The method of disposal of flue gases produced during the combustion of liquid, gaseous or pulverized fossil fuel
(57) Abstract:The method relates to the field of combustion of hydrocarbon fuel to produce steam or hot water and can be used in the production of heat or electricity. Way to lead by burning fuel in an oxidizing atmosphere consisting of oxygen and carbon dioxide taken in a predetermined ratio. While carbon dioxide is produced from flue gas by wet filtration. The residue obtained after mixing with the oxygen-carbon dioxide is used as a by-product. The method increases the efficiency of the process to generate heat or electricity at full emission of flue gases into the atmosphere. 1 Il. The invention relates to the field of combustion and can be used to produce steam or hot water and carbon dioxide.A known method of burning fuel (see U.S. patent 3466351, publication 9.09.1969, T. 866, 2), for example, in rotary cement kilns firing. In the process of burning fuel gas mixture is continuously circulated in the furnace and circulating the mixture continuously add fuel and oxygen for the supply of thermal energy. While some amount of circulating gas mixture of s and can be used as a side product.The disadvantage of this method is the large number of uncontrolled air entering through leaks in the gas path (for example, through a hot furnace head in place of unloading clinker), which significantly increases the contamination of the mixture of flue gases is difficult separable nitrogen.The closest to the technical nature of the claimed invention is a method adopted for the prototype) fuel combustion (patent 2028541 from 10.10.89. Inventor 4, 1995), in which the oxidant is used, the oxygen supplied to the combustion chamber. As the ballast using water injected into the combustion chamber. In the process of combustion, gas-vapor mixture used to produce steam or hot water in the HRSG. After the heat of the flue gases to the heat carrier gases at a temperature of 150-250oWith cooled with cold water. Staying in the flue gas water vapor is condensed and part are directed to the combustion zone. After condensation of the water vapour in the flue gas remains basically just carbon dioxide gas produced during combustion of fuel. Carbon dioxide is used as a by-product.The disadvantage of this method is that during cooling of the flue ha="ptx2">An object of the invention is to reduce heat losses at full emission of flue gases in the atmosphere.The task is solved in that in the method of disposal of flue gases produced during the combustion of liquid, gaseous or pulverized hydrocarbon fuel, including heating fluid flue gases in a closed circulation process of the latter, the fuel combustion is produced in an oxidizing atmosphere consisting of oxygen and carbon dioxide taken in a predetermined ratio, while the carbon dioxide produced from flue gas by wet filtration and the residue obtained after mixing with the oxygen-carbon dioxide is used as a by-product.The essence of the invention is that the oxygen and carbon dioxide are mixed in a prescribed ratio (from 1:3 to 1:6), receiving the oxidation mixture in which carbon dioxide plays the role of ballast gas, providing a fixed (1000-1400)oC temperature in the combustion zone. From the combustion flue gases contain only water vapor and carbon dioxide produced by the combustion of fuel with oxygen. Flue gases, giving heat to the heat carrier boiler, cooled to about 150-250the Oh temperature a lot less than in the prototype, in which the content of water vapor in the flue gas can reach up to 30-40%.Chilled to the above temperature, the gas mixture is subjected to wet the filter, during which water vapor condenses, and in the flue gas remains only carbon dioxide and humidity is 100%. Carbon dioxide is directed to mix with oxygen for the formation of the oxidation mixture, and the rest is used as a by-product in gaseous or solid form. Thus, the system continuously circulates a constant amount of carbon dioxide with one hundred percent humidity, and the portion of the carbon dioxide that is produced during the combustion of fuel, is used as a by-product and is removed from the process. Since flue gases in the combustion zone contain only triatomic gases, radiant exchange in the combustion zone maximum ceteris paribus.The drawing shows a functional diagram of the method in the form of