Binder for heat-insulating material and method of manufacturing heat-insulating material

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the production of thermal insulation materials (TIM) and can be used for the manufacture of building elements and structures. Describes a binder for heat-insulating material containing polyisocyanate, liquid glass, the curing catalyst is a tertiary amine or a mixture of tertiary amines in the following ratio, wt.h.: the polyisocyanate 100; liquid glass 20-70; curing catalyst 2-3. Describes also a method of manufacturing a heat insulating mixture of MDI with a curing catalyst and a mixture of liquid glass with a fibrous filler, followed by curing, with the mass ratio of the fibrous filler and the binder is 100:50-200. The technical result is the reduction of heat-insulating materials, increasing their fire while maintaining a high heat-insulating and strength characteristics. 2 S. p. f-crystals, 2 tab.

The invention relates to the production of thermal insulation materials (TIM) and can be used for the manufacture of building elements and structures.

Well-known raw material mixture and olomi spikelet cultures (see the description of the patent of the Russian Federation 2072166, p. 1). TIM based on it have good insulating properties, however, require improvements in accordance with SNiP 11-3-79 "Construction firing", the Ministry of construction of Russia, M : SE CES, 1995, with amendments No. 3, approved by decree of the Ministry of construction of Russia from 1.08.95 N 18-81. Strength properties such TIM and the resistance is also not high enough. In addition, the curing time of these materials is too large, up to several days at room temperature.

Known porous binder for heat-insulating materials, which as a raw material for the binder used polyisocyanates. The polyisocyanates having free NCO groups, actively react with water to form carbon dioxide, which is a blowing agent for polyurethane foam, resulting in parallel results in retinoblastoma interaction MDI and diethylene glycol (refer to copyright certificates of the USSR 1296540, 1206255).

TIM with the use of such binders have good insulating properties, in particular, because of the porous structure of the TIM, high tensile strength and low water absorption; their utverzhdeni the tsya very expensive. In addition, these TIM, like all TIM-based organic binder, do not meet the requirements for combustibility of building materials.

Known also filled with polyurethane foam for thermal insulation products (RF patent 2123013), obtained by the interaction of the hydroxyl-containing component with an isocyanate component in the presence of special additives and inorganic filler, which is used as liquid glass. This material requires the use of many expensive components: prestabilization, sinibaldi agents, organic solvents, etc. which not only increase the cost of the initial and the final product, but also complicate the process of obtaining insulation material.

The closest analogue we offer a binder for heat-insulating material is porous binder in accordance with the author's certificate of the USSR N 1206255.

The objective of the invention is the reduction of heat-insulating materials, increasing their fire while maintaining a high heat-insulating and strength characteristics.

The problem is solved using the well-known porous binder containing floor is atora curing - tertiary amine or a mixture thereof, in the following ratio, wt. including:

The polyisocyanate - 100

Liquid glass - 20-70

The curing catalyst - 2-3

As the curing catalyst can be used tertiary amines, such as aliphatic, aromatic tertiary amines; these catalysts are known for use as curing accelerators polyisocyanates; preferred is a mixture of MDI - based manniche.

The use of Mannich bases as catalyst as a mixture of tertiary amines with various levels of activity is preferable, because of its qualitative and quantitative composition can adjust the speed and intensity of the processes.

The requirements of Flammability and the relative cheapness of the liquid meets the glass, however, the mechanical properties of TIM on the basis of liquid glass is not high enough due to insufficient filling of the voids between the fibers of the filler liquid glass and low adhesion between the filler and liquid glass.

Strength properties would be improved if the structure of the liquid glass to introduce a rigid frame other hard durable component. To improve t is supplemented flax paritala liquid glass and the second component of the binder would improve the insulating properties TIM.

The use of isocyanates (MDI) in the proposed solutions as modifiers of liquid glass, in itself known, was determined by the presence of the isocyanate NCO groups capable of reacting with compounds containing mobile hydrogen atom; solutions of sodium silicate are currently being considered as a system consisting of various degrees of hydrated silicate anions and hydrated sodium cations. The polyisocyanates, including low molecular weight, react with components of liquid glass (N2O, NaOH), forming interpenetrating structures polyureas and poly acid with a rigid frame, between which the possible chemical interaction that leads to the formation of a more durable structure.

