Open the actuator system controls the spinning of the rocket and how to monitor it

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to defense systems, managed missiles and shells. The technical result - the simplification of the pneumatic steering rotating roll missiles, improving the accuracy and reliability, simplifying control of the dynamics of the actuator. The problem is solved due to the fact that in open loop actuator control system rotating rocket containing the amplifier and steering the machine associated with the rudders entered the adder, one input of which is the input of the actuator and is connected to the output of the control equipment of the rocket, a two-position relay with negative hysteresis loop variable width, the output of which is connected to the input of the power amplifier. The drive is also equipped with a generator linearizers oscillations, the output of which is connected to the second input of the adder, and the setting device of the phase advance actuator according to the time of flight of the rocket, the output of which is connected to the control inputs of the width of the hysteresis loop of a bistable relay. Control of dynamics spend time equivalent to the delay when the supply pressure corresponding to the selected mode of flight of the missile, such as the maximum and Mina, to the input of a bistable relay with negative hysteresis loop variable width from the output of the signal generator serves periodic rectangular signal with a frequency equal to, for example, the maximum rotational speed of the missile roll, with the amplitude corresponding to the maximum movement of the rudder (on the fence), to a recording device, record the angle of rotation of the wheels and set the signal to determine the time of pick-up, movement and actuation of the actuator when moving the steering wheel from one extreme position (position) to another and back, determine the timeethe equivalent delay of the actuator according to a certain mathematical relations. 2 C. p. F.-ly, 4 Il.

The present invention relates to power control systems of aircraft and most expedient may be used in steering actuators and autopilot control systems compact rotary roll guided missiles and shells.

The steering actuator is included in the flight management system of the aircraft and is the Executive element of this system and is designed to move or rotate controls [1, 2, 3].

Widely used in control systems Le is[L 3, p. 33, main 1,2; L 2, main 3; L. 1, ch. II], one of the major drawbacks is its complexity [L 1, p.99, 2nd paragraph from the bottom].

Steering actuators and the autopilot guided missiles are for objects with varying parameters. Within wide limits according to the time of flight of the rocket change hinge, the load on the rudder (from spring to overcompensation) due to changes in the speed of the rocket flight, the rotational speed of the missile roll, and the parameters of the control signal.

Before the developer guided missiles task of creating a simple and convenient in operation steering and autopilot subject to the restrictions on weight, size, complexity and cost of manufacture, which requires finding and implementing new schematic and design solutions, expand the scope of existing ones.

Modern technology to create new and promising complexes guided missiles and shells suggests widespread use because of their particular effectiveness of the air-dynamic steering (UDRP) and autopilots using as a source of working fluid energy of the compressed air due to flap flow of compressed air during the flight of the rocket. They are characterized by the ing power in different parts of the rocket flight.

With increasing velocity of the rocket flight, increased requirements for performance management systems in General and to the members of the Executive devices - steering actuators.

To improve performance management systems high-speed, highly manoeuvrable aircraft steering actuator exerts an increasingly strong influence on dinamina management system. In this case, the steering actuator can not be considered as instantaneous element management system at all stages of development and testing. This raises the need for approximation of the dynamic properties of the steering actuator can still be more than a simple transfer functions, but accurately reflecting its dynamics.

Develop a simple, reliable and informative methods of quality control of the functioning of the steering actuators guided missiles, one indicator of which is the dynamics of the actuator, at various stages of the development, production and testing has been and remains relevant technical problem, along with the development of new simple drives.

Known pneumatic steering actuator [L 2, page 116, Fig.3,4, Fig.1.1, page 5-10, L. 3, Fig.1.1, Fig.2.1], representing lock the Electromechanical transducer, electronic amplifier and the feedback sensor, the signal of which covers the entire drive. As rightly noted, the actuator with feedback is the most common type of actuator in control systems for aircraft [L 2, page 9, 2nd paragraph from the bottom; HP 3, page 33, 2nd paragraph from the bottom].