installation. The apparatus comprises a boiler 1, a mixer 2, an oxygen setting of 3, the wet filter 4 fuel line 5, the supply of the oxidizer 6, 7 air and water 8 in the boiler 1, the piping steaming 9 and flue gas 10 from the boiler-utilise the water 13 in the filter 4. The plant consists of a conventional commercially available equipment.The fuel line 5 through the inlet 14 is connected to the waste heat boiler 1. The pipe 7, an air supply connected to the input 16 of an oxygen plant 3, exit 17 which is connected to the input 18 of the mixer 2. The output 19 of the latter through the pipe 6 connected to the input 15 of the boiler 1. The pipeline water supply 8 is connected to the input 20 of the boiler 1, and the output 22 of the latter is connected with the pipe 9 steaming. The output 21 of the boiler 1 through the pipe 10 of the flue gases is connected to the input 27 of wet filter 4. The pipe 13 for supplying water is connected to the input 23 of the filter 4, and the pipe 11 water drainage through the outlet 24 is connected to the filter 4. The output 25 of the filter 4 is connected to the input 26 of the mixer 2, and the output 25 of the filter 4 is connected to the pipeline 12 removal of carbon dioxide. Installation implementing the method works as follows. The fuel pipe 5 through the inlet 14 is fed to the combustion zone of the boiler 1. The air pipe 7 through the inlet 16 is served in a setting of 3 to obtain oxygen. From the output 17 of the oxygen installation 3 oxygen is supplied to the input 18 of the mixer 2. In the mixer 2, the oxygen and carbon dioxide applied to the input 26 of a mixture of the d 6 is fed to the combustion zone of the boiler 1 through the inlet 15. Through line 8 to the input 20 of the boiler supply water. In the recovery boiler 1 water turn into steam and from the output 22 of the last divert the steam pipe 9. From the output 21 of the recovery boiler flue gases, consisting of water vapor and carbon dioxide, at a temperature of 150-250oServed with input 27 of the filter 4. To the input 23 of the filter 4 through the pipe 13 serves for cooling water. Flue gases are bubbled through the water filter 4. When this water vapor contained in the flue gases condense and through the outlet 24 through the pipeline 11 are discharged from the filter for cooling and re-use. After condensation of the water vapour in the gas phase only wet carbon dioxide. When burning pulverized fuel in the filter 4 is separated from the flue gas and solid phase. Output 25 through the inlet 26 of the mixer portion of the carbon dioxide at a temperature of 60-80oWith discharged into the mixer 2, in which the latter are mixed in a predetermined ratio with oxygen. The remainder of the carbon dioxide gas through the pipeline 12 take away for further treatment and processing in the compressed gas or dry ice for use as a byproduct.Example usage.The original fuel oil with a calorific value of 9500, Katiti oxygen:
V=0,0187 Cp+0,056 HP, (1)
where: Cf = 84,8 and HP = 12
Hence V is equal to 2,256 m3/kg.The weight flow rate of oxygen is equal to:
where G1 is the proportion of oxygen, equal 1,429 kg/m3< / BR>G=1,4292,256=3,64 kgThe amount of water vapor produced by the combustion of 1 kg of oil, equal to 1.34 m3/kg. Weight out of water vapour in the combustion of 1 kg of fuel oil is:
where G2 is the specific weight of water vapor equal to 0,805 kg/m3.G=1,340,805=1.08 kg/kgTo receive G steams spent G oxygen:
where M1 and M2 are the molecular weights of oxygen and water vapor, respectively.G=1,0816/18=0.96 kg/kgThe amount of oxygen G spent on the burning of carbon fuels, as well:
G=3,64-0,96=2,68 kg/kgYou get carbon dioxide:
where M3 and M4 is the molecular weight of carbon dioxide and oxygen, respectively.Gco=2,6846/32=3,88 kg/kgThe profit obtained by burning 1 kg of fuel oil, equal to:
where the CCO and Co - rates of gaseous carbon dioxide and oxygen in dollars USA per 1 ton of oil
P=403,88-403,64=9.6 D USA. STRs what about the fuel, including the heating fluid flue gases in a closed circulation process of the latter, characterized in that the combustion is produced in an oxidizing atmosphere consisting of oxygen and carbon dioxide taken in a predetermined ratio, while the carbon dioxide produced from flue gas by wet filtration and the residue obtained after mixing with the oxygen-carbon dioxide is used as a by-product.
