Engine internal heat transfer with conversion of thermal energy of the gases into mechanical pressure gases
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to mechanical engineering, in particular engine. It allows to increase the efficiency of converting thermal energy into mechanical energy in the engine by reducing losses with exhaust gases. The device consists of an engine and a heat exchanger placed in the chamber of variable volume. To improve the efficiency of the engine heat exchanger with the possibility of opening and closing their inner surfaces. 20 Il. Increased fuel consumption of vehicles and other machines and mechanisms with independent drive due to the fact that 2/3 of the heat energy of fuel is converted into energy of motion and emitted into the atmosphere, resulting in:
- cost of industrial and food products, the cost of which is a component of the fuel;
- increased extraction of oil with the prospect of an energy crisis, rapid depletion;
- deterioration of the composition of the air content of harmful substances from unnecessary burnt fuel in poor conditions;
- the total warming from melting ice and flooding the earth.
- appreciation or lack of motor fuel for the abundance of other domestic fuels, such as coal, wood;
- the closest shortage of liquid motor fuels, because the oil reserves will be exhausted in a few decades, and coal over the next several hundred years, as wood fuel is routed through the several years;
- transportation and storage of large stocks of petroleum products does not exclude emergency situations that gravely threatened flora and fauna, loss, etc.
- the pressure at the open soobshayem channel open when the inlet valve is balanced, the pressure drops in the boiler or superheater, and accordingly the same in the chamber, while the pressure of the gases in the internal combustion engine occurs directly in the camera, which ensures high pressure;
- c in order to reduce the magnitude of the pressure drop by increasing the capacity of the boiler or superheater calls for the necessity of increasing the strength of the walls of the boiler due to the increase in the area of combating the forces of internal pressure, which is carried out by increasing the wall thickness of the boiler, increasing the intensity and complexity, removing the rate of evaporation by reducing thermal conductivity of the walls when the external heat source;
- increase the vapor pressure by increasing the temperature limited temperature strength structural materials of the boiler or superheater, especially in the transmission of heat through the wall from an external heat source;
after reaching the camera's maximum volume is the emission of exhaust steam to the atmosphere as well as in internal combustion exhaust products of combustion with the release of significant kolichestvennymi/ s total gaseous working fluid, work is the transfer of gas from one chamber to another during subsequent heating or cooling, have little power and speed due to heat transfer through the walls of the chambers, limiting the pressure and temperature of gases, low speed heat transfer and transition gases.(1). page 150, 231.(4). Levin C. I. Profession of compressed air and vacuum. Engineering, 1989, page 153.The purpose of the invention is the complete conversion of thermal energy of the gases into mechanical movement of vehicles and other machines and mechanisms with independent drive, obtained from the combustion of all fuels, with the elimination of the above drawbacks.The base of the goal - the primary end-product of combustion with heat is the gaseous state of a substance and significant difference in the change of volume of gas and solid or liquid substances when they are heated.The essence is that the exchange of thermal energy of the gases through the heat accumulator is located inside the chamber of variable volume.Known engine surface ignition, in which heat from the combustion of fuel is accumulated on the threads of the spark is volume.(5). Kiselev A. B. Models of air combat. M, DOSAAF, 1981, page 105.Part of the heat energy is spent on heating of the helix threads during the stroke expansion chamber, which does not increase in volume as gases and do not create pressure temperature increase, thus decreasing the pressure and temperature of gases with the loss of power and efficiency while maintaining in the chamber a total allocated total heat energy from the combustion of fuel. The volume of the filaments relative to the volume of the chamber is negligible, since it is used for the initial ignition of the mixture, and therefore the cost of thermal energy is negligible.The essence is that the heat accumulator is made with the possibility of opening and closing the internal surfaces.From nature and other branches of engineering known accumulators variable surface, which can be from one whole to disintegrate or disperse in part with the formation of more numerous surface and re-connect with mutual overlapping of these surfaces: water and rain, or artificial analogue - tower /book closed and open/, or a bundle of sheets, the spring is compressed and stretched, variable capacitor, one and two radiatori in contact simultaneously with a large number of gaseous substances, what is instant exchange of thermal energy in large quantities, then known as monolithic heat accumulators give and accumulate thermal energy for a long time due to thermal conductivity of the material of