Known self-oscillating pneumatic steering actuator rotating roll controlled projectile M [4], contains one United summing device, correcting filter, a nonlinear element, the amplifier, pneumatic steering the car with the control magnet, the feedback sensor, associated with one of the inputs of the subtraction unit, the other input of which is the entrance drive. As a working body uses the energy of compressed air of air flow during flight of the missile.

Known relay automatic control system [6], which contains a summing device, the relay element and the control object (the linear part), covered by negative feedback.

Also known self-oscillating pneumatic steering actuator [5, 7] rotating roll controlled projectile, containing the same basic functional elements of the control signals through the use of new schemes correction filters in the chain of errors of the drive.

In known (similar) self-oscillating steering actuators [4, 5, 7] and systems [6], the linearization of the relay element is provided autocalibrate, the amplitude of which is determined by the parameters of the linear part and the relay element.

The peculiarity of the work is known [4, 5, 7] pneumatic control surface actuators comprising a rotating roll of the guided missile is to develop a harmonic of the input signal UI= UmsinIt with variable amplitude and frequencyI=BPcdefined respectively by the offset control loop missiles and speed of the missile roll (BP= 2fBPwhere fBP- speed missile roll) and natural frequency of the rocket (c= 2fc), in each moment of the rocket flight. The dynamics of the actuator is evaluated by the magnitude and stability of the dynamic gain and phase shift of the first harmonic of the output signal of the steering actuator, the selection of which requires the use of complex and expensive technical devices.

Overall a significant disadvantage of the closed pneumatic control surface actuators guided missiles and other flying up the operation of the principle of proportional control, i.e. the control error of the error between the desired and the actual, after working values regulated value. This leads to the necessity of application in the control circuit of the actuator feedback sensor, a summing device, correction filters, the appearance of a closed loop drive and the related problems of stability of a closed loop, ensuring valid, based on the defined precision of the drive, the self-oscillation parameters (amplitude and frequency), ensuring proportionality testing error signal of the drive amplifier, electro-pneumatic Converter and so on, which in itself leads to complexity of implementation of these elements.

The disadvantages of these drives include the above-noted difficulties with the assessment of the dynamics of the actuator of the first harmonic of the output signal, i.e., well-known way of assessing the dynamics of the drive amplitude and phase frequency characteristics [L. 9, page 5-7, Chapter one-fifth; L. 2 p. 10-16].

Known (prototype) open loop actuator control system of the aircraft [L 1, Fig.2.6, page 104, 4th paragraph above], containing the amplifier and steering the car, kinematically associated with rullani drive system control apparatus. Presents a schematic diagram of the power section of a pneumatic cylinder without binding it a controlling part (to the amplifier) to the needs of a system for the control of the rotating roll guided missile, projectile.

When designing automatic control systems and regulation are used different methods of analysis and synthesis of linear and nonlinear systems, developed in theory of automatic control.

Currently, the most widespread known (prototype) method of the study of the dynamics of automatic systems for frequency characteristics [L. 9, page 5-7, chapters one-fifth].

When using the frequency method, one of the main advantages is its versatility, the source data for the analysis of the dynamics of the system, including steering, can be obtained as the calculated and experimentally.

The obtained amplitude and phase frequency characteristics of the steering actuator is approximated by a simpler transfer functions that accurately represent the dynamic properties [L 2, page 3, 4th paragraph from the bottom].

A disadvantage of the known frequency method eksperimentalnoi determine frequency characteristics [L. 9, page 6, 2nd paragraph above].

The task of the invention is to simplify the pneumatic steering rotating roll missiles, raising awareness of the power management part of the broken drive, improving the accuracy and reliability, simplifying control of the dynamics of the actuator, reducing the complexity and cost of manufacture.

The problem is solved by implementing in pneumatic steering actuator rotating the roll of the rocket instead of the proportional relay on-off control law open position.