FIELD: selective oxidation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen-containing stream.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to method for selective oxidation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide in raw material containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide in presence of catalyst comprising platinum and iron. Catalyst may be treated with acid. Certain amount of free oxygen is blended with mixture containing hydrogen and carbon monoxide to provide second gaseous mixture having elevated ratio of oxygen/carbon monoxide. Second gaseous mixture is brought into contact with catalyst, containing substrate impregnated with platinum and iron. Carbon monoxide in the second gaseous mixture is almost fully converted to carbon dioxide, i.e. amount of carbon monoxide in product stream introduced into combustion cell is enough small and doesn't impact on catalyst operation characteristics.
EFFECT: production of hydrogen fuel for combustion cell with industrial advantages.
13 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: described is catalyst of purification of hydrogen-containing gas mixture from CO, including metal copper and/or copper oxide and cerium dioxide, applied on carbon carrier, as such mezoporous graphite-like carbon material is used, which represents three-dimensional matrix with pore volume 0.2-1.7 cm3/g, formed with ribbon carbon layers 100-10000 A thick and curvature radius 100-10000 A, having true density equal 1.80-2.10 g/cm3, X-ray density 2.112-2.236 g/cm3, porous structure with pore distribution with additional maximum within the range 200-2000 A or biporous structure with pore distribution with additional maximum within the range 40-200 A and specific surface 50-500 m2/g, catalyst having the following composition, wt %: Cu - 5.0-10.0; Ce - 15.0-20.0; O - 4.8-7.2; C - 75.2-62.8. Also described is method of catalyst preparation by subsequent or simultaneous impregnation of said carrier with cerium and copper solutions.
EFFECT: high efficiency, selectivity and enhanced mechanical strength of catalyst.
2 cl, 1 tbl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to method of hydrogen formation from methane containing gas, specifically natural gas. Gas hydrocarbons are catalyst decomposed in reforming furnace by water steam into hydrogen, carbon oxide and carbon dioxide. Following conversion step includes catalytic conversion of formed carbon oxide into carbon dioxide and hydrogen by water steam. Carbon dioxide is outgassed from converted gas flow by scrubber. While washed and oxygen-rich hydrogen is then divided with adsorption plant into hydrogen gas product flow and exhaust gas flow. The latter together with hydrogen vented from gas flow behind scrubber, is supplied to reforming furnace and combusted there. Installation contains at least one reforming furnace with combustion chamber, conversion stage with at least one conversion reactor for catalyst carbon oxide conversion by water steam into carbon dioxide, carbon dioxide separation scrubber and connected hydrogen separation adsorption plant attached to for extraction to which back the leader is attached to gas pipeline jointing back to combustion chamber and used for reformer heating with adsorption plant exhaust gas flow. And additional scrubber exhaust gas flow portion reverser to combustion chamber of reforming furnace is provided.
EFFECT: simple and efficient hydrogen formation process with carbon dioxide trace released to atmosphere.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention may be used in chemical industry and environment protection. Waste gas flow is cooled, compressed by compressor and then passed through material that is half-permeable for gas, for instance, molecular sieve or activated coal. Adsorption and desorption of carbon dioxide in half-permeable material is carried out in compliance with adsorption technology at periodical change or swinging of temperature (AKT). Part of separated gas flow that contains highly concentrated carbon dioxide is used as initial material for production of ammonia and urea or methanol or is collected and stored for further use.
EFFECT: lower consumption of energy, reduced structural expenses and expenses on servicing.
5 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: compressed, dry and cooled combustion gas produced hydrocarbon firing and expanded. Combustion gas is cooled due to regenerative heat exchange of reverse waste flow. Solid carbon dioxide is recovered from produced low-pressure gas. Within separation of solid carbon dioxide, low-pressure gas is additionally cooled due to heat exchange with evaporating flow of liquefied natural gas.
EFFECT: higher carbon dioxide recovery degree and lower specific power inputs ensured with natural gas as both fuel and low-temperature refrigerant at heat-and-power engineering facility.
