Heat engine for converting thermal energy into mechanical energy (electric)
(57) Abstract:The invention is intended for use in energy, transport, aviation and Astronautics. A heat engine converts heat to the environment in mechanical (electrical) energy through the use of multi-circuit thermodynamic cycles with heterogeneous mixture of pure gases. Gases in the various circuits is compressed in the compressor, is fed to the environmental heat in heat exchangers and mixed (possibly multiple times) in the gas ejectors to obtain mixtures with the necessary thermophysical properties and thermodynamic parameters, and then expanded in the turbine to obtain a positive work with the subsequent separation of the mixture of the initial components. The invention allows the use of low-grade heat from the surrounding environment and get environmentally friendly mechanical or electrical energy, as in this heat machine used pure gases and no combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il. The present invention is intended for use in energy, transport, aviation and space, where pain is preobrazovaniya thermal energy into mechanical energy, where are closed cycles with a mixture of different working phoneFor example, steam turbine, gas turbine and combined installations that are closed thermodynamic cycles with various working bodies (see "thermal engineering" edited by Professor C. I. Krutova, M., engineering, 1986). As bodies working in these units are air, nitrogen, inert gases and their mixtures, carbon dioxide.These plants supply heat to the working bodies is carried out by burning hydrocarbon fuels or coal, which leads to pollution of the atmosphere. According to the principle of the interaction of work of bodies such combined installations are carried out with separate circuits, in which steam or gaseous working bodies move separately on separate circuits, or with a mixture of working fluids before expansion in steam and gas turbine.In recent time there are many patents that use the adulteration of various gases to the main combustion products of hydrocarbon fuels to increase the heat content of the gas mixture before the turbine.Thus, in the patent of the Russian Federation 2076929, IPC F 01 K 21/04, 1997 proposed to be mixed in the ejector combustion products of taenia gas mixture. The disadvantage of this setup is the high cost of heat for receiving superheated steam and air pollution emissions of combustion products of hydrocarbon fuels.In the application DE 3605466, IPC F 01 K 21/04, 1987 offered separately to compress gases in the compressor (xenon, CO2), leading to it, the heat in the gas reheaters, and then expanded in a gas turbine and mix with water or freon to obtain a gas mixture, which is sent to the second turbine. After the second turbine mixture is supplied to the condenser for separating a mixture, and the process repeats. Disadvantages are the high cost of heat and cumbersome equipment. Furthermore, since the heating gases in the heater is carried out by burning fuel, this setting also pollute the environment.Known heat engines closest is a heat engine for converting thermal energy into mechanical (electrical) energy through the use of two different working fluids (see patent US 5444981, IPC F 01 K 21/04, 1995), containing connected in series compressor, heat exchanger and ejector, turbine adiabatic expansion associated with the receiver of mechanical energy (electrication working body separately compressed, to them, heat is supplied, and the mixture is then o adiabatically expands in the turbine to obtain a positive work. As working fluids are used, water vapor and helium. Water is heated in a steam boiler, and the gases in the heater by burning fuel, which also leads to air pollution.The problem to which the present invention is directed, is to use a heat machine low-grade heat (such as heat to the environment, heat of the sun and other) and organic gases.The problem is solved in that in the heat press uses closed contours with a mixture of heterogeneous environmentally friendly gases and heated them at the expense of low-grade heat (see patent RU 2164607, IPC F 01 K 21/04, 27.03.2001).The problem is solved in that a heat engine for converting thermal energy into mechanical energy (electric) containing connected in series compressor, heat exchanger and ejector, turbine adiabatic expansion associated with the receiver of mechanical energy (electric generator), the output of which is connected to the condenser, and the liquid pump according to the invention provided jointly by obrazuyuschim and ejector, the additional heat exchanger and two tanks for the storage of gases, one of which is cooled and serves as a condenser and the second heat exchanger is connected to the second input of the first ejector, heat exchangers separately fed low-potential heat output of the first ejector is connected to the first input of the second ejector, the second input of which is connected cooled the vessel, the first outlet of the second ejector is connected with the turbine, and the second liquid through the pump and additional heat exchanger with a different capacity for the storage of gases, and both tanks are connected with the corresponding compressors.The problem is solved also by the fact that as the working fluids used helium, argon, nitrogen, hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and mixtures thereof.The problem is solved also by the fact that the ejectors for mixing gases loops equipped with supersonic diffusers at the end of the mixing chamber.The problem is solved also by the fact that it is further provided with bearings, made in the form of gas-static or dynamic gas bearings.The drawing shows a diagram of a heat engine to use low-grade tosta 1 and 1' to store gas at initial parameters Ro,and Ro',' for each gas, compressors 2 and 2' to compress the gas to a selected temperature and pressure for each gas, heat exchangers 3 and 3', where the gases are separately supplied low-grade heat, ejectors 4 and 4' for mixing gases and re-mixing of the