Heat engine for converting thermal energy into mechanical energy (electric)

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention is intended for use in energy, transport, aviation and Astronautics. A heat engine converts heat to the environment in mechanical (electrical) energy through the use of multi-circuit thermodynamic cycles with heterogeneous mixture of pure gases. Gases in the various circuits is compressed in the compressor, is fed to the environmental heat in heat exchangers and mixed (possibly multiple times) in the gas ejectors to obtain mixtures with the necessary thermophysical properties and thermodynamic parameters, and then expanded in the turbine to obtain a positive work with the subsequent separation of the mixture of the initial components. The invention allows the use of low-grade heat from the surrounding environment and get environmentally friendly mechanical or electrical energy, as in this heat machine used pure gases and no combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il.

The present invention is intended for use in energy, transport, aviation and space, where pain is preobrazovaniya thermal energy into mechanical energy, where are closed cycles with a mixture of different working phone

For example, steam turbine, gas turbine and combined installations that are closed thermodynamic cycles with various working bodies (see "thermal engineering" edited by Professor C. I. Krutova, M., engineering, 1986). As bodies working in these units are air, nitrogen, inert gases and their mixtures, carbon dioxide.

These plants supply heat to the working bodies is carried out by burning hydrocarbon fuels or coal, which leads to pollution of the atmosphere. According to the principle of the interaction of work of bodies such combined installations are carried out with separate circuits, in which steam or gaseous working bodies move separately on separate circuits, or with a mixture of working fluids before expansion in steam and gas turbine.

In recent time there are many patents that use the adulteration of various gases to the main combustion products of hydrocarbon fuels to increase the heat content of the gas mixture before the turbine.

Thus, in the patent of the Russian Federation 2076929, IPC F 01 K 21/04, 1997 proposed to be mixed in the ejector combustion products of taenia gas mixture. The disadvantage of this setup is the high cost of heat for receiving superheated steam and air pollution emissions of combustion products of hydrocarbon fuels.

In the application DE 3605466, IPC F 01 K 21/04, 1987 offered separately to compress gases in the compressor (xenon, CO2), leading to it, the heat in the gas reheaters, and then expanded in a gas turbine and mix with water or freon to obtain a gas mixture, which is sent to the second turbine. After the second turbine mixture is supplied to the condenser for separating a mixture, and the process repeats. Disadvantages are the high cost of heat and cumbersome equipment. Furthermore, since the heating gases in the heater is carried out by burning fuel, this setting also pollute the environment.

Known heat engines closest is a heat engine for converting thermal energy into mechanical (electrical) energy through the use of two different working fluids (see patent US 5444981, IPC F 01 K 21/04, 1995), containing connected in series compressor, heat exchanger and ejector, turbine adiabatic expansion associated with the receiver of mechanical energy (electrication working body separately compressed, to them, heat is supplied, and the mixture is then o adiabatically expands in the turbine to obtain a positive work. As working fluids are used, water vapor and helium. Water is heated in a steam boiler, and the gases in the heater by burning fuel, which also leads to air pollution.

The problem to which the present invention is directed, is to use a heat machine low-grade heat (such as heat to the environment, heat of the sun and other) and organic gases.

The problem is solved in that in the heat press uses closed contours with a mixture of heterogeneous environmentally friendly gases and heated them at the expense of low-grade heat (see patent RU 2164607, IPC F 01 K 21/04, 27.03.2001).

The problem is solved in that a heat engine for converting thermal energy into mechanical energy (electric) containing connected in series compressor, heat exchanger and ejector, turbine adiabatic expansion associated with the receiver of mechanical energy (electric generator), the output of which is connected to the condenser, and the liquid pump according to the invention provided jointly by obrazuyuschim and ejector, the additional heat exchanger and two tanks for the storage of gases, one of which is cooled and serves as a condenser and the second heat exchanger is connected to the second input of the first ejector, heat exchangers separately fed low-potential heat output of the first ejector is connected to the first input of the second ejector, the second input of which is connected cooled the vessel, the first outlet of the second ejector is connected with the turbine, and the second liquid through the pump and additional heat exchanger with a different capacity for the storage of gases, and both tanks are connected with the corresponding compressors.

The problem is solved also by the fact that as the working fluids used helium, argon, nitrogen, hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and mixtures thereof.

The problem is solved also by the fact that the ejectors for mixing gases loops equipped with supersonic diffusers at the end of the mixing chamber.

The problem is solved also by the fact that it is further provided with bearings, made in the form of gas-static or dynamic gas bearings.

The drawing shows a diagram of a heat engine to use low-grade tosta 1 and 1' to store gas at initial parameters Ro,and Ro',' for each gas, compressors 2 and 2' to compress the gas to a selected temperature and pressure for each gas, heat exchangers 3 and 3', where the gases are separately supplied low-grade heat, ejectors 4 and 4' for mixing gases and re-mixing of the gaseous mixture with one of the original components of the turbine 5 to the adiabatic expansion of the gas mixture after the second mixing up the initial parameters Ro and The liquid pump 6 for pumping the liquid component to the original settings Ro' and Then', additional heat exchanger 7 for evaporation of the liquid component and heating it to the required initial temperature' at the expense of low-grade heat, receiver 8 mechanical work (electric generator), which is produced by expanding gases in the turbine 5, and 9 maintain low temperatures. The above elements of thermal machine together form a closed loop with a mixture of heterogeneous environmentally friendly gases and the use of low-grade heat. Used in thermal machine bearings can be made in the form of gas-static or dynamic gas bearings that will improve the reliability of machines especially in the field of low temperatures.

In the operation of a heat engine can be obtained positive RA is a host of environmental pollution. The positive effect in the described thermal machine is obtained by exercising it multiple loop thermodynamic cycle with a heterogeneous mixture of pure gases, which made direct thermal cycle. The parameters of this cycle are determined by the used gases, their properties after mixing gas ejectors and thermophysical properties of gases and their mixtures, obtained in the process of mixing.

To use low-grade heat to the environment in a thermal machine, the initial gas temperature and' must be below the ambient temperature, which requires pre-cooling the gas in the tanks 1 and l' and maintain this temperature during the whole time.

The effect of the application of a heat engine can be used in energy to produce mechanical (electrical) energy due to the heat of the surrounding atmosphere without pollution of the exhaust gases, as it is not used burning chemical fuels.

This heat engine can be used for transport to produce mechanical energy to drive (mechanical or electrical) wheels, as well as in aviation and comasina for converting thermal energy into mechanical energy (electric), containing connected in series compressor, heat exchanger and ejector, turbine adiabatic expansion associated with the receiver of mechanical energy (electric generator), the output of which is connected to the condenser, and the liquid pump, characterized in that it is provided together forming a closed loop with a mixture of heterogeneous environmentally friendly gases of the second compressor, the heat exchanger and the ejector, the additional heat exchanger and two tanks for the storage of gases, one of which is cooled and serves as a condenser and the second heat exchanger is connected to the second input of the first ejector, heat exchangers separately fed low-grade heat, the output of the first ejector is connected to the first input of the second ejector, the second input of which is connected cooled the vessel, the first outlet of the second ejector is connected with the turbine, and the second liquid through the pump and additional heat exchanger with another tank of gas storage and both tanks are connected with the corresponding compressors.

2. Heat engine under item 1, characterized in that as the working fluids used helium, argon, hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and mixtures thereof.

4. Heat engine according to any one of paragraphs.1-3, characterized in that it further provided with bearings, made in the form of gas-static or dynamic gas bearings.

 

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