Device for non-destructive evaluation of geometric characteristics of pile materials, mainly natural fur, and determine the efforts of the puncture needle
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the textile industry and can be used to estimate properties of pile materials. The device includes mounted in the same housing coaxially movable platform with means of measuring the thickness of the fur and leather, with a support for fixing a material object table with the possibility of electrical contact with the measuring means, the node to start fixing the beginning of the measurement, the measuring node. Means of thickness measurements made in the form of a spring-loaded probe with a rounded end and a removable needle communicating respectively with the small sensor displacement sensor measuring the force and located in a line along the object stage. Table is made to rotate 90oon external support. The measuring unit is designed in the form of a pulse sensor, located on the shaft of a drive motor, measurement unit and the display panel. This device has a high accuracy and faster measurement process. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il, 2 tab. The invention relates to textile, fur industry, can be used in evaluating the properties of worse Britanie allows you to measure geometric features fleecy materials with straight and angled pile (hair cover) without damage and to speed up the process of evaluation of geometric characteristics, to obtain objective data of the thickness of the pile (hairline) and soil (leather) materials.For the prototype device taken the device for measurement of thickness of pile carpets according to the article: J. Lappage, J. Bedford, D. Crook. "The WRONZ carpet pile thickness gauge" J. Text. Inst., 1984, N 3, p.229-234 (copy attached). The known device for determining the thickness of the pile of the carpet contains a movable platform in the form of an aluminum disk with holes drilled to reduce weight. The platform is attached to the upper clamp of the Instron Tensile Tester. On the platform symmetrically around the circumference are measurement tools in the form of a six-needle-probes having a tip in the form of a cone with angle sharpening 75oand rounded tip. Length from base to tip 0,31 mm, the diameter of the needle-probe at the base of the cone of 0.50 mm, the sample is placed on the object table, consisting of a block of polystyrene, wrapped with aluminum foil, and located under the movable platform on the siloizmeritel Instron Tensile Tester. For fixing a carpet on the stage is used the Central support in the form of a brass disk (d=20 mm) attached to the shaft, moving in miscorrection bearings located on a movable platform and creating pressure on the pile of the carpet 20 g/cm and measure its height relative to the tips of the needle-probes. The measuring unit is designed in the form of a chart device that secures the chart moving platform and the force of the impact of needle-probes siloizmeritel. The height of the pile and soil the carpet is determined by the amount of movement chart paper on which are fixed the beginning of the measurement, the time of perforation of the pile and soil the carpet, which is determined by the change effort, recorded on the chart.The prototype has several disadvantages. The known device gives the error in the measurement of the thickness of the pile and soil associated with the incorrect definition of the moments of the beginning and end of measurement of thickness of pile, soil the carpet. The initial measurement of the thickness of the Mat is determined by a dial meter with pressure support of 20 g/cm2. However, the pressure bearing changes the thickness of the pile in varying degrees depending on its hardness and elasticity, which leads to the variation of the true thickness of the pile and gives inaccurate fixation of the measurement of the thickness of the pile. The completion of the measurement of the thickness of the pile is determined on the chart to increase efforts with which the needle is fixed in the soil the carpet. However, the effort depends on the type and properties of the pile, the nature of the weave in the soil, its density, which affects the accuracy of fixing isogo material, the object stage, the insulating strip located on the siloizmeritel, which leads to the inertia load of the system and therefore inaccurate fixation beginning and end of the measurement. On the device it is impossible to determine the geometrical characteristics of skins natural fur shot "tube" or "stocking", due to the design of the object stage, requiring cutting skins and bring them in spread view that further restricts their use. The known device due to the pressure support does not provide an assessment of the thickness of the pile in its natural state, which is especially important for materials with texture and a sloping pile. The use of the six needle-probes averages the measurement of the thickness of the pile and