construction of the transfer of heat energy from the inner layers to the outer, with which the heat transfer for multiple engine cycles on a single charge of the storage tank than is due to its large mass, small gas power, and set it outside the chamber of variable volume.In the closed condition of the heat exchanger saves thermal energy between periods of contact with fluids as well as monolithic storage tank.In the chamber of variable volume, the amount of thermal energy resulting from combustion of the fuel can be increased by increasing the mass of the components of the future chemical reactions, an increase in pressure, the compressor which consumes a portion of thermal energy, which is more than the energy that consumes the fan when the sweep gas through the heat exchanger when it is charging, because it requires less pressure drop. The heat transfer process is carried out for two clock cycles when the movement when the movement of the piston from TDC to BDC.At the moment the minimum volume of chamber /TDC/ from a closed heat exchanger removed all gaseous coolant, with the highest possible thermal volume expansion, and all the heat energy is concentrated in it without its extension and counter-change of volume of the chamber as it occurs in the compression stroke of the gaseous components in internal combustion engines, which increases the temperature and pressure of the mixture with the cost of this part of thermal energy.The transfer of heat energy from the inside of the heat exchanger variable surface elevated temperature to a working body of volume expansion of low temperature occurs at their mutual contact when the movement of the piston from TDC to BDC to equalize the temperature in the chamber, where the temperature drop of the heat exchanger does not change its volume, while the working fluid is water or cold air - temperature increase is converted into steam or hot air increase, and in a limited volume with increasing pressure, with the performance of work on the movement of the piston from TDC to BDC.The temperature drop of the heat exchanger to be insignificant in comparison with increasing temperature steam or gas, because their density is different in neckline, created when the heat release from the combustion of fuel.Subsequent quantum intake heat exchanger from the heat carrier will compensate for its loss from contact with the working fluid to a temperature of the burning fuel.Full conversion of thermal energy of the gases in the gas pressure and mechanical movement of the camera by sequential reduction with working temperature up to ambient temperature and below, when passing through the heat exchanger to the working body of lower temperature, while the internal combustion engine, the heat transmission is performed once at the time of combustion of fuel, one working body - gaseous combustion products and related gases.The essence lies in the fact that the full development of thermal energy is carried out by multiple transition from one working fluid after expansion to another with subsequent expansion through the heat exchanger variable surface of solids or liquids, the volumetric thermal expansion which is a fraction of its original volume and almost not growing in comparison with gases.The transition of thermal energy from the real is the " working with different proactively with gases with any temperature difference, for example with heated through the sun's rays and the heat sink of atmospheric air and not hot as the engine of solar without the direct combustion of fuel, and in the hospital to use the temperature difference from underground or surface sources.Stirling engines have two pistons and two cylinders or one cylinder with two aligned pistons, in which the working medium is a gas distilled from one cavity to another and from one cylinder to another, or in one cylinder between the piston and the bottom of the cylinder, the heat energy which flows through the cylinder walls with a small area of contact, therefore, the transition of thermal energy is extended by the time during heating and cooling with exhaust waste heat to the atmosphere through an external heat sink, while thermal energy of the gases in the proposed device is accumulated in the heat exchanger directly inside the camera on a magnified area within the camera, but through the cylinder walls, the area of which is insignificant, with subsequent similar transition of thermal energy in the working fluid, so the engine has higher efficiency and is operable at a lower temperature difference of the gas and R is additional external heat sinks allows the use of motors regardless of the presence of the atmosphere at any source of heat, for example in space from solar energy.The essence of the proposed new converting thermal energy into mechanical energy is illustrated by drawings, where Fig.1, 2 - side view of the device in mode of intake of thermal energy, Fig.3, 4 device mode return mechanical energy; Fig.5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 - engine operation mode of the internal combustion and internal heat transfer; Fig. 7, 18 - converting the emitted thermal energy turboprop engine; Fig.19 is an example of practicing thermal energy solid fuels Fig.20 scheme of practicing.Fig. 1, 2, 3, 4 Luggage variable volume consists of two vzaimopoleznyh parts - piston 1 and cylinder 2, interconnected crank Converter of the movement of the finger 3, the connecting rod 4, the