Greenhouse

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to agriculture, namely, cultivation facilities for the growing crops. In the greenhouse, insulating mats 10 are made in the form of rigid panels attached to the bottom of the side rails of the greenhouse by means of the hinge 11. On the surface of the Mat 10 is to be filled by the liquid film capacitance 33, hydraulically connected with the subsoil of the heat accumulator 21. On the roof of the greenhouse above the translucent barrier placed rollers. Provides cost savings for heating greenhouses and reducing the complexity of works covering and cleaning with transparent coatings of insulating mats. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il.

The invention relates to agriculture, namely, cultivation facilities for the growing crops.

Known greenhouse with its fence glass or film with South orientation. The Northern part of the greenhouse insulated (Board 22 mm, roofing, glass wool 50 mm thick, re roofing, framing of waste boards with cells 1515 mm, clay, Adobe putty, black polyethylene film). The coolant can use is fed back into the tank. As a water heat accumulator used steel pipe with a diameter of 150 mm (A. N. Agiashvili. The hydrodynamics and heat transfer in the combined solar greenhouses with the substrate and the heat storage. Tashkent, "Fan", 1990, S. 40-163).

A disadvantage of the known genitality are difficulties in covering its reliable insulating material, which guarantees a significant reduction of thermal losses, limiting the maximum temperature of the storage material (water, pebbles, and so on) while it is charging in the daytime, due to the maximum permissible temperature of the air in the greenhouse, ensuring the normal development of plants. For example, when growing tomatoes temperature may not exceed 35oWith the reversal of the pollination of their flowers. When you double the film with an air gap of 10 cm when the outdoor temperature -7oC and below 20 hours. the outer film of the fence is covered with frost, after 3-4 hours the inner surface is covered with condensate, the temperature of the greenhouse remains positive, but below normal. During prolonged cloudy weather and subzero temperatures of external air from the second day at night time is included vozdushnaya ground partitions are provided with reinforcing elements, made in the form of hollow tubes, the output ends of which are connected with a protective wall and an internal cavity in communication with the internal volume of the greenhouse (the USSR, Ed. St. 1055419 And a 01 G 9/14; a 01 G 9/24, from 23.11.83. Bull.43).

A disadvantage of the known constructions is restricted reserves accumulated heat due to the temperature of air passing through the hollow reinforcing elements, the maximum value of which is determined by the optimal temperature for growing plants. Reduce heat loss at night by laying on translucent fence straw mats increases the complexity of works maintenance facilities; ground plates arranged in the trench, create shading and deprived plants photosynthetically active radiation (par.

The closest entity is a Chinese enhanced greenhouse focused translucent fence on the South side. The North wall of the greenhouse is made of rammed earth. Part adjacent to the roof of the greenhouse is made of a layer of reeds, top coated with clay and covered with lime mortar. The roof of the greenhouse every day regardless of the weather in the evening cover teploizoliruyuschih the roll and place it on the earthen part of the roof (Greenhouse culture of vegetables in the suburbs of Beijing. Translation from Chinese. M., 1959, S. 72-91).

A disadvantage of the known greenhouse is the following. Over time, due to the extraction of twine and deformation of beams of air flow through the reed mats increases. Bundles of reeds in the rain wet and cheese quickly exposed the rot that requires mandatory drying after each rain. Term use of such mats is not more than five years. Mat on the roof of the greenhouse can be rolled only two workers instead of one. The thickness of the Mat is made not more than 5 cm because of the warnings of the battle of glass greenhouses. To compensate for heat loss through the mats with increasing negative external air temperature coated roof greenhouse with two layers of mats, which also increases the complexity of maintenance of the greenhouse. Minor accumulation of heat of solar radiation entering the greenhouse, forced to maintain the desired temperature in the greenhouse by burning coal in stoves. Each furnace on average spent per day for 15 kg of coal and coal briquettes. In the operation of greenhouses advanced species in Beijing the main items of expenditure are fuel costs and the cost of the mats (ibid, S. 135). If p is the spruce of the invention - reducing the cost of heating the greenhouse and reducing the complexity of works covering and cleaning with transparent coatings insulating mats.

