conversion takes place and which has an essentially cylindrical housing and at marashi carbon monoxide gas stream,

and which differs in that it also provides

- located in the unit for the acceleration of the gas stream.

Another object of the present invention is a method of upgrading reactor for catalytic conversion of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide, including

- essentially cylindrical outer casing;

at least one layer of a catalyst which is inside the outer casing;

- supply pipe which communicates with the housing and through which at least one layer of catalyst is a stream containing monascin carbon gas,

characterized in that it provides

- installation of at least one catalyst layer device to accelerate the flow of gas.

Further, another object of the present invention is a method of upgrading installation for the catalytic conversion of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide, including

the reactor in which the conversion takes place and which has an essentially cylindrical outer housing and at least one located in the housing, a layer of catalyst;

a pipeline through which is fed into the reactor containing monoxime to expedite the flow of gas.

Proposed in the invention methods of upgrading an existing reactor or installations allow enough just to carry out the method of conversion of carbon monoxide, which provides high performance at low operating costs and low energy consumption and with no surface sealing of the catalyst being at least one catalytic layer.

Distinctive features and advantages of the present invention a method is given below in the description of one of its variants, which are described with reference to the drawing is not limiting of the scope of the invention example it could be implemented.

The drawing shows a longitudinal section of the proposed reactor for the conversion of carbon monoxide.

The preferred embodiment of the invention

Position 1 indicates the whole reactor, designed for highly efficient catalytic conversion of carbon monoxide.

Typically, the reaction conversion occurs at a temperature of from 180 to 500oC and at a pressure of from 1 to 100 bar.

The reactor 1 has an essentially cylindrical outer casing 2, within which is formed of reaction is the iMER entire catalyst 5 is located in one catalytic layer 4. It is obvious, however, that in the reaction space 3 catalyst 5 can be spread over several catalytic layer 4, for example two or three.

The catalytic layer 4 has the design of a radial-axial type and its upper end face 6 and the side wall 7 is made gas-permeable. The catalytic layer 4 also has an inner gas-permeable side wall 8, which communicates with the pipe 9 and in which the gas that has passed through the catalytic layer 4.

The catalytic layer of this type is described, for example, in EP-A-0372453.

To prevent undesired entrainment of catalyst 5, the upper end face 6 is normally closed by a grid, which has a known construction and is not shown.

In an alternative, not shown in the drawing, the embodiment of the present invention, the upper end face 6 is made gas-tight, and a catalyst which acts as a catalyst purely radial type.

Positions 10 and 11 in the drawing, respectively, inlet and outlet nozzles, located respectively in the upper and lower housing parts 2.

To the catalytic layer in the proposed reactor is appropriately fastened the device 12 is m in the drawing example, the device 12 is located in the inlet pipe 10, preferably near the housing 2.

This option is the most preferable, because it allows to create a simple design and small size device 12, which can be easily maintained.

In this regard, it should be noted that in the housing 2 near the front pipe 10 is usually a technique called "inspection hatch window (not shown), which is used for inspection and maintenance designed for the conversion of the reactor 1.

The device 12 can be performed as with the narrowing element 13, the diameter of which is less than the bore diameter of the inlet pipe 10. As such having a narrowing of the elements 13 can be used Venturi or throttle calibrated washers.

The best results were obtained when the ratio of these diameters from 0.45 to 0.85.

The presence of the accelerating device 12 allows the spray is contained in the stream fed to the reactor gas water droplets of small diameter and to provide at least partial evaporation of the water, as well as significantly reduce the risk of reducing the effectiveness of the catalyst.

In the drawing by arrows Fgconventionally shown e.g. what

The composition fed to the reactor and containing carbon monoxide and water vapor gas, indicated by arrows Fgchanges in the conversion process as it passes through the catalytic layer 4 and at the exit of the reactor 1, this gas consists mainly of carbon dioxide and hydrogen.

Due to the acceleration of the gas flow Fgthat is generated by the device 12, the water droplets 14 are concentrated in the Central zone of the reaction space and strike only a small and limited by the circumference of the surface of the catalyst 5.

In addition, the shock has a very small droplet size 14 on the catalytic mass is practically not create any significant problems associated with seal of the catalyst.