crank 5. Inside formed by the camera is set to the heat exchanger variable surface consisting of at least two bearing plates 6 and 7 with holes, which is transversely fixed cone of termoplastici 8, 9, setting firmly in miletinae space at each other with mutual overlapping of their surfaces and into the holes of the opposite bearing plates 6 and 7, connected to control the distribution shaft 12 through the axis 13, the rocker arms and the levers 14, 15.The openings of the inlet 16 and outlet 17 of the valve are located in opposite sides of the heat exchanger for the bearing plates 6 and 7 and is connected through levers 18, 19 with the camshaft 12. The collector 20 of the inlet valve 16 is made with the cylinder 2 and has an external source 21 thermal energy 22 / blowtorch, gas burner, furnace or other device/.In the cylinder 2 is installed nozzles 23 of the supply of the working fluid is water or other penoobrazuyuschaya liquid.The exhaust manifold 24 is connected or with the intake manifold 20 different camera, or after testing all of thermal energy with the atmosphere.The intake and exhaust valves 16, 17, the rods 10, 11 are return springs 25, 26, 27, 28.Intake heat /Fig.1, 2/ occurs during the course of the piston from TDC to BDC exposed surfaces of thermoplastic 8, 9 gases from high temperature external source 21 during movement of the bearing plates 6 and 7 after the piston 1 under the action of the distribution mechanism 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15.At the initial moment under the action of an external source of pressure drop of the fan is driving a large volume of gases of high temperature to get better is warmed up all known engines to the optimal temperature, and if it is only the inlet valve 16.In the internal combustion engine when the movement of the piston from TDC to BDC is the suction stroke of one open inlet valve and filling the chamber with air or combustible mixture under vacuum expanding chamber or under the action of an external source is a compressor that compresses gases for more greater expenditure of mechanical energy than when the fan.High speed exchange of any quantity of thermal energy provides a large surface thermoplastic 8, 9 and the contact without an intermediary, as in the Stirling engine.The accumulation of thermal energy continues in the further course of the piston 1 from BDC to TDC mode purge the outdoor heat exchanger with open intake and exhaust valves 16, 17, and at the steady state economy mode with a closed intake valve 16.In the internal combustion engine /engine/ in the compression stroke of the air or combustible mixture with increasing temperature and pressure, which spent part of the mechanical energy or part of the untransformed thermal energy.At the end of the second stroke with piston 1 at TDC of th is s ' overlay thermoplastically 8, 9, in which the concentrated thermal energy with the temperature of the heat source 21, the number of which depends on the mass, whereas in internal combustion engines, the amount of thermal energy depends on the amount of air or mixture, and may not exceed the variable volume chamber due to complications of removal of products of combustion, the risk of premature reaction and limit the strength of the device.The quantum extensions /Fig.3, 4 - side view/ occurs when the movement of the piston from TDC to BDC during the next revolution of a crankshaft 5, or crank when both closed valves 16, 17 and maximum outdoor heat exchanger, when under the influence of shaft 12, the axis 13, the lever 15 through the rod 11 is shifted only one support plate 7 for the piston 1 with the opening of a larger space between the inner surfaces of thermoplastic 8, 9, which is fed through a nozzle water /or other evaporative liquid, which instantly boils with the formation of a working body - pair with the increase in volume 1353 times / 1000 kg/m3to 0,739 kg/m3/ and in further contact with more hot thermoplastically 8, 9 even more increases in volume, as well as the process occurs in a limited volume, increasing the pressure and committed work on peremeshany is: to overcome the external load.Spray water on the plates 8, 9 of the heat exchanger was made in the camera, no internal opposition, as is the case in diesel engines when the fuel injection into the compressed air, so the energy costs of the pressure drop is less.Temperature and vapor pressure is formed in contact with the warmer body inside the chamber, therefore, the limit of temperature and pressure is not limited temperature strength of the walls of the chamber, the steam engines with the formation of steam in the boiler or superheater, or Stirling engines.The slew rate of the steam pressure is regulated by the quantity of openness or the sequence of opening all or part of the plates 8, 9 whereas in internal combustion engines, the rate of pressure rise and velocity of propagation of the flame depends on the quality and fuel additives not regulated in the process, thus decreasing the effective power and other characteristics of the engine at various speeds and various external loads.Changing the power and speed of the internal combustion engine is regulated mainly by the amount of fuel that results in increased content of harmful substances unburned top is no excess supply of thermal energy in the heat exchanger with the possibility of its subsequent replacement by external combustion of fuel in excess air, which does not