This is achieved by the fact that in the open air tube control system rotating rocket containing the amplifier and steering the machine associated with the rudders entered the adder, one input of which is the input of the actuator and is connected to the output of the control equipment of the rocket, a two-position relay with negative hysteresis loop variable width, the output of which is connected to the input of the power amplifier, generator linearizers oscillations, the output of which is connected to the second input of the adder, and the setting device of the phase advance actuator according to the time of flight of the rocket, the output of which is connected to the inputs from the addition of the pneumatic control system of a rotating missile based on the determination of the amplitude and phase frequency characteristics of the actuator of the first harmonic of the output signal when developing a harmonic of the input signal and their approximation simpler transfer function, such as link delay, control spend time equivalent to the delay when the supply pressure corresponding to the selected mode of flight of the missile, such as the maximum and minimum flight speeds, and the removal of information about the angular position of the rudder from the output of the angle sensor of the control input of a bistable relay with negative hysteresis loop variable width from the output of the signal generator serves periodic rectangular signal with a frequency equal to, for example, the maximum rotational speed of the missile roll, with the amplitude corresponding to the maximum movement of the rudder (on the fence), to a recording device, record the angle of rotation of the wheels and set the signal to determine the time of pick-up, movement and actuation of the actuator when moving the steering wheel from one extreme position (position) to another and back, determine the timeethe equivalent delay of the actuator based on

e= tTr+KtFe,

where tTrin the and move before coming to rest;

tTr+tFe= tcf- the response time from receipt of the signal before coming to a stop;

K - coefficient characterizing part timeedue to time tFedefined by the law of change of the angle of rotation of the rudders during their movement with emphasis on the fence in terms of existing loads.

Schematic diagram of the proposed open actuator control system rotating missile shown in Fig.1.

The actuator consists of adder 2 is connected to the output of the control equipment of the missile 1, a two-position relay with negative hysteresis loop variable width 4, generator linearizers fluctuations 3 sawtooth or triangular in shape, device, job phase advance actuator according to the time of flight of the missile 5, amplifier 6, the steering of the machine in the composition of the neutral relay Electromechanical transducer 7, switchgear with jet tube 8, the actuator 9 (consisting of two power cylinders 10 and 11, the pistons 12,13, rods 14, 15), kinematically connected with the rudder 16. As a source of working fluid actuator used compressed air with a pressure PPand temperature TP

Schematic diagram of the implementation of the two-position relay with negative hysteresis loop variable width is known [L. 8, page 168, scheme 2.12.5] and it is not difficult for practical implementation. The circuit of Fig.2 is executed on 4 operational amplifiers with levels of restrictions And performed on the Zener diodes. Static characteristic of the relay of Fig.2 is shown in Fig. 3, where 2 is the width of the hysteresis loop, the value of which is proportional to the signal Ha to the control inputs of the relay. The signals X1and X2accordingly, the input and output relays.

The device works in the following way

After the release of the missile from the launcher (container, barrel, etc.) handlebars 16 are disclosed, causing the steering actuator to the operating state (on the circuit of Fig. 1 the mechanism and fixing rudders not shown). Air through the intake port 17 after cleaning the filter (not shown) arrives at the input section of the jet tube distribution device 8 in the working cavity of the power tinygrow 10, 11.

In the absence of the input signal (UI=0) at the output of a bistable relay 4 there is a square wave of 50% duty cycle frequency linearizers oscillation output GE is the action scene on the roll of the rocket it will be equal to 4fBP.

When voltage is applied from the output of the amplifier 6 to the control winding O neutral relay (triggered, which does not depend on the direction of current in the winding) of the Electromechanical transducer 7 in the magnetic circuit 19 generates a magnetic flux that pulls the armature 21, rigidly associated with jet tube 18, to the pole 22. When this occurs, the flow into the air from the jet tube through the receiving window distribution device 8 into the cavity of the power cylinder 11 and the leakage of air from the cavity of the power cylinder 10 connected with the surrounding atmosphere through the open receiving window of the switchgear. The pressure in the working cavity of the power cylinder 11 is increased, and in the cavity of the cylinder 10 drops. The pressure difference generated in the cavities of the power cylinders 11, 10, creates momentum, which is turning the steering wheel 16, is rigidly connected with the pistons 12, 13 of the power cylinder through the kinematic link.