In accordance with the proposed in the present invention a method of converting a stream containing carbon monoxide gasgserved with a specified speed in the reaction space 3, in which the result of the interaction of carbon monoxide with water, it forms a gas flow Fgcontaining carbon dioxide.

In the proposed invention the method before getting into the reaction space 3 containing a carbon monoxide gas stream Fg

Conditions (pressure and temperature) at which the conversion takes place by the proposed method described above and meet the usual conditions known methods for catalytic conversion of carbon monoxide.

It was found that, with a corresponding increase of the flow velocity Fgit is possible to provide almost complete evaporation of the water droplets 14. For this purpose, in particular, the acceleration must be such that the gas flow rate Fgincreased 4-5 times.

In the form shown in the drawing the reactor, this increase in speed can be achieved by using preferably be in the form of a Venturi having a constriction element 13 with respect to the bore diameter of the element 13 to the bore diameter of the inlet pipe 10 in the range from 0.45 to 0.5.

When Francis performing in the reaction space 3 catalytic layer 4 direction entering the reactor 1 of the gas flow Fgpreferably the hand, this is compensated by the pressure drop due to the presence with the narrowing of the element 13, and on the other hand, significantly reduced the area of the section of the surface layer of the catalyst, which if necessary should be replaced because of its seals.

Indeed, in comparison with purely axial radial axial direction of the gas flow Fgthrough the catalytic mass is accompanied by a significantly lower pressure drop and therefore, despite the high loss of pressure caused by passing gas flow Fgthrough having a constriction element 13, the operation of such a reactor is characterized by high performance.

In addition, as shown in the drawing, the movement of the water droplets 14 through the catalytic layer 4 is limited to a very small area, which, in particular, is located in the center along the axis of the layer 4, in this case, since the remaining part of the catalyst does not feel any effect from the water droplets and therefore is not condensed, the operation of such a reactor is not accompanied by additional unwanted pressure loss in the catalytic layer 4.

From the viewpoint of pressure loss diagram with purely Radialnaya in this scheme under the same conditions due to less complete and less efficient use of the catalytic mass, due to the absence of axial motion path of the gases through the catalyst, the productivity of the reactor is below.

In the most preferred embodiment of the invention accelerating device 12 in the form of element 13, which is a Venturi, which creates the necessary increase in the rate entering the reactor gas flow Fgwith less compared to having the constriction elements in the form of a calibrated throttle washers or other similar devices pressure drop.

Alternatively proposed in the present invention the method can be implemented at the facility (not shown), which has

reactor for the conversion with essentially cylindrical outer casing and at least one layer of catalyst;

pipe for supplying into the reactor a stream containing carbon monoxide gas.

The pipeline connects the reactor placed before him by technological boiler.

Under "technological boiler" means a boiler for the production of water vapor through indirect heat exchange between the flow of heating gas containing carbon monoxide, and water flow. Typically, these boilers vmmouse pipes.

In accordance with the present invention, the installation must be equipped installed in the pipeline device for acceleration of the gas flow Fg.

Accelerating device preferably in the form of having the constriction element is less than the pipeline reduced diameter.

Preferably, the ratio of these diameters lying in the range from 0.45 to 0.5, and having a narrowing of the item was made in the form of a Venturi.

It should be noted that regarding the problems associated with seal of the catalyst, the proposed installation does not differ from those described above and shown in the drawing of the reactor.

However, the accelerating device is placed inside a pipeline, and therefore, its installation and maintenance connected with great difficulties.

In the present invention are also appropriate reactor modernization and installation for the catalytic conversion of carbon monoxide.

In accordance with the invention, these methods include the installation until the reaction space of the device for the corresponding acceleration applied to the conversion of the stream containing monascin carbon g is its existing reactors or installation, who acquire the above mentioned advantages and no longer have the disadvantages inherent in the known reactors and installations.

Preferably the accelerating device to be placed in the inlet nozzle of the reactor or in a feed line, running it as having a narrowing element, in particular in the form of a Venturi, with less than the pipe or pipeline, the diameter of the orifice.

In the above description fully disclosed all the numerous advantages of the present invention, in particular the possibility of effective or even almost complete solution to the problem of sealing in the reaction space of the catalyst, and this problem is solved by using the proposed invention, a method of conversion, which can easily be implemented in practice and provides high performance at low operating costs and low energy consumption.