form harmful substances and excess thermal energy in the heat exchanger does not affect the ability to operate in different modes, because of its quantity in the working body of /couple of/ is governed by the openness of the heat exchanger and the quantity of working fluid into the chamber.The quantum of waste steam release coincides with the beat of the exhaust gas in the internal combustion engine and is open when the exhaust valve through the heat exchanger during the course of the piston from BDC to TDC, with the difference that the heat exhaust steam can be directed to heat exchanger other chambers of variable volume with subsequent conversion to mechanical movement, whereas in internal combustion engines emission of heat is produced in the atmosphere, with subsequent heating, taking into account the total number of engines and their fuel consumption.In Fig. 5-16 shows the schematic operation of the Converter of thermal energy into mechanical movement initially in the mode of the internal combustion engine and with the subsequent operation of the internal heat transfer and has a nozzle or spark plug 29 in addition to the above-described construction and the absence of an external combustion 21, 22 for introduction.The quantum of iTune 16 and a closed heat exchanger 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, as in known internal combustion engines.The compression stroke the mixture or air /Fig.7, 8/ takes place when the movement of the piston from BDC to TDC with both closed valves 16, 17, and the indoor or outdoor heat exchanger 6-11, which in the latter case is transferred to the temperature of the withdrawn gas than decreases its resistance and energy on it. At the end of the compression stroke is the injection of fuel into the compressed air or the ignition of the compressed fuel mixture injector or spark plug 29, which begins to burn with heat release.The quantum extensions /Fig. 9, 10/ occurs when the movement of the piston 1 from TDC to BDC with closed valves 16, 17 and a closed heat exchanger variable surface 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, therefore allocated as a result of fuel combustion heat is only on the expansion of the gaseous products of combustion and gases known as ice.In the engine surface ignition of the heat energy taken filament candles that do not expand with increasing temperature to the extent as gaseous substances due to the internal structure, so there is some reduction of pressure in the chamber is negligible because of the small number of open threads candles, sufficient to preserve and zagig the tion work on the movement of the piston 1.Fig. 11, 12 the beat exhaust high temperature occurs when the movement of the piston 1 from BDC to TDC through the open exhaust valve 17, through the outdoor heat exchanger through the openings in the supporting plates 6, 7, termoplastici 8, 6 from contact with hot exhaust gases heat up with the abstraction of heat energy which would otherwise be dumped into the atmosphere. Four-stroke cycle internal combustion engine is repeated until the plates 8, 9 of the temperature of the exhaust gases, sufficient for instant vaporization and heating of a gaseous working fluid, with a shorter heat-up time than the warming up of the internal combustion engine, since the heat exchange is carried out without an intermediary - the cylinder wall.After the discharge stroke of the piston 1 is TDC /Fig.13, 14/ closed valves 16, 17 and a closed heat exchanger variable surface 6-11 with the supply of thermal energy, from which he will not be expanded without or with minimal free space filled with the residual gas, the piston 1 and the cylinder 2 has a temperature within normal limits, because it does not have direct contact with the heat exchanger, which if necessary can be installed on insulators.The quantum extensions /Fig. 15, 16/ done with sacrt action distribution mechanism removes the lower carrier plate 7 with mutual opening of the magnified surface of thermoplastic 8, 9, from the nozzles 23 of the sprayed water, instant boiling and turning into the working medium is steam, the pressure of which is doing work on the movement of the piston 1 from TDC to BDC.When working with gaseous working tol added two additional quantum - intake cold air, its compression to return the piston to an initial starting position, performed in a closed heat exchanger, after which there is a working cycle of expansion, in which is disclosed a heat exchanger, thermal energy which is transferred to the compressed air, the temperature increases with increasing pressure, which is doing work on the movement of the piston from TDC to BDC.The Converter is reversible and works as from thermal energy of exhaust gases from internal combustion, and their external heating, and with the expenditure of mechanical energy can produce cold or heat.Fig. 17, 18 - the transformation of emitted thermal energy turboprop engine with a variant design of the heat exchanger variable surface in the form of a variable capacitor in turbovision the engine.The ring 31 connects the housing turboprop and tarnopolskiego engine and has an open inlet gases low temperature is made in the case tarnopolskiego engine 32. To the end of the shaft 35 after the turbine wheel 36 with inclined blades 17 is connected centrically mechanism consisting of a movable 38 and 39 fixed gears interconnected by a bearing 40, two centroidal gears 41 and 42 between