gaseous mixture with one of the original components of the turbine 5 to the adiabatic expansion of the gas mixture after the second mixing up the initial parameters Ro and The liquid pump 6 for pumping the liquid component to the original settings Ro' and Then', additional heat exchanger 7 for evaporation of the liquid component and heating it to the required initial temperature' at the expense of low-grade heat, receiver 8 mechanical work (electric generator), which is produced by expanding gases in the turbine 5, and 9 maintain low temperatures. The above elements of thermal machine together form a closed loop with a mixture of heterogeneous environmentally friendly gases and the use of low-grade heat. Used in thermal machine bearings can be made in the form of gas-static or dynamic gas bearings that will improve the reliability of machines especially in the field of low temperatures.In the operation of a heat engine can be obtained positive RA is a host of environmental pollution. The positive effect in the described thermal machine is obtained by exercising it multiple loop thermodynamic cycle with a heterogeneous mixture of pure gases, which made direct thermal cycle. The parameters of this cycle are determined by the used gases, their properties after mixing gas ejectors and thermophysical properties of gases and their mixtures, obtained in the process of mixing.To use low-grade heat to the environment in a thermal machine, the initial gas temperature and' must be below the ambient temperature, which requires pre-cooling the gas in the tanks 1 and l' and maintain this temperature during the whole time.The effect of the application of a heat engine can be used in energy to produce mechanical (electrical) energy due to the heat of the surrounding atmosphere without pollution of the exhaust gases, as it is not used burning chemical fuels.This heat engine can be used for transport to produce mechanical energy to drive (mechanical or electrical) wheels, as well as in aviation and comasina for converting thermal energy into mechanical energy (electric), containing connected in series compressor, heat exchanger and ejector, turbine adiabatic expansion associated with the receiver of mechanical energy (electric generator), the output of which is connected to the condenser, and the liquid pump, characterized in that it is provided together forming a closed loop with a mixture of heterogeneous environmentally friendly gases of the second compressor, the heat exchanger and the ejector, the additional heat exchanger and two tanks for the storage of gases, one of which is cooled and serves as a condenser and the second heat exchanger is connected to the second input of the first ejector, heat exchangers separately fed low-grade heat, the output of the first ejector is connected to the first input of the second ejector, the second input of which is connected cooled the vessel, the first outlet of the second ejector is connected with the turbine, and the second liquid through the pump and additional heat exchanger with another tank of gas storage and both tanks are connected with the corresponding compressors.2. Heat engine under item 1, characterized in that as the working fluids used helium, argon, hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and mixtures thereof.4. Heat engine according to any one of paragraphs.1-3, characterized in that it further provided with bearings, made in the form of gas-static or dynamic gas bearings.
FIELD: heat power and chemical industries, applicable in production of ammonia.
SUBSTANCE: in the method for steam generation at production of ammonia from hydrocarbon gases, saturation of the hydrocarbon gas after desulfurization and/or process air fed to the secondary reforming is effected due to the use of the flue gas of a tube furnace at a temperature of 160 to 580C, preferably within 220 to 480C, by means of water recirculation.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of energy due to reduction of the total amount of generated steam, reduced consumption of feed water, and recovered gases dissolved in the process condensate.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: heat power and chemical industries, applicable in production of ammonia.
SUBSTANCE: in the method for steam generation at production of ammonia from hydrocarbon gases the mean-pressure steam used for the process of steam reforming and/or for the compressor drives is subjected to humidification by injection of the process condensate or feed water, and the obtained humidified steam is overheated by the heat of the flue gas in a unit of the heat-using equipment of the reforming tube furnace.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of energy due to reduction of the amount of generated steam and reduced of the amount of generated steam and reduced consumption of feed water; provided additional cleaning of the process condensate and recovering of gases dissolved in it in the process of steam humidification in the mass transfer device.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed steam-turbine plant for geothermal power station includes primary circuit consisting of geothermal circulation system and secondary circuit consisting of steam-turbine plant cycle. To increase thermodynamic efficiency of utilization of geothermal waters, plant is furnished additionally with evaporator, heat exchanger, gas-expansion machine and circulating pump. Mass flow rate of working medium getting into primary interwell heat exchanger greatly exceeds flow rate of medium circulating in steam turbine plant circuit. Working medium heated to saturation temperature is divided on surface into two flows. First flow gets into evaporator and further on into turbine and condenser, second flow is directed into heat exchanger whereto cooling water is directed from condenser for heating. Said water, after heating, is fed to low-potential heat consumers.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of power cycle at maximum decrease of temperature of waste thermal water.