1. The method is highly efficient catalytic conversion of carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide (CO2), which includes the following stages: flow at a given speed contains carbon monoxide of gas flow in the reaction space (3), conversion of monoxi the different topics that it provided the following preliminary stage: the acceleration of the stream containing carbon monoxide gas before it enters the reaction space (3).

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that during acceleration contains carbon monoxide of gas flow speed increases from 1.5 to 5 times.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that it contains carbon monoxide, the gas stream passes through the reaction space (3) essentially in the radial or radial-axial direction.

4. Reactor for highly efficient catalytic conversion of carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide (CO2) comprising essentially a cylindrical outer casing (2) at least one layer (4) of the catalyst, which is located inside the outer casing (2), inlet pipe (10) which communicates with the housing (2) and through which at least one layer (4) of the catalyst is a stream containing carbon monoxide gas, characterized in that it includes a device (12) to expedite the flow of gas located in the direction of gas until at least one layer (4) of the catalyst.

5. The reactor under item 4, wherein the accelerating device (12) location(12) is having a narrowing element (13), diameter which is less than the bore diameter of the inlet pipe (10).

7. The reactor under item 6, characterized in that the ratio of the bore diameter with the narrowing element (13) to the pipe diameter of the inlet pipe (10) is 0.45-0,85.

8. The reactor under item 6, characterized in that with the narrowing element (13) is a Venturi.

9. The reactor under item 4, characterized in that it at least one layer (4) of the catalyst is a catalyst radial or radial-axial type.

10. Installation for efficient catalytic conversion of carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide (CO2) includes a reactor in which the conversion takes place and which has an essentially cylindrical outer housing and at least one located in the housing, a layer of catalyst, pipeline, through which is fed into the reactor containing a carbon monoxide gas stream, characterized in that it also provided located in the unit for the acceleration of the gas stream.

11. Installation according to p. 10, characterized in that it includes having the constriction element, the diameter of which is less than the flow diamet constriction element to pass the pipe diameter is 0.45-0,85.

13. Installation according to p. 11, characterized in that with the narrowing element is a Venturi.

14. The way of modernization of the reactor for catalytic conversion of carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide (CO2) comprising essentially a cylindrical outer casing (2) at least one layer (4) of the catalyst, which is located inside the outer casing (2), inlet pipe (10) which communicates with the housing (2) and through which at least one layer (4) of the catalyst is a stream containing carbon monoxide gas, characterized in that it includes the installation of the device (12) to expedite the flow of gas through at least one catalytic layer (4).

15. The method according to p. 14, wherein the accelerating device (12) is placed inside the inlet (10).

16. The method according to p. 14, wherein the accelerating device (12) is having a narrowing element (13), the diameter of which is less than the bore diameter of the inlet pipe (10).

17. The method according to p. 16, characterized in that with the narrowing element (13) is a Venturi.

18. Upgrade installation for the catalytic CONV is I and which has an essentially cylindrical outer housing and at least one located in the housing, a layer of catalyst, the pipeline, through which is fed into the reactor containing a carbon monoxide gas stream, characterized in that it includes the installation in the pipeline device to accelerate the flow of gas.

 

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Reactor // 2246345

FIELD: chemical industry, catalytic processes.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a reactor for catalytic processes and is dealt with the field of chemical industry and may be used for catalytic processes. The reactor contains: a body; units of input and output for a reaction mixture and products of reactions; units of loading and unloading of a catalyst; a catalyst layer with the groups of the parallel hollow gas-permeable chambers located on it in height in one or several horizontal planes and each of the chambers has a perforated gas-distributing pipe with impenetrable butt connected to the group collector and used for input of additional amount of the reaction mixture. Each of perforated gas-permeable chambers is supplied with the second gas-distributing pipe with impenetrable butt. At that the impenetrable butts of the pipes are located on the opposite sides. The given engineering solution provides uniformity and entirety of agitation of the reaction mixtures.

EFFECT: the invention provides uniformity and entirety of agitation of the reaction mixtures.

5 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: initiating ammonia conversion reaction.

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EFFECT: reduction of time required for reaction over entire surface of catalyst; reduction of explosion danger.

2 cl, 10 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; a method of modernization of a completely detectable reactor.

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EFFECT: the invention ensures increased conversion yield and productivity of the reactor at low operational costs and a lower power consumption.

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