This goal is achieved by the fact that in a greenhouse, comprising a frame, side rails and roof, insulating mats, translucent roof, insulating mats made in the form of rigid panels attached to the bottom of the side rails of the greenhouse using a hinge, and on the surface of the Mat is to be filled by the liquid film capacity, hydraulically connected with the subsoil heat accumulator; on the roof of the greenhouse above the translucent barrier placed rollers.

The proposed greenhouse schematically shown in the drawing:

Fig.1 - General view of the greenhouses at the coating insulating mats at night; Fig.2 - General view of the greenhouse during the daytime when removing the insulating mats (arrows the flow of direct solar radiation); Fig.3 is a cross section along a-B-B-G-D-E in Fig. 2 (the arrows show the direction of movement of the fluid); Fig.4 - node "A" is the location of the insulating Mat on the rollers.

The greenhouse is made in the form of side rails, consisting of a cap on the Foundation 1, installed inside the greenhouse is made in the form samebito wall 6, containing to increase its resistance layers stacked reed stems 7. The Northern part of the roof 8 is covered by the sheathing layers of reed stems and coated with clay, covered with lime mortar. The southern part of the side rails and roof of the greenhouse is covered with a translucent enclosure 9. Heat insulating Mat 10 on the side fencing is made in the form of a rigid shield, for example, from solomita or canes, the whole longitudinal South side of the greenhouse and attached to the base 1 by means of the hinge 11. Thermal insulation Mat 12, covering the roof of the greenhouse, made in the form of a shield and is connected with the insulating Mat 10 by means of the hinge 13 and contains thereon a film of the tank 14 filled with liquid when lowered his condition and released from the liquid at the location of the heat insulating Mat 12 on the roof of the greenhouse. Along the length of the heat insulating Mat 12 through the interval attached to one end of the cables 15 and the other end attached to the reel 16, is placed on the shaft 17, which is connected with the shaft 18 and fixed in length with bearings 19. If omitted the condition of insulating mats 10 and 12 are located on supports 20. Subsurface heat accumulator 21 is made by excavation, creating powernote. The upper surface of the waterproofing of the screen 22 is placed on 0.5 m below the estimated depth of wetting of irrigation that provides create under the root system of plants required thermal insulation from the ground. The pump suction inlet 23 is connected with the receiving reservoir 24, a pressure rod 25 through the plug connection 26 is connected to a distribution manifold 27. Film capacitance 14 is connected at one end with the pressure distribution manifold 27 and at the other end with the discharge manifold 28 connected via a plug connection 29 with a pressure manifold 30 subsoil heat accumulator 21. On the roof of the greenhouse to the girders and rafters 5 reinforced rollers 31 to move through it insulating Mat 12; idler blocks 32 to the cable 15. On the soil of the greenhouse if necessary, can be located film capacitance 33, hydraulically connected with the subsoil heat accumulator (connection not shown).

The greenhouse is used as follows. In the night time (Fig.1) insulating mats 10 and 12 raised by means of ropes 15, snatch blocks 32, reel 16, the shaft 17 and gear 18 to their firm contact with the side surface and the roof of the greenhouse. Optionally heated for dense film capacitance 33, that act as heat sinks. For heat storage of solar energy (Fig.2) insulating mats 10, 12 gear 18 (Fig.3) is lowered to the support 20, in the film tank 14 by pump 23 to the pressure rod 25 through the plug connection 26, a distribution manifold 27 serves water from the subsoil of the heat accumulator 21. When water is heated in plastic film containers 14 to a temperature exceeding the temperature of water in the subsoil battery 21, is performed by the pump 23 and the circulation of heated water and the accumulation of heat (the arrows indicate the direction of water flow). When equalizing the temperatures of the water in plastic film containers 14 and the subsurface heat accumulator 21 and the pump 23 is switched off, water from plastic containers 14 are discharged into the subsurface heat accumulator 21 and insulating mats 10, 12 are prepared for lifting and fit to the side surface and the roof of the greenhouse.

Thus, the proposed greenhouse provides optimal temperature and soil earlier growing plants on solar heating with minimal electricity and labor costs.

1. Greenhouse containing frame, side rails and roof with translucent coating, teploizolirujushchie side rails of the greenhouse by means of the hinge, and on the surface of the insulating Mat is to be filled by the liquid film capacity, hydraulically connected with the subsoil heat accumulator.

2. The greenhouse under item 1, characterized in that on the roof of the greenhouse above the translucent barrier placed rollers.

 

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