1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of processing carbon-carbonate mineral involves burning limestone in a reactor, obtaining calcium oxide, production of calcium carbide by reacting part of calcium oxide obtained from burning limestone with carbon, bringing part of the obtained calcium carbide into contact with water, obtaining acetylene and caustic lime, bringing gaseous wastes from burning limestone into contact with water to obtain carbonic acid. Limestone is burnt using heat obtained from burning part of the volume of acetylene, obtained from part of the volume of calcium carbide. At least part of the obtained acetylene is used in synthesis of ethanol and/or dichloroethane and/or ethyleneglycol and/or acetone. During synthesis of ethanol and/or dichloroethane, acetylene is reacted with hydrogen in the presence of palladium as catalyst, after which at least part of synthesised C2H4 material is reacted with water vapour, obtaining ethanol, and/or reacted with chlorine, obtaining dichloroethane. Also at least part of the obtained acetylene is subjected to hydrolysis, obtaining ethyleneglycol. Also during synthesis of acetone, part of the obtained acetylene is reacted with water vapour, where the hydrogen obtained is used in said synthesis of ethanol and/or dichloroethane and/or burnt in the burning process. Carbon dioxide obtained from synthesis of acetone is used in the process of producing carbonic acid.
EFFECT: wide range of obtained finished products and prevention of formation of industrial wastes.
4 cl, 1 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in chemical industry and agriculture. Carbon dioxide-containing gas reacts with a base to form a carbonate. The base is selected from a group comprising calcium oxide, calcium hydroxide, a stream containing calcium oxide, a stream containing calcium hydroxide and a combination thereof. The obtained product reacts with a reactant selected from a group comprising nitric acid, phosphoric acid, a salt thereof and a mixture thereof, to form CO2 and an intermediate product. At least a portion of the CO2 is separated from the intermediate product and a condensed and relatively concentrated stream is formed therefrom. The intermediate product reacts with ammonia to form fertiliser selected from a group comprising ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphate or a combination thereof. At least a portion of the base forming said intermediate product is regenerated. At least a portion of said fertiliser is separated from the mixture formed at the previous step.
EFFECT: method is ecologically clean and enables combined production of fertiliser and a CO2 stream with low power consumption.
8 cl, 6 dwg, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in chemical industry. The method of recycling carbon dioxide involves feeding carbon dioxide through at least one vessel filled with trifluoroacetic acid saturated with oxygen. The formed product is separated and spent acid is regenerated by saturating with oxygen and recycling the saturated acid into the process. Carbon dioxide is preferably fed at temperature 10-25°C and atmospheric pressure.
EFFECT: method increases efficiency of recycling carbon dioxide, enables to carry out the recycling process at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, and the recycling product can be used as an octane-increasing additive for engine fuel.
SUBSTANCE: phytoplankton is cultivated in electromagnetic bioaccelerators. Oxygen and biomass, consisting of lipids, hydrocarbons and sugars are obtained. Biomass is oxidised. Thermodynamic energy is obtained. Carbon dioxide and NOx are returned to electromagnetic bioaccelerators.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to obtain biofuel and reuse CO2 and NOx.
9 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to extract carbon dioxide from flue gases. The apparatus for extracting CO2 has a CO2 absorber and a generator in which CO2 diffuses into a concentrated solution; at least two compressors which compress gaseous CO2 released from the generator; a dehydrating column lying on a section between any two compressors and which reduces the amount of moisture in the gaseous CO2; an apparatus for removing during combustion, which removes the dehydrating agent mixed with the gaseous CO2 in the dehydrating column; and a heat-exchanger which is installed on the section between the dehydrating column and the column for removing during combustion. The heat-exchanger allows heat exchange between CO2 released from any one of the compressors and gaseous CO2 released from the dehydrating column.
EFFECT: invention prevents the dehydrating agent fed into the dehydrating column from falling into the compressor lying downstream after the dehydrating column and prevents precipitation and deposits.
15 cl, 6 dwg