Device for non-destructive evaluation of geometric characteristics of pile materials, mainly natural fur, and determine the efforts of the puncture needle

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the textile industry and can be used to estimate properties of pile materials. The device includes mounted in the same housing coaxially movable platform with means of measuring the thickness of the fur and leather, with a support for fixing a material object table with the possibility of electrical contact with the measuring means, the node to start fixing the beginning of the measurement, the measuring node. Means of thickness measurements made in the form of a spring-loaded probe with a rounded end and a removable needle communicating respectively with the small sensor displacement sensor measuring the force and located in a line along the object stage. Table is made to rotate 90oon external support. The measuring unit is designed in the form of a pulse sensor, located on the shaft of a drive motor, measurement unit and the display panel. This device has a high accuracy and faster measurement process. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il, 2 tab.

The invention relates to textile, fur industry, can be used in evaluating the properties of worse Britanie allows you to measure geometric features fleecy materials with straight and angled pile (hair cover) without damage and to speed up the process of evaluation of geometric characteristics, to obtain objective data of the thickness of the pile (hairline) and soil (leather) materials.

For the prototype device taken the device for measurement of thickness of pile carpets according to the article: J. Lappage, J. Bedford, D. Crook. "The WRONZ carpet pile thickness gauge" J. Text. Inst., 1984, N 3, p.229-234 (copy attached). The known device for determining the thickness of the pile of the carpet contains a movable platform in the form of an aluminum disk with holes drilled to reduce weight. The platform is attached to the upper clamp of the Instron Tensile Tester. On the platform symmetrically around the circumference are measurement tools in the form of a six-needle-probes having a tip in the form of a cone with angle sharpening 75oand rounded tip. Length from base to tip 0,31 mm, the diameter of the needle-probe at the base of the cone of 0.50 mm, the sample is placed on the object table, consisting of a block of polystyrene, wrapped with aluminum foil, and located under the movable platform on the siloizmeritel Instron Tensile Tester. For fixing a carpet on the stage is used the Central support in the form of a brass disk (d=20 mm) attached to the shaft, moving in miscorrection bearings located on a movable platform and creating pressure on the pile of the carpet 20 g/cm and measure its height relative to the tips of the needle-probes. The measuring unit is designed in the form of a chart device that secures the chart moving platform and the force of the impact of needle-probes siloizmeritel. The height of the pile and soil the carpet is determined by the amount of movement chart paper on which are fixed the beginning of the measurement, the time of perforation of the pile and soil the carpet, which is determined by the change effort, recorded on the chart.

The prototype has several disadvantages. The known device gives the error in the measurement of the thickness of the pile and soil associated with the incorrect definition of the moments of the beginning and end of measurement of thickness of pile, soil the carpet. The initial measurement of the thickness of the Mat is determined by a dial meter with pressure support of 20 g/cm2. However, the pressure bearing changes the thickness of the pile in varying degrees depending on its hardness and elasticity, which leads to the variation of the true thickness of the pile and gives inaccurate fixation of the measurement of the thickness of the pile. The completion of the measurement of the thickness of the pile is determined on the chart to increase efforts with which the needle is fixed in the soil the carpet. However, the effort depends on the type and properties of the pile, the nature of the weave in the soil, its density, which affects the accuracy of fixing isogo material, the object stage, the insulating strip located on the siloizmeritel, which leads to the inertia load of the system and therefore inaccurate fixation beginning and end of the measurement. On the device it is impossible to determine the geometrical characteristics of skins natural fur shot "tube" or "stocking", due to the design of the object stage, requiring cutting skins and bring them in spread view that further restricts their use. The known device due to the pressure support does not provide an assessment of the thickness of the pile in its natural state, which is especially important for materials with texture and a sloping pile. The use of the six needle-probes averages the measurement of the thickness of the pile and is not possible to evaluate the variations of the thickness of the pile for materials with textured or uneven thickness of the pile, for example fur. The known device enables you to define the part geometry properties for materials with a sloping pile: the thickness of the pile and soil, and does not measure the performance of the angle and length of the pile. Assessment of the thickness of the pile and soil on the chart recording efforts and moving platforms long.

The technical result of the claimed invention is nersac sorting and quality assessment with a high level of accuracy and objectivity determine the thickness of the hair layer by measuring in its natural state without pressure, due to the exclusion of averaging the data of the thickness of the hair while identifying additional characteristics length hair, angle for materials with a sloped hair, high precision measurement of the thickness of the leather and hair due to the precise location of the beginning and end of the measurement of the thickness of the fur and leather, as well as with the accelerated process of measurement by removing the thickness data directly from the panel display.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that the proposed device has been mounted in the same housing coaxially movable platform with means of measuring the thickness of the fur and leather, with a support for fixing a material object table with the possibility of electrical contact with the measuring means; the fixing unit to start the measurement, the measuring node.