is not possible to evaluate the variations of the thickness of the pile for materials with textured or uneven thickness of the pile, for example fur. The known device enables you to define the part geometry properties for materials with a sloping pile: the thickness of the pile and soil, and does not measure the performance of the angle and length of the pile. Assessment of the thickness of the pile and soil on the chart recording efforts and moving platforms long.The technical result of the claimed invention is nersac sorting and quality assessment with a high level of accuracy and objectivity determine the thickness of the hair layer by measuring in its natural state without pressure, due to the exclusion of averaging the data of the thickness of the hair while identifying additional characteristics length hair, angle for materials with a sloped hair, high precision measurement of the thickness of the leather and hair due to the precise location of the beginning and end of the measurement of the thickness of the fur and leather, as well as with the accelerated process of measurement by removing the thickness data directly from the panel display.This technical result is achieved by the fact that the proposed device has been mounted in the same housing coaxially movable platform with means of measuring the thickness of the fur and leather, with a support for fixing a material object table with the possibility of electrical contact with the measuring means; the fixing unit to start the measurement, the measuring node.Significant differences of the claimed device is that the means for thickness measurements made in the form of a spring-loaded probe with a rounded end and a removable needle communicating respectively with the small sensor displacement sensor measuring the force and located in a line along predent in the form of pulses, located on the shaft of a drive motor, measurement unit and the display panel. Support for fixation material made in the form of spring-loaded racks located on lines parallel to the line location of the needle and the probe. The movable platform is configured to return to its original position due to the connection with a cylindrical spring and kinematically connected with the engine. As a hub for fixing the beginning of the measurement using slit light source, located in line with the measuring means.Currently, the evaluation of the properties of the fur fur is out of line and the main indicator of quality skins - grade is assigned on a descriptive characteristic of hair. For example, for fur blue Fox GOST 7179-70. "Fox pelts tanned. Technical conditions" (copy attached) are 2 varieties on descriptive characteristics of hair. This subjective assessment leads to confusions, makes it difficult to assess quality and a set of skins for the product and, ultimately, leads to marriage in the finished product. To obtain uniform properties flocks (packs) required multiple sorting. Earlier attempts were made live in the NCI thickness of the fur fur in Ganzow W. K. To estimate the thickness of the hair of the fur. - COP. -1976. - 5. - S. 30-31 (copy attached). It is shown that the thickness of the hair is a quantitative characteristic of the condition of the hair and can be used to define a variety of skins. Tests on the thickness Hanzawa W. K. give good results allow a more clear line dividing the skins on varieties for measuring the thickness of hair. However, the proposed thickness gauge defines only one characteristic is the thickness of hair, and the measurements are performed at a pressure on the hair, which is somewhat distorts the actual thickness of hair, there is no assessment of the thickness of the leather.The proposed device provides the possibility of simultaneous determination of the set of indicators geometrical and mechanical properties of the hair and the leather fur: thick hair, hair length, angle, thickness of the leather and the force of the puncture needle. The information obtained about the properties of the fur can be used for quality assessment (establishing varieties), sorting of skins for homogeneity hairline, research and certification assessment.Razma, which varies 5-110 mm Table made of conductive material such as metal to provide electrical contact with the needle during puncture the leather. Table a length of 150 mm and a width of 60 mm provides easy positioning of the skins of different ways of removal without overhangs hair in the working area. The thickness of the table 10 mm provides a "split" of the hair when measuring the length of the hair and at the same time allows to achieve a stable position of the probe and the needle during such measurements. The ability to rotate the table by screw provides a measurement of the length of hair. The length of the outriggers is not less than 0.5 m, as it provides donning the skins from the rump up to the neck when testing natural fur "tube" or "stocking". Pinch hours, providing fixation of the sample fur on the