When voltage is applied to the control winding O wheels 16 are rotated in the opposite direction.

When developing a periodic square wave And rudders are moved from one extreme position to another and back, as shown is Yes, incorporated in its design. When developing a two-position relay signals when UI=0 the average value for the period of the oscillations acting on the missile control moment due to deflection of the control surfaces on the lugs does not result in control of the forces leading to the displacement of the missile relative to the control center.

When applying a control signal to the drive input output two-position relay duty cycle of the periodic signal will be different from 50%. In this case, the rudder will move the stop on the stop, but time stops will be different than in the case of UI=0. When developing a two-position relay signals when UI0 the average value for the period of the oscillations acting on the missile control moment due to deflection of the control surfaces on the lugs at different exposure time on the lugs causes a control force, leading to displacement of the rocket to the control center.

Due to the finite speed of a pneumatic cylinder it has a certain lag phase in the development of periodic signals, which in General may vary according to the time of flight of the rocket. This is caused by changing the maximum speed premaxillae hinge moment on the rudder. These parameters within wide limits may change according to the time of flight of the rocket, and hence the magnitude of the phase lag of the actuator.

To compensate for the phase lag of the actuator to the drive input enter device of the phase lead provided, for example, through the rotation of the brushes of the current collector of hyrocordone missiles at an angle opposite to the rotation of the rocket and equal to the average value of the phase shift of the steering actuator at the center frequency of rotation of the missile, as is done, for example, in a managed shell M [4].

This provides compensation only the average value of the phase shift of the drive. Compensation of the deviations of the phase shift from the average value is not provided, which is a disadvantage of such joints.

The proposed pneumatic actuator (Fig. 1) introduced a device that allows you to enter a variable phase ahead of time of flight of the rocket. This is achieved by introducing a two-position relay 4 negative hysteresis loops of variable width and device assignments phase advance actuator according to the time of flight of the missile 5.

This device operates as follows.

Negative loop gesture the Deposit is determined by the width of the loop (at constant amplitude linearizers fluctuations). Changing the width of the hysteresis loop, which is ensured by applying to the corresponding control inputs of a bistable relay 4 voltage output device job phase lead 5. Because the concept of implementing a two-position relay with negative hysteresis loop variable width no inertial elements, with the exception of operational amplifiers, band which substantially exceeds the possible frequency linearizers oscillation generator 3 can be considered the introduction phase advance is also instantaneous.

The lack of on Board missiles special source of working fluid for operation of the pneumatic actuator, provided by using the energy of the incident flow, is one of the significant advantages of such a pneumatic (air-dynamic). Due to the low pressures and temperatures (PPTPthe operating body in the construction of the pneumatic actuator are non-deficient domestic construction materials.

Proposed method of control the dynamics of open actuator control system rotating missile is provided as follows.

From the output of the signal generator otov control equipment missile 1, device job phase advance actuator according to the time of flight of the missile 5, generator linearizers fluctuations 3) periodic rectangular signal frequency equal to, for example, the maximum rotational speed of the missile roll, with the amplitude corresponding to the maximum movement of the rudder (on the fence). Control of the dynamics of the actuator spend time equivalent to the delay of the drive when the supply pressure corresponding to the selected mode of flight of the rocket, for example, the maximum and minimum flight speeds.

For fixing the angular position of the rudder is used, the angle sensor of the steering wheel, for example, potentiometric 25, as in Fig.1, although it may be in General any other (non-contact and others), kinematically associated with the rudders, which is shown in Fig.1 by the dashed line. On the recording device 26, for example svetlucavi oscilloscope type N-115, N-117, etc. or the meter intervals e of the frequency, for example, type 43-54 fix the angle of rotation of the wheels and set the signal at zero phase advance provided by the absence of hysteresis loops in two-position relay 4), determine the time of pick-up tTrmovement tFeand time of the deployment area is omenta signal prior to the move (tTr), coming to a stop (tcf), from start to pull away before coming to a stop (tFe).