Type of curing catalyst selected from considerations of the need for acceleration and multiple reactions simultaneously:

interaction isocyanate NCO groups with water molecules in the liquid glass with allocation of CO2responsible for foaming

< / BR>
- condensation and foaming liquid glass due to the presence of CO2in the reaction

< / BR>
- the formation of a new solid polymer - primocanale with water and foaming at the expense of CO2formed in reaction (1)

RNH2+RNCO-->RNHCONH2(disubstituted urea) (3);

- polycondensation of silicic acid

(HO)3=SiO+SiOH-->(OH)3=Si-O-Si=(OH)3+OH (4).

The presence of several of these processes of interaction of the components known from the prior art and formulated in the first invention, greatly complicates the task of getting the TEAM with the given characteristics. It was necessary to coordinate the flow rate of these reactions, since the offset of the interaction of components in the direction of greater education of the polymer (polyurea) reduced the multiplicity of free expansion, the rise was increased, the foam became unstable and collapsed, and paritala glass and polymer decreased, which led to the reduction in insulating properties TIM. Too active foaming could slow down the process of obtaining polymer, and he would be porous enough. At this time polsacie becomes less time gelation liquid glass required for mixing the binder with the filler, and performance TIM will deteriorate. By careful selection of components managed to find their optimum ratio at which the floor is paired rigid frames, sealing structure of the TIM without deterioration of the insulating properties, as it does not reduces the value of total porosity: porous polycondensating liquid glass and porous polymer is a polyurea having the best properties of isocyanates and inorganic glasses: low thermal conductivity, high strength, flame retardant, high resistance, short curing time, cheaper and more available. The strength of TIM on the basis of such a binder is higher due to the higher adhesion of binder and filler, better penetration of the binder into the voids between the filler elements, for example between its fibers. Is continuous structure more completely fill the space between kursoobrazovanie elements of filler binder by polsacie proceeding under some pressure. Most resistance TIM explained by the transition alkaline gel liquid glass into an insoluble form.

The proposed binder can be obtained by blending MDI with liquid glass, followed by curing, but it is feasible to obtain a binder in the manufacturing process of insulating material, a method of obtaining Kotorosl the certificate of the USSR 1296540 the polyisocyanate is mixed with the filler and other components in specific proportions, add the hardener and mix thoroughly. In the author's certificate of the USSR 1206255 well as binder - polyfunctional isocyanate is mixed with 70% filler, then enter the hardener and mix with the remnants of the filler. The reaction polsacie in this way is in the reaction of retinoblastoma involving isocyanates. USSR author's certificate 1206255 is the closest analogue to the method.

Described scheme for TIM with one-component binder possibly optimal, however, when using a composite binder with viscous liquid glass, it is difficult to evenly distribute the curing catalyst in the glass. Processes that occur in the composition with a composite binder, more complex, require control over the speed and intensity of the course, therefore, known methods are unacceptable to get TIM to composite binder.

The objective of the proposed solution method is to obtain non-flammable and relatively inexpensive insulation material with high strength and teploizoljatsionnye properties.

According to the present invention a method of manufacturing a heat-insulating material is carried out with the mixture of MDI with tertiary the fibrous filler, in the following ratio of the binder components, wt.h.:

The polyisocyanate - 100

Liquid glass - 20-70

The curing catalyst - 2-3

When this mass ratio of the fibrous filler and the binder is 100:50-200.

As the fibrous filler in the TIM can be selected conventional mineral filler such as glass fiber or fibrous organic filler, such as straw spikelet cultures or wood chips.