Significant differences of the claimed device is that the means for thickness measurements made in the form of a spring-loaded probe with a rounded end and a removable needle communicating respectively with the small sensor displacement sensor measuring the force and located in a line along predent in the form of pulses, located on the shaft of a drive motor, measurement unit and the display panel. Support for fixation material made in the form of spring-loaded racks located on lines parallel to the line location of the needle and the probe. The movable platform is configured to return to its original position due to the connection with a cylindrical spring and kinematically connected with the engine. As a hub for fixing the beginning of the measurement using slit light source, located in line with the measuring means.

Currently, the evaluation of the properties of the fur fur is out of line and the main indicator of quality skins - grade is assigned on a descriptive characteristic of hair. For example, for fur blue Fox GOST 7179-70. "Fox pelts tanned. Technical conditions" (copy attached) are 2 varieties on descriptive characteristics of hair. This subjective assessment leads to confusions, makes it difficult to assess quality and a set of skins for the product and, ultimately, leads to marriage in the finished product. To obtain uniform properties flocks (packs) required multiple sorting. Earlier attempts were made live in the NCI thickness of the fur fur in Ganzow W. K. To estimate the thickness of the hair of the fur. - COP. -1976. - 5. - S. 30-31 (copy attached). It is shown that the thickness of the hair is a quantitative characteristic of the condition of the hair and can be used to define a variety of skins. Tests on the thickness Hanzawa W. K. give good results allow a more clear line dividing the skins on varieties for measuring the thickness of hair. However, the proposed thickness gauge defines only one characteristic is the thickness of hair, and the measurements are performed at a pressure on the hair, which is somewhat distorts the actual thickness of hair, there is no assessment of the thickness of the leather.

The proposed device provides the possibility of simultaneous determination of the set of indicators geometrical and mechanical properties of the hair and the leather fur: thick hair, hair length, angle, thickness of the leather and the force of the puncture needle. The information obtained about the properties of the fur can be used for quality assessment (establishing varieties), sorting of skins for homogeneity hairline, research and certification assessment.

Razma, which varies 5-110 mm Table made of conductive material such as metal to provide electrical contact with the needle during puncture the leather. Table a length of 150 mm and a width of 60 mm provides easy positioning of the skins of different ways of removal without overhangs hair in the working area. The thickness of the table 10 mm provides a "split" of the hair when measuring the length of the hair and at the same time allows to achieve a stable position of the probe and the needle during such measurements. The ability to rotate the table by screw provides a measurement of the length of hair. The length of the outriggers is not less than 0.5 m, as it provides donning the skins from the rump up to the neck when testing natural fur "tube" or "stocking". Pinch hours, providing fixation of the sample fur on the stage, made in the form of hollow tubes with a diameter of 7 mm and are located at the edges of the platform so that the distance between the two enclosures were not smaller than the maximum length hair (120 mm) to prevent hair under two hours at a time. Location racks across the width of the platform symmetrically. As a means of measuring the thickness using the probe and needle. The needle is made removable for C the symbolic rod of 2 mm diameter with a rounded tip to avoid puncture of the leather during operation. The diameter of the probe is not more than 2 mm to reduce falling hair under the probe. The distance between the probe and the needle is determined by the dimensions of the sensors and is 10 mm Needle, a probe, a light source and the screen are on the same line along the object stage for fixing the measurement of the thickness of hair.

In Fig. 1, figs.2 presents a schematic of the device, a front view and left side view, respectively. In Fig.3 shows a mobile platform with means of measurement: the needle and the probe associated with siloizmeritelem and sensor movements, respectively, pinch hours and subject table and placed on it's fur. In Fig.4 shows a variant of the device for measuring the length of the hair and the angle of the hair when you rotate the table 90o.

Device for measuring the geometrical characteristics of pile materials and fur 1 (Fig.1, 2) contains a metal material table 2, connected with external support 3 by means of the screw 4, the movable platform 5, moving on two rails 6 by means of a toothed belt 7, thrown over the pulleys 8 and 9. The pulley 9 is rotated by a drive motor 10. A cylindrical spring 11 is attached at one end to the housing 12, the other to the movable platfoi on the movement sensor 15, the needle 16 that is associated with siloizmeritelem 17. The moving platform is connected to the light source 18 and the orifice 19, the beam from the light source passing through the aperture gets on the screen 20. On the body of the instrument is the measurement unit 21 and the display panel 22, on the shaft of a drive motor impulse sensor 23 (Fig.1, 2.).