them, the axis 43 and 44 which are connected to the brackets 45 and 46, which pass into the rim and the disk 47 and 48 with the corresponding alternating blades 49 and 50, forming a chamber of variable volume 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, have steady Paldiski 57, between which is tightly fitted the movable Paldiski 58 on a shaft 59 mounted in the disk 48 to rotate; with the end of the gear 60, which is in engagement with the control gear periodic engagement or periodic rotation. Stationary bevel gear 39 is connected to the stationary housing of the radial arms 62.Exhaust gases of high temperature turboprop internal combustion engine through the inlet window of the rings 31 are received in the expansion chamber 51 tarnopolskiego engine, in which the movable Paldiski 58 are rotated by gears 60 and B1 and leave misplacing space fixed plate 57, opening to both series access exhaust gas of high temperature with PE and 49, 50 will get closer, reducing the camera 52, which moves to the exhaust box housing 32, an outdoor heat exchanger increased surface of thermoplastic 57, 58 continues fence thermal energy.The next time the camera is moved to the position 53 in front of the window sampling of atmospheric air and expands. In the heat exchanger of termoplastici 57 and 58 with the supply of thermal energy is in the closed position with the mutual overlap of their surfaces without her return.In the next measure alternating blades 49, 50 remove the air in a closed chamber 54 to exit in the starting position with the compression with increasing temperature and air pressure as during the compression stroke of the internal combustion engine which is not in contact with the closed surfaces of the plates 57, 58.In the following fifth step in the chamber 55 of the heat exchanger reveals its inner surface palutikof 57, 58, which transfer their heat energy to the compressed atmospheric air, performing the role of the working body temperature increase increases in volume and creates excess pressure, which moves the blades in extreme positions with useful work.In the last sixth age of the camera 56 near atmospheric movement palutikof 57, 58 enables you to remove soot and other overlays.Option unmanaged heat exchanger variable surface using solid fuels /coal, wood/, with full serial conversion of thermal energy into mechanical energy of the crankshaft 66 of the cylinder of the engine 67, 68 shown in Fig.19, where known to the combustion device 69 are connected in series drain and exhaust gas 70, 71, four cylinder 67, the last prom 72 which is connected with the atmosphere.The fan 75 of the combustion device 69 is connected to the shaft 66, each camera is mounted intake and exhaust valves 76, 77 and two parts of the heat exchanger, consisting of a ring of thermoplastic 78, 79 with conical component, fastened with thermal insulation for mechanical parts of the piston 68 and cylinder 67 so that at TDC the surface of thermoplastic overlapped with each other and form a single whole.In the cylinder block 67 circulates cooling water 80 flowing through the pump 81 with drives from the camshaft 82 and nozzle 83 in the chamber for the formation of a working body.Work in the economic mode is sequential movement of one part of the gaseous products of combustion of any VI is the value of temperature to the ambient temperature.The gas 70, 71 between the cylinders retain heat, not pressure, so if you have insulation, energy losses are eliminated, while the transfer residual pressure from one cylinder to another cylinder of the engine is technically difficult due to the large volume of gas and low pressure.In Fig.20 shows a scheme of work in economic mode, where ambient air enters the furnace, where combustion of the fuel generates heat, which raises the temperature of the gaseous products of combustion and gases around 2000aboutWith depending on the type of fuel and oxygen in the air, which support the heat exchanger of the variable surface of the first cylinder 1500aboutWith that in the next period is served water, steam which is doing work on the expansion chamber and is supplied with exhaust gases of the first cylinder through the gas in the heat exchanger of the second cylinder, the temperature of which is about 1000aboutC. the heat Exchanger of the third chamber is maintained approximately 500aboutWith exhaust gases of the second cylinder, where they, together with the exhaust steam of the third cylinder temperature 500aboutTo come to teploty nitrogen with a temperature of about is 147aboutS, after which the exhaust gases acquire the temperature of the surrounding air and released into the atmosphere.The introduction of the heat exchanger variable surface current equipment - cars, tractors, harvesters, helicopters, planes, ships allows in the shortest possible time to reduce the consumption of petroleum products, and in some industries, such as coal, to completely eliminate their consumption and to resolve the energy crisis, to reduce the cost of most goods, and of the country's raw materials appendage to bring in a country that produces the most economical and cost-effective technology. 1. Engine internal heat transfer with conversion of thermal energy of the gases into mechanical pressure gases, consisting of the engine with heat exchanger in the chamber of variable volume, wherein the heat exchanger is made with the possibility of opening and closing their inner surfaces.