This sequence of operations on the source components enables you to evenly distribute the catalyst in the polyisocyanate to cure and polsacie, where the most active will be the reaction of polsacie and the formation of a new polymer, also porous in the implementation of the method; when the polymerization of the new firm, but combustible material will be surrounded with non-combustible liquid glass, providing fire resistance of the final product; the subsequent introduction of the filler and its mixing with a binder to improve the wettability of the filler due to the already increased the volume of the binder, and thereby the contact surface of a binder and filler that also provide its incombustibility; filler can be made. totalcost TIM will be increased through the use of liquid water glass in the reaction of polsacie and education waterproof products: polyurea and polysilicon acid.

In table.1 shows the main consumer and technological characteristics of insulating materials on the basis of binding analogs and based on the proposed two-component binder, the content of liquid glass which is within a specified interval of values in the table. 2 - the same characteristics for the various embodiments of the binder content of the components, taken to the extreme and average values of their content within the specified limits.

The following examples explain the present invention.

Obtaining a binder.

Example 1. In propeller stirrer download 100 wt.h. MDI and 2 wt.h. the curing catalyst in the form of a mixture of tertiary amine and stirred for 10 sec. Then the resulting mixture was mixed with 20 wt.h. liquid glass and stirred for 40-60 sec. The mixture is poured into metal molds. The casing is made in 15 minutes

Example 2. Similarly receive a binder of 100 wt.h. MDI, 2 wt.h. katalizatoramisikkativami take 3 wt.h. catalyst and 70 wt.h. liquid glass.

Examples for insulating material.

Example 4. Prepare a mixture of filler - chopped straw and liquid glass (mixture 1), and chopped straw 100 wt.h. and liquid glass to 8.2 wt.h. (20 wt.h. in the composition of the binder) is placed in the tank for mixing and produce mixing until complete wetting of the straw liquid glass for 2 minutes Separately prepared mixture of 2 propeller stirrer, which loads the polyisocyanate (PIZ) of 40.9 wt. h (100 wt.h. in the binder composition, and then curing catalyst of 0.9 wt.h. (2 Mac.h. in the composition of the binder) and stirred for 10 sec. The mixture is then 2 is added to the mix 1 and mix for 40-60 sec. The mixture is placed in a metal mold and podpisovat at a pressure of 0.2 MPa. The dismantling of insulation products produced after 15 minutes At this get insulating material containing a binder comprising, by weight.h.:

The polyisocyanate - 100

Liquid glass - 20

A mixture of tertiary amines - 2

when the mass ratio of the chopped straw binder to 100:50.

Example 5. Is performed in the sequence as in example 4 with the following content, wt.nes)

The curing catalyst OM - 0.8 in (2 comprising a binder)

You get a heat-insulating material containing a binder comprising, by weight.h.:

The polyisocyanate - 100

Liquid glass - 50

A mixture of tertiary amines - 2

when the mass ratio of the chopped straw binder to 100:50.

Example 6. Is performed in the sequence as in example 4 with the following content, wt.h.:

Chopped straw - 100

Liquid glass - 20,3 (70 comprising a binder)

PIZ 29,1 (100 comprising a binder)

The curing catalyst is 0.6 (2 comprising a binder)

You get a heat-insulating material containing a binder comprising, by weight.h.:

The polyisocyanate - 100

Liquid glass - 70

A mixture of tertiary amines - 2

when the mass ratio of the chopped straw binder to 100:50.

Example 7. Is performed in the sequence as in example 4, the stirring of a mixture of MDI with the catalyst is carried out for 5-8 seconds, mixtures 1 and 2 within 30-40 seconds, in the following ratio of components, wt.h.:

Chopped straw - 100

Liquid glass - 20,2 (70 comprising a binder)

PIZ 28,9 (100 comprising a binder)

The catalyst of the CTE, comprising, by weight.h.:

The polyisocyanate - 100

Liquid glass - 70

A mixture of tertiary amines - 3

when the mass ratio of the chopped straw binder to 100:50.

Example 8. Prepare a mixture of 1 as follows: in a mixing place the chopped straw 100 wt.h. and liquid glass to 16.4 wt.h. (20 wt.h. in the composition of the binder and mix until complete wetting of the straw within 2 minutes Separately prepared mixture of 2 propeller stirrer, which loads the polyisocyanate 81,9 wt.h. (100 wt.h. in the binder composition, and then curing catalyst to 1.7 wt.h. (2 Mac.h. in the composition of the binder) and stirred for 10 sec. The mixture is then 2 is added to the mix 1 and mix for 40-60 sec. The mixture is placed in a metal mold and podpisovat at a pressure of 0.4 MPa. Demolding carried out after 15 minutes.