stage, made in the form of hollow tubes with a diameter of 7 mm and are located at the edges of the platform so that the distance between the two enclosures were not smaller than the maximum length hair (120 mm) to prevent hair under two hours at a time. Location racks across the width of the platform symmetrically. As a means of measuring the thickness using the probe and needle. The needle is made removable for C the symbolic rod of 2 mm diameter with a rounded tip to avoid puncture of the leather during operation. The diameter of the probe is not more than 2 mm to reduce falling hair under the probe. The distance between the probe and the needle is determined by the dimensions of the sensors and is 10 mm Needle, a probe, a light source and the screen are on the same line along the object stage for fixing the measurement of the thickness of hair.In Fig. 1, figs.2 presents a schematic of the device, a front view and left side view, respectively. In Fig.3 shows a mobile platform with means of measurement: the needle and the probe associated with siloizmeritelem and sensor movements, respectively, pinch hours and subject table and placed on it's fur. In Fig.4 shows a variant of the device for measuring the length of the hair and the angle of the hair when you rotate the table 90o.Device for measuring the geometrical characteristics of pile materials and fur 1 (Fig.1, 2) contains a metal material table 2, connected with external support 3 by means of the screw 4, the movable platform 5, moving on two rails 6 by means of a toothed belt 7, thrown over the pulleys 8 and 9. The pulley 9 is rotated by a drive motor 10. A cylindrical spring 11 is attached at one end to the housing 12, the other to the movable platfoi on the movement sensor 15, the needle 16 that is associated with siloizmeritelem 17. The moving platform is connected to the light source 18 and the orifice 19, the beam from the light source passing through the aperture gets on the screen 20. On the body of the instrument is the measurement unit 21 and the display panel 22, on the shaft of a drive motor impulse sensor 23 (Fig.1, 2.).The device operates as follows: on the stage 2 place the sample fur 1 shot "tube" or spread, for example fur Fox, sample fur spread to the disappearance of creases and wrinkles in the leather and fix spring-loaded struts 13 of the movable platform 5. In the preparatory mode by using the drive motor 10 mobile platform with a light source 17 with a slit aperture 18, with the probe 14 and needle 16 is moved to align on a white screen 19 the shadow of the tip of the probe and needle with the beginning of the shade of hair fur. After combining the tips of the needle and probe with the hair starts in measurement mode - the platform is lowered along the guide rails 6. The measurement unit 21 continuously records the moving platform, rod and the needle mounted on the shaft of a drive motor pulse sensor 23. At the moment of contact of the probe of the leather (Fig.3) is received from the sensor pulses 23, mounted on the shaft of a drive motor 10, since the start-up drive motor in the measurement mode until the sensor small movements 15 touch probe 14 leather and converts the number of pulses in the thickness of hair by the formula
where hRR- thickness scalp;
K1- the conversion factor of the pulses in thickness;
nRR- the number of pulses in the measurement of thickness of hair.The thickness of hair is displayed on the display panel. Further movement of the platform causes puncturing the leather needle 16, and the needle affects the sensor measuring the force of 17 fixed on a movable platform. The puncture force is fixed by the second channel measurement unit 21 and is displayed on the display panel 22. At the moment of puncture the leather needle 16 touches a metal object stage 2, which leads to the closure of the electric circuit to stop the drive of the engine 10, the fixing of the values of the movable platform pulses 23. The measurement unit 22 counts the number of pulses from the sensor 23 since the sensor small pricescope signal when the electrical circuit between the tip of the subject table and converts this information into a value of the thickness of the leather by the formula:
where hkgthe thickness of the leather;
TO2- the conversion factor of the pulses in thickness;
nCT- the number of pulses in the measurement of the thickness of the leather.The value of the thickness of the leather is displayed on the display panel. After this happens automatically return the movable platform at the top at the initial position by means of a spring 11 (Fig.1, 2).To measure the length of the hair and the angle of the hair sample table 2 turn 90oby means of the screw 4 and the skin is put on the object table, achieving a vertical arrangement of the hair (Fig.4). Further measurements were carried out in a similar way. Unit of measure counts the pulses and converts them into lengths of hair by the formula:
where L is the length of the hair.