The data and determine the timeethe equivalent delay of the actuator based on

e= tTr+KtFe,

where tTr+tFe=tcf,

K is a coefficient determined by the law of change of the angle of rotation of the rudders during their movement with emphasis on the fence in terms of existing loads (inertial, articulated, and others ), characterizing part timeedue to time tFe.

A typical picture of the testing actuator two-position relay signal And the output of a bistable relay shown in Fig.4, where indicated:

Ucinput;

- the angle of rotation of the rudders;

m1,m2- the maximum deflection angles of control surfaces (stops);

t1(2)Tr, t1(2)Fe, t1(2)cf- times of pick-up, movement and actuation of the actuator moves in either direction.

The dynamics of open actuator control system rotary rocket, using the velocity head, is described by the link delay with transfer function

< / BR>
wheree= tTr+KtFe,

tTr
tFe=tFe(q)- time movement of the steering wheel from stop to stop;

q = V2/2 - speed head rolling with velocity V flow with density .

Attitude determines the dynamic gain of the actuator of the first harmonic, because the value of the first harmonic of the relay-off signal And is

< / BR>
the magnitude of the first harmonic of the output signal when the trapezoidal shape changes in the first approximation can be considered approximately equal to 1.27 meven though it will be slightly less, especially at high values of tFedrive.

Representation of the dynamics of open pneumatic actuator in the form of a standard dynamic link net lag with time constant equal to the time equivalent to the delayeactuator, is used by the developer of rocket control system for the synthesis and analysis of control systems and is of practical interest from the point of view of the basic consumer qualities steering.

In practice, validation of the dynamics of the actuator is possible variant of the drive dynamics control for time tcfthat is of interest from the viewpoint of ease of control, as in this caviano, such a variant of control because of the appeal to the simplicity of its implementation, however, does not give sufficiently accurate information about the performance of the actuator from the point of view of its link net lag with a time constant ofe,

The magnitude of the phase shift actuator at the frequency of rotation of the missile roll

=BPe,

whereBP= 2fBPcircular rotation speed of the missile roll.

The actuator has the property of adapting the parameters of the control system to the conditions of flight of the guided missile by balancing the energy capabilities of the drive, using the velocity head, with a kinetic energy of motion of the rocket. This is manifested in accordance needed, and have a maximum moments pneumatic actuator, in accordance needed, and have a maximum drive speed, which leads ultimately to the practical constancy of the phase shift actuator on the rotation speed of the rocket.

The value of the equivalent delay ethe pneumatic actuator is within ae= 1020 MS, and a larger value corresponds to the operation at the minimum speed of the rocket flight, less on m is you. Ultimately, the productBPedetermining a phase shift (dynamics) of the drive frequency fBPat the time of the rocket flight will be almost constant.

This property of stability of the dynamic characteristics of open actuator at the frequency of rotation of the missile in a wide range of external influences, along with the absence of a specific source of the working fluid is also one of the main advantages of the proposed actuator.

Dip relay open actuator (Fig.1) working as part of the control system rotating rocket mode pulse-width modulation, the frequency of which is l= 4BPfor a single rotating roll of the rocket. Static drive feature of the first harmonic of the rotation frequency is linear with respect to applied to hyrocordone missile command, DC, and rectangular pulses satellites frequency linearization relay actuator, are processed by the drive, which is the maximum speed of the actuator during its design.

When using the rocket off relay drive working is the linearity of the static characteristics: supplied command DC - the first harmonic of the rotation frequency from the angle of the rudders.

Due to the introduction in open loop actuator control system rotating rocket relay control law steering, Electromechanical Converter, switchgear and Executive engine and use as a working fluid flow of compressed air has managed to provide a number of advantages over the known steering control, namely:

1) to simplify the drive circuit due to the exclusion of sensor feedback, adding devices, corrective filters;

2) to eliminate the problems of sustainability, provide the required parameters of self-oscillations, the drive's precision;

3) to ensure the independence of the mass and volume of the steering actuator from time to time;

4) to ensure compliance with required and develop a moments drive;

5) to ensure compliance with the required and the available drive speed;

6) to ensure almost constant phase shift of the drive speeds of the missile;

7) to simplify the design and validation of parameters (dynamics) of the pneumatic actuator;

8) to enable the use of the design of the actuator is newepisode with relay on-off control signal promising rotating roll guided missiles required dynamic characteristics in a wide range of change of hinge loads (from spring to overcompensation) and develop points of the actuator, using the energy of air flow in a wide range of flight velocities of the guided missile, and power from other sources of compressed air.