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to stationary thermal power stations of large and medium rating. According to invention, energy of combusted fuel is used three times, namely to create reactive thrust, to operate in gas turbine and to generate steam for steam turbine and which provide high efficiency of power station summing up efficiencies of reactive engine, gas and steam turbines. Depending on required power, from one to three similar-type electric generators can be connected in reactive-gas turbine cycle. Power rating of electric generator for steam cycle is chosen depending on heat generated at reactive-gas turbine cycle. Linear dimensions of power plant converting heat energy of fuel into mechanical energy are scaled depending on power output of designed power station.
EFFECT: simplified design and technology of manufacture, repair and servicing of power station.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed gas-steam thermoelectric plant contains gas-steam turbine unit with high-pressure gas turbine, counterpressure steam turbine, power-generating and ecological steam lines, steam-gas mixture heat recovery unit with steam recovery boiler, gas-water heater, gas cooler-condenser, separated water heat recovery unit. Low-pressure steam-gas turbine and afterburner chamber are arranged additionally in gas-steam turbine unit, afterburner chamber being installed between high-pressure gas turbine and low-pressure steam-gas turbine. Output of counterpressure steam turbine is connected by ecological steam line with output of high-pressure gas turbine and with after-burner chamber.
EFFECT: provision of designing of gas-steam thermoelectric plant of higher power output and economy using existing counterpressure steam turbines with standard initial parameters of steam.
FIELD: power engineering; ship engines.
SUBSTANCE: according to proposed method atmospheric air is compressed, contactly cooled and regeneratively heated by heat of waste steam-gas mixture, and fuel is combusted in said air with supply of power-generating steam flow into fuel combustion zone. Steam-gas mixture, thus formed, is expanded and useful work of expansion is used for compressing air and executing external work, generating electric energy for driving different mechanisms, for instance, vehicles. heat of steam-gas mixture, after expansion and regenerative removal of heat, is recovered for generation of steam, steam-gas mixture is cooled, its steam component is condensed and condensate, thus formed, is cooled and used for cooling and condensing of steam-gas mixture. Cooling of compressed moistened air is carried out at its contact with water in saturated state, or with saturated water vapor formed at recovery of heat of waste steam-gas mixture, and overheated steam is used as power-generating steam flow and for cooling of steam-gas turbine.
EFFECT: increased thermal economy of gas-steam plant.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: working medium in proposed steam-gas turbine plant is mixture of combustion products and steam formed in mixing chamber before steam-gas turbine. Combustion products are formed in combustion chamber located after compressor, and steam is formed in heat exchanger-evaporator located after steam-gas turbine. Flow rate of steam is not less than 15% of flow rate of gas. Thermal efficiency of steam-gas turbine plant does not exceed 60%.
EFFECT: possibility of creating aircraft engine on base of steam-gas turbine plant 3-4 times exceeding shaft-turbine engines and turboprop engines by specific power and 2-3 times, by economy.
3 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: according to proposed method of operation of gas-steam thermoelectric plant, atmospheric air is compressed in compressor and fuel is combustion in said air, useful work of high-pressure turbine is used for compressing the air, useful work of low-pressure turbine is used to drive electric generator and generate power. Heat of waste steam-gas mixture is recovered for generation of superheated steam. Superheated steam is expanded in counterpressure steam turbine whose useful work is used for generation of power, and "ecological" steam expanded in counterpressure steam turbine is fed to combustion products coming out of high-pressure gas turbine, and "power generating: steam is fed into fuel burning zone of additional combustion chamber.
EFFECT: increased power and improved economy of gas-steam thermoelectric plant, possibility of use of existing gas and steam turbines with standard parameters of steam for creating said thermoelectric plant.
FIELD: power engineering, gas industry, shipbuilding.
SUBSTANCE: proposed gas-steam plant contains gas-steam turbine unit with air cleaner-air cooler, air compressor, regenerator and steam-gas turbine, and steam-gas mixture heat recovery unit with evaporator and steam superheater. Gas-steam turbine unit is furnished additionally with mixing chamber arranged between air compressor and regenerator. Steam-gas mixture heat recovery unit is connected additionally by pipeline coupling evaporator with mixing chamber of gas-steam turbine unit and steam superheater with cooling system of steam-gas turbine of gas-steam turbine unit.
EFFECT: increased specific power and efficiency of plant.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to methods of modernization of existing steam turbine thermoelectric plants. Proposed method of operation of steam-turbine thermoelectric plant with-turbine set with stepped expansion of combustion products and intermediate supply of heat of fuel comes to the following: heat of combustion products expanded in gas-turbine unit is recovered, high-pressure steam is generated and expanded in steam turbines of thermoelectric plants. To generate high pressure steam, feed water is used deaerated in thermoelectric plant. Said feed water is deaerated additionally by vacuum method. Steam condensate of steam turbines of thermoelectric plant is divided into two flows, one of which is directed for vacuum deaeration and the other is heated in low-pressure heaters of steam turbines, is deaerated at elevated pressure and is used as heating agent for vacuum deaeration of feed water.
EFFECT: increased power output and economy of thermoelectric plant at moderate capital outlays.