TO3- the conversion factor of the pulses in length;
nL- the number of pulses in the measurement of length of hair.Calculate the angle of the hair by the formula:
< / BR>where sin is the sine of the angle of the hair to the surface of the leather;
h - thickness scalp;
L is the length of hair.On the proposed device is conducted and the CSOs Fox and muskrat (PL.1, 2).As can be seen from the tables, sort and indicators geometrical characteristics of hair related: the greater the angle, the length and thickness of hair, the higher the quality of the skin, i.e. the grade. Trials allow you to identify the difference in the properties of the topographic plots skins and differences in the characteristics between the skins. Evaluation of geometric characteristics on the proposed device allows you to set the sort that sometimes does not coincide with the data of the first sort. Subsequent sorting, as a rule, show differences in the skin to a greater extent and, as can be seen from the table, more coincide with the quantitative evaluation of the device.Thus, the proposed device allows to increase the accuracy of evaluation of geometric characteristics, to obtain a set of indicators and to speed up the measurement process. 1. Device for non-destructive evaluation of geometric characteristics of pile materials, mainly natural fur, and determine the efforts of the puncture needle, comprising mounted in the same housing coaxially movable platform with means of measuring the thickness of the fur and leather, with a support for fixing the material, the subject is retelny node, characterized in that the means of thickness measurements made in the form of a spring-loaded probe with a rounded end and a removable needle communicating respectively with the small sensor displacement sensor measuring the force and located in a line along the object stage, performed can be rotated 90oon external support, and the measuring unit is designed in the form of a pulse sensor, located on the shaft of a drive motor, measurement unit and the panel display.2. The device under item 1, characterized in that the bearing for the fixation material made in the form of spring-loaded racks located on lines parallel to the line location of the needle and the probe.3. The device under item 1, characterized in that the movable platform is configured to return to its original position due to the connection with a cylindrical spring and kinematically connected with the engine.4. The device under item 1, characterized in that as a site for fixing the beginning of the measurement using slit light source, located in line with the measuring means.
FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.
SUBSTANCE: method involves providing testing on parallel groups of fur sheepskin after pickling on three topographic portions of sheep skin surface: skirt, spine and neck portions; processing samples of each group with acid-salt solution for 24 hours; withdrawing sheepskins of each group from acid-salt solution in predetermined time intervals; removing excessive liquid; placing said samples into tensile testing machine and stretching lengthwise of spine line by 40% relative to initial length thereof; holding samples in stretched state for 1 min and withdrawing from tensile-testing machine; leaving samples in free state for 10 min; determining residual elongation value in mm.
EFFECT: reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.
2 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: fur industry, in particular, method for evaluating pickling quality of leather web in tanning of fur and sheepskin raw material.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining quantitative pickling characteristic of leather web of semi-finished product by using time of solving thereof in alkaline solutions, said time depending on number and kind of intermolecular bindings destructed during pickling. Solving of collagen in alkaline solutions depends upon nature of preliminary acidic preparing procedure. Solving is provided in aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide having concentration of 150 g/l and temperature of 18-20 C. Derma solving time is found after preliminary thermal processing at temperature of 60-65 C during 1.5 hours. Method may be employed both in production of fur and sheepskin products and in fur processing.
EFFECT: wider operational capabilities and reduced time for determining quantitative pickling characteristic of skin web.
1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: methods and devices for determination of an alcohol concentration in solutions.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents a method of determination of an alcohol concentration in solutions (versions) and a device for its realization (versions). The first version of the method provides for placement of a bath with the reference and investigated solutions on the path of the optical beam, measuring and introduction into the memory of the computation unit of intensity of the light absorption by the reference solutions, measuring of the intensity of the light absorption of radiation of the investigated solution, processing the data of the measurements of the light absorption. The investigated solution is transilluminated within the range of the wavelengths of 1250-1350 nanometers. Simultaneously with the measurement of the light absorption by the investigated solution measure the concentration of alcohol in it. In compliance with the received values determine a concentration of alcohol in the investigated solution. The second version of the method provides for placement of a bath with the reference solutions and investigated solutions on the path of the optical beam, measurement and introduction into the memory of the calculation device of intensity of the light absorption of radiation by the investigated solution, processing of the received values of the measurements of the light absorption. The investigated solution is transilluminated within the range of the wavelengths of 1250-1350 nanometers, measure the values of density of the reference solutions and the investigated solution, using which determine the concentrations of alcohol and sugar in the investigated solution. The device for the first version contains a computation unit, a conjunction unit, optically coupled a radiating unit, a bath for solution, a measuring photoreceiving device, the output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit and the input of which is optically connected through the bath with the radiating unit. The device for measurement of a concentration of sugar in a solution consists of a beam splitter plate and an additional photoreceiving device, the output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit. The input of which is optically connected through the beam splitter plate mounted at Brewster's angle to a axis of radiation and the bath with by a radiation unit. And the radiation unit has the wavelength of radiation laying within the range of 1250-1350 nanometers. The device for determination of a concentration of alcohol in the solutions consists of the computation unit, the conjugation unit, the optically connected radiation unit, the bath for solution, the measuring photoreceiving device, output of which is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit, the density gage connected with the bath by means of the pipe duct. The output of the density gage is connected through the conjugation unit with the computation unit. The radiation unit has the wavelength of radiation laying within the range from 1250 to 1350 nanometers. The invention allows to improve accuracy of measurements.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an improved accuracy of measurements.