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power plants on base of diesel engines including exhaust gas heat recovery systems. Proposed power plant contains diesel engine connected with electric generator, tank for hydrocarbon material, main line to deliver hydrocarbon material, heat exchanger for fuel oil, tanks fir fuel oil and light fractions of fuel, heater and flash column, flash column is arranged inside heater housing, and heating element is arranged in space between heater housing and flash column. Heating element is connected with atomizer arranged inside flash column. Gas intake and gas outlet branch pipes of heater communicate with space between heater housing and flash column, and branch pipes to let out light fraction and fuel oil communicate, respectively, with upper and lower parts of inner space of flash column. Hydrocarbon material supply branch pipe communicates with inner space of heating element. Gas intake and gas outlet branch pipes are connected, respectively, with outlet branch pipe of diesel engine and exhaust pipe, and branch pipes to let out light fractions and fuel oil are connected, respectively, with cooling heat exchanger and with fuel oil heat exchanger. Branch pipe to supply hydrocarbon material is connected with hydrocarbon material delivery main line.
EFFECT: reduced heat losses in exhaust gas heat recovery systems designed for producing fuels from hydrocarbon raw material, improved efficiency of heat recovery.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering; internal combustion engines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed internal combustion engine contains crankshaft, connecting rod, piston, intake and exhaust valves, intake and exhaust manifolds, turbocompressor and nozzle to inject water installed in intake manifold before turbine of turbocompressor.
EFFECT: improved utilization of thermal energy of exhaust gases of turbocharged internal combustion engines.
FIELD: transport and power engineering; engines.
SUBSTANCE: proposed multicylinder engine has pump and power cylinders interconnected by transfer chamber, with pistons moving synchronously and rigidly connected with rods on ends of which crossmember with two pins is arranged, with connecting rods fitted on pins and rotation opposite to each other, and two synchronizing gears. One more power cylinder operating on steam is added to pump and power cylinders. Steam is formed owing to water heating in heat exchanger arranged in transfer chamber and in exhaust space of power cylinder.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of engine and reduced overall dimensions of engine.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to cogeneration plants with Stirling engines designed for simultaneous production of electric energy and heat. Proposed cogeneration plant includes Stirling engine with electric generator fitted on one shaft, Stirling engine cooling system including pump an heat exchange-cooler through which air feed main line passes, external heat supply system with heat exchanger-recovering unit of heat of waste gases and heat exchanger of preliminary heating through which external heat supply system is coupled with cooling system of Stirling engine, and exhaust gas main line. Plant is furnished additionally with gas generator providing production of generator gas from different types tires of locally available fuel, generator gas main line connecting gas generator with combustion chamber of Stirling engine, main line for partial return of exhaust gases into combustion chamber of stirling engine, pump in external heat supply system providing flow of heat carrier in succession through preliminary heating heat exchanger and heat exchanger-recovering unit of heat of waste gases. Wood, peat and oil shale can be used as locally available fuel.
EFFECT: possibility of operation of different locally available fuels such as wood, peat, oil shale, etc, increased service life of engine, simplified design of system to convey heat from engine to external consumers.
FIELD: electrical engineering, possibly electric energy generating plants on base of liquid low-potential power source.
SUBSTANCE: electric energy generating plant includes converter of neat energy of low-potential water to kinetic energy applied to electric energy generator. Plant is mounted on draining pipeline and it has linear-structure electric energy generator. Said converter is made material with shape memory effect having transition point between temperature of low-potential water and environment and it is kinematically coupled with armature of linear- structure generator. Converter is jointly mounted with possibility of moving from low-potential water to environment and from environment to low-potential water. Environment may be in the form of water pool to which low-potential water is discharged.