Thus, the proposed solution is compared with the known allows us to simplify the pneumatic steering control system of a rotating roll rocket to enhance control of the power part of the broken drive, improve accuracy and reliability, simplify the control of the dynamics of the actuator, reduce the complexity and cost of manufacture and to solve the problem of creating a simple and convenient in operation guided missile precision complexes guided weapons considering limitations on weight, size, complexity and cost of manufacture.

Sources of information

1. Costin, C. C., Petrov, B. I., Geminin N. With. Steering actuators. M.: Mashinostroenie, 1973.

2. Krymov, B., Rabinovich L. C., Stebleton Century, actuators, control systems of aircraft. M.: Mashinostroenie, 1987.

3. Pneumatic control systems of aircraft. Under the General editorship Century A. Chashchin. M.: Mashinostroenie,1987.

4. Self-oscillating steering control.15-19, Fig.11.

5. Patent RU 2079806, IPC 6 F 42 15/01, 64 13/36, priority 22.06.93 published 20.05.97, bull. 14.

6. Relay automatic control system. Theory of automatic control./ Edited by Solodovnikov Century Century Book 3. theory of non-stationary, non-linear and self-tuning automatic control systems. -M.: Mashinostroenie, 1969, page 9, Fig.XIII.I, page 25, sec.3.

7. Patent RU 2114387, IPC 6 F 42 B 15/01, 64 13/36, priority 29.04.97 published 27.06.98, bull. 18.

8. Teitelbaum I. M. , Schneider Y. R. the Practice of analog simulation of dynamic systems. The Handbook. M.: Energoatomizdat, 1987.

9. Vavilov, A. A., A. Solodovnikov I. Experimental determination of frequency characteristics of automatic systems. M.-L.: Gosenergoizdat, 1963.

1. Open the actuator system controls the spinning of the rocket containing the amplifier and steering the machine, the input of which is connected with the output of the power amplifier, and the output to the wheels, characterized in that it introduced the adder, one input of which is the input of the actuator and is connected to the output of the control equipment of the rocket, a two-position relay with negative hysteresis loop variable width, the output of which connection is connected to the second input of the adder, and setting device of the phase advance actuator according to the time of flight of the rocket, the output of which is connected to the control inputs of the width of the hysteresis loop of a bistable relay.

2. The method of control of the dynamics of open pneumatic actuator system controls the spinning of the rocket, based on the determination of the amplitude and phase frequency characteristics of the actuator of the first harmonic of the output signal when developing a harmonic of the input signal and their approximation simpler transfer function, characterized in that the control is performed at a supply pressure corresponding to the selected mode of flight of the rocket, for example, the maximum and minimum flight speeds, and the removal of information about the angular position of the rudder from the output of the angle sensor of the control input of a bistable relay with negative hysteresis loop variable width, the output of which through the power amplifier is connected with the steering of the machine, from the output of the generator serves periodic rectangular signal with a frequency equal to, for example, the maximum rotational speed of the missile roll, with the amplitude corresponding to the maximum displacement of the control of the recorder record the angle of rotation of the rudders and asked signate to another and back, determine the timeethe equivalent delay of the actuator based on

e= tTr+KtFe,

where tTrthe time starting from the moment of receipt of the signal prior to the move;

tFe- the time interval between the beginning of the move before coming to rest;

tTr+tFe= tcp- the response time from receipt of the signal before coming to a stop;

K - coefficient characterizing part timeedue to time tFedefined by the law of change of the angle of rotation of the rudders during their movement with emphasis on the fence in terms of existing loads.

 

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