You get a heat-insulating material containing a binder comprising, by weight.h.:

The polyisocyanate - 100

Liquid glass - 20

A mixture of tertiary amines - 2

when the mass ratio of the chopped straw binder to 100:100.

Example 9. Is performed in the sequence as in example 4 with the following content, wt.h.:

Chopped straw - 100

and the pressure of the pre-0.6 MPa.

You get a heat-insulating material containing a binder comprising, by weight.h.:

The polyisocyanate - 100

Liquid glass - 20

A mixture of tertiary amines - 2

when the mass ratio of the chopped straw binder to 100:200.

Example 10. Mixture 1 is prepared as follows: mixing put the wood chips fraction 5-10 mm 100 wt.h. and liquid glass to 8.2 wt.h. (20 wt.h. in the composition of the binder and mixed for 1 min. Separately prepared mixture of 2 propeller stirrer, in which the load of 40.9 wt.h. MDI (100 wt.h. in the composition of the binder), and then enter the curing catalyst of 0.9 wt. h (2 wt.h. in the composition of the binder) and stirred for 10 sec. The mixture is then 2 is added to the mix 1 and mix for 30-40 seconds. The mixture is placed in a metal mold and podpisovat at a pressure of 0.2 MPa. Demolding spend 15 minutes

You get a heat-insulating material containing a binder comprising, by weight.h.:

The polyisocyanate - 100

Liquid glass - 20

A mixture of tertiary amines - 2

when the mass ratio of wood chips, glue 100:50.

COI Is

As components of the following substances:

Liquid glass GOST 13078-81 "Glass of liquid sodium with silicate module 2,9-3,2, density 1460-1500 kg/cubic meter;

The polyisocyanate brand ON THE 13-03-78222701-92 with a density of 1240 kg/cubic meter, as well as the brand, the viscosity of 1 min B3-4, mass fraction of isocyanate groups 30%;

Chopped straw spikelet cultures (wheat) with a length of 30-50 mm, a bulk density of 30-50 kg/cubic meter, moisture 4%;

Mineral fiber on the basis of basalt raw materials or blast furnace slag;

- Wood chips fraction 5-10 mm;

- Catalyst - phenolic Mannich bases of a mixture of aminomethylphenol ratio OM - 17%, EM - 66%, EM - 17%, where

OM - 4-dimethylaminomethylphenol,

OM - 2,4-bis-(dimethylaminomethylphenol),

OM - 2,4,6-Tris-(dimethylaminomethylphenol).

Thus, as a result of implementation of the proposed method it is possible to get TIM, representing three non-combustible system with excellent thermal insulation properties of each component: a fibrous filler with a tubular pores filled with air as the best insulating material surrounded by a liquid porous hardened glass, modified Borisovna istwa. Fibrous filler, which may be a straw spikelet cultures, is very cheap and available raw material for TIM, liquid glass is also quite cheap compared to the polymers, and the number of expensive polymer can be reduced by almost two times in comparison with traditional well-known polymeric TIM.

1. Binder for heat-insulating material containing a polyisocyanate and a curing catalyst, wherein the binder further comprises a liquid glass, as curing catalyst contains a tertiary amine or a mixture of tertiary amines, in the following ratio, wt. including :

The polyisocyanate - 100

Liquid glass - 20 - 70

Tertiary amine or a mixture of tertiary amines - 2 - 3

2. Method of making heat insulating mixture of MDI with a filler and a curing catalyst, followed by curing of the mixture, characterized in that the polyisocyanate is mixed with a tertiary amine or a mixture of tertiary amines as catalyst and a mixture of liquid glass fiber filler in the following ratio of the binder components, wt. including :

The polyisocyanate - 100i fibrous filler and a binder, 100: 50-200.

 

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