EFFECT: possibility of using heat of low-potential waters with temperature 30 - 50°C discharged every day from cooling systems of waters of nuclear and heat electric power stations.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: domestic facilities.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to combined heat and power supply plant for household use. Proposed domestic combined heat and power plant contains Stirling engine and water heater. Stirling engine is installed for heating by first burner supplied with fuel gas. Plant contains additionally intake gas duct passing from Stirling engine in contact with fuel gas intake in first burner preliminary heating of fuel gas delivered into first burner and then heating of water which is subsequently heated by water heater. Water heater is provided with second burner. Plant is designed so that outlet gas and gas from second burner form combined flow immediately after heating of water, and combined flow for heating of water is located higher from outlet gas relative to flow. Plant contains additionally cooler of Stirling engine arranged for heating water higher than outlet gas relative to direction of flow.
EFFECT: provision of effective heating of water, reduced cost of heating and provision of compact device.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat supply systems, particularly, to heat-generating plants. Power plant consists of heat engine, for instance, internal combustion engine, with, at least, one mechanic energy shaft, heat-exchangers of engine cooling, heat-exchanger of heat removal from gas exhaust, all heat-connected via the coolant circulation circuit, with, at least, one heat energy consumer, in which shaft of heat engine is kinematically connected with the drive shaft of cavitating-vortex heat-generator, which - at least, via inlet and outlet hydraulic channels - is connected to the mentioned circulation loop of coolant, for example, water. To provide self-purification of heat-exchangers, cavitating-vortex heat-generator is installed directly before the inlet to heat exchanger of heat removal from engine gas exhaust. Installation provides possibility to control power of the cavitating-vortex heat-generator at stabilised (set) rotations of engine drive shaft and possibility to control a ratio between power values removed from the engine to generate heat and electric energy.
EFFECT: enhancement of operational characteristics; expansion of functional abilities.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: external combustion Stirling engine and electric generator are fitted on one shaft with the internal combustion engine (ICE). Every ICE cylinder is provided with a magnetic field source arranged in the upper part of the former and made in the form of an annular electromagnet built in the cylinder wall, or as several radial electromagnets. The Stirling engine working cylinder is enclosed in a housing with its inner space communicating with the ICE exhaust system, the electric generator being wired to the magnetic field source.
EFFECT: lower toxicity of exhaust and fuller combustion of fuel.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: internal combustion engine incorporates crankshaft, con-rod, piston pin, cylinder, intake and outlet valves, inlet and outlet manifolds, turbo-compressor, nozzle to inject water into the outlet manifold and pipeline to feed water to the aforesaid nozzle. In compliance with this invention, the aforesaid pipeline feeding water to the nozzle is furnished with the fuel combustion product heat regenerator and water is injected into the outlet manifold in overheated state.
EFFECT: increased steam formation speed in injecting water into outlet manifold and improved enthalpy of combustion products.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ship building and power engineering. Proposed method consists in guiding the ship main internal combustion engine exhaust gases via the engines turbo compressors into waste-heat recovery boiler whereto heat carrier is fed from the steam separator for it to be heated by the aforesaid gases and in feeding the steam formed in the boiler evaporation pipes into the steam separator. Here note that the ship main engine exhaust gases are forced into the exhaust pipe, their temperature behind the aforesaid waste-heat recovery boiler is kept, in all operating ranges, not less than 160°C. In compliance with this invention, given the reduction of the main engine output or the ship auxiliary loads heat consumption drop, the boiler evaporation pipe water heat carrier is replaced with an air heat carrier. For this, the boiler evaporation pipes are, first, disconnected from the steam separator by appropriate shut-off valves, the boiler evaporation pipe water heat carrier is dried off for the pipes to receive air heat carrier by communicating them with air reservoir communicating, in its turn, with the ship compressed air system. Then, air heat carrier is heated by exhaust gases in the waste-heat recovery boiler to be fed into heat exchanger for sea and mineral water desalination. Note here that brine and hot air resulted at the desalination apparatus outlet are used for ship service purposes while generated steam is fed into separator for its condensation. The proposed device incorporates additionally a heat exchanger for water desalination, a compressed air reservoir communicating with the ship compressed air system. Note here that the said reservoir outlet communicates via pressure control and shut-off valves with the waste-heat recovery boiler feed pipeline at the section between its coils and shut-off valve. The boiler coil discharge pipeline at the section between the boiler shut-off valve and coils communicates via the said shutoff valve with the said desalination heat exchanger heat carrier inlet. Note also that the boiler coils are furnished with devices to remove working heat carrier and that the desalination apparatus outlets communicate with the ship brine, steam and hot air consumers.
EFFECT: higher degree of internal combustion engine exhaust gas recovery.
2 cl, 1 dwg