12 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, dairy farming.
SUBSTANCE: method involves determining tightening of teat cup liner before it is inserted into teat cup; acting upon teat cup liner by suspending weight for determining tightening of teat cup liner; providing expansion by introducing internal gauge into teat cup liner which is positioned within teat cup casing. Method allows extent of teat cup liner tightening to be visually detected at any time of machine milking process. Tightening of teat cup liner manufactured integral with milk pipe as well as separately therefrom is determined during operation of milking units.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and reduced milking time.
FIELD: technologies for researching durability properties of packing washer materials for collapsible oil pipelines.
SUBSTANCE: in the method for determining remaining resource of rubber compacting curves utilized in oil pipeline junctions, preparation of samples of given geometrical shape is performed, measurement of source hardness conditions for stretching, relative elongation during tearing, Shore hardness, temperature fragility limit, comparison of aforementioned values to given values, culling of washers, sample coefficients of which do not correspond to given values. Remaining samples are exposed to oil product after extraction from oil product samples are thermostatted, cooled down to normal room temperature, and then the same physical-mechanical coefficients are measured again with limit values. Before preparation of samples with given geometrical shape, washers are organized in batches of same manufacturing plant and production year, additionally measured are external d1 and internal d2 washer diameters for each batch, relative compression Ecp deformation of same washers. Their deviation from standard is calculated and culling of aforementioned washer batches is performed on basis of allowed values Δd1, Δd2 and Ecp, while as allowed values Δd1, Δd2 ≤ 3%; 25% ≤ Ecp ≤ 70%. After that remaining rings with least values of relative compression deformation Ecp are utilized to prepare geometrical samples of given geometrical shape. Remaining resource ΔT is determined from following formula: years, where ki - coefficient, characterizing alteration of remaining resource ΔT dependently on climatic zone input of operation of rubber packing washers, is taken as i - climatic zones I1 - II12, additional information, T - average lifetime of rubber packing washers until removal from operation in accordance to technological characteristics provided by manufacturing plant and/or operation instructions, in years, Tn - period of operation of rubber packing washers since production year - marking of manufacturing plant, until moment of determining ΔT, years, fpδ=9,4 MPa - minimally allowed value of conditional hardness for stretching after thermostatting of sample, MPa.
EFFECT: reliable trustworthiness of results of estimation of remaining resource under dynamic conditions of rubber packing washers in oil pipeline junctions with simultaneous increase of ecological safety due to decreased risk of emergency spilling of oil products.
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises preparing specimens of polymeric materials of specified mass, exposing the specimens to the hostile fluid at a given temperature, and determining informative characteristic from a formula proposed.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
2 dwg, 7 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: weighing equipment; chemical mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method can be used for measuring content of binder in reel-up composite material produced by preliminary soaked thread. Method is based upon weighing. The constant values are determined according to the method as length of thread for specific type of items and value of linear density averaged for any reel before and after soaking by binder and reeling it up onto frame. Weighing is performed for item before reeling it up with soaked thread and after reeling-up and final polymerization of composite material to determine mass of composite. Basing upon the data received, content of thread is determined which value is subsequently used for finding mass content of binder in composite from relation of C=(M-LxT/M)x100%, where C is content of binder in composite, in mass percent; M is mass of composite, g; L is length of thread consumed for item, km; T is average arithmetic meaning of values of linear density of thread and its rests at any reel before and after impregnation, g/km.
EFFECT: higher stability of performance measures.
FIELD: light industry.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises recording response of the material to be tested that represents an amplitude-frequency characteristic, calculating deformation characteristics, and determining the value of distributed