The device operates as follows: on the stage 2 place the sample fur 1 shot "tube" or spread, for example fur Fox, sample fur spread to the disappearance of creases and wrinkles in the leather and fix spring-loaded struts 13 of the movable platform 5. In the preparatory mode by using the drive motor 10 mobile platform with a light source 17 with a slit aperture 18, with the probe 14 and needle 16 is moved to align on a white screen 19 the shadow of the tip of the probe and needle with the beginning of the shade of hair fur. After combining the tips of the needle and probe with the hair starts in measurement mode - the platform is lowered along the guide rails 6. The measurement unit 21 continuously records the moving platform, rod and the needle mounted on the shaft of a drive motor pulse sensor 23. At the moment of contact of the probe of the leather (Fig.3) is received from the sensor pulses 23, mounted on the shaft of a drive motor 10, since the start-up drive motor in the measurement mode until the sensor small movements 15 touch probe 14 leather and converts the number of pulses in the thickness of hair by the formula

hRR=K1nRR,

where hRR- thickness scalp;

K1- the conversion factor of the pulses in thickness;

nRR- the number of pulses in the measurement of thickness of hair.

The thickness of hair is displayed on the display panel. Further movement of the platform causes puncturing the leather needle 16, and the needle affects the sensor measuring the force of 17 fixed on a movable platform. The puncture force is fixed by the second channel measurement unit 21 and is displayed on the display panel 22. At the moment of puncture the leather needle 16 touches a metal object stage 2, which leads to the closure of the electric circuit to stop the drive of the engine 10, the fixing of the values of the movable platform pulses 23. The measurement unit 22 counts the number of pulses from the sensor 23 since the sensor small pricescope signal when the electrical circuit between the tip of the subject table and converts this information into a value of the thickness of the leather by the formula:

hCT=K2nCT,

where hkgthe thickness of the leather;

TO2- the conversion factor of the pulses in thickness;

nCT- the number of pulses in the measurement of the thickness of the leather.

The value of the thickness of the leather is displayed on the display panel. After this happens automatically return the movable platform at the top at the initial position by means of a spring 11 (Fig.1, 2).

To measure the length of the hair and the angle of the hair sample table 2 turn 90oby means of the screw 4 and the skin is put on the object table, achieving a vertical arrangement of the hair (Fig.4). Further measurements were carried out in a similar way. Unit of measure counts the pulses and converts them into lengths of hair by the formula:

L=K3nL,

where L is the length of the hair.

TO3- the conversion factor of the pulses in length;

nL- the number of pulses in the measurement of length of hair.

Calculate the angle of the hair by the formula:

< / BR>
where sin is the sine of the angle of the hair to the surface of the leather;

h - thickness scalp;

L is the length of hair.

On the proposed device is conducted and the CSOs Fox and muskrat (PL.1, 2).

As can be seen from the tables, sort and indicators geometrical characteristics of hair related: the greater the angle, the length and thickness of hair, the higher the quality of the skin, i.e. the grade. Trials allow you to identify the difference in the properties of the topographic plots skins and differences in the characteristics between the skins. Evaluation of geometric characteristics on the proposed device allows you to set the sort that sometimes does not coincide with the data of the first sort. Subsequent sorting, as a rule, show differences in the skin to a greater extent and, as can be seen from the table, more coincide with the quantitative evaluation of the device.

Thus, the proposed device allows to increase the accuracy of evaluation of geometric characteristics, to obtain a set of indicators and to speed up the measurement process.

1. Device for non-destructive evaluation of geometric characteristics of pile materials, mainly natural fur, and determine the efforts of the puncture needle, comprising mounted in the same housing coaxially movable platform with means of measuring the thickness of the fur and leather, with a support for fixing the material, the subject is retelny node, characterized in that the means of thickness measurements made in the form of a spring-loaded probe with a rounded end and a removable needle communicating respectively with the small sensor displacement sensor measuring the force and located in a line along the object stage, performed can be rotated 90oon external support, and the measuring unit is designed in the form of a pulse sensor, located on the shaft of a drive motor, measurement unit and the panel display.

2. The device under item 1, characterized in that the bearing for the fixation material made in the form of spring-loaded racks located on lines parallel to the line location of the needle and the probe.

3. The device under item 1, characterized in that the movable platform is configured to return to its original position due to the connection with a cylindrical spring and kinematically connected with the engine.

4. The device under item 1, characterized in that as a site for fixing the beginning of the measurement using slit light source, located in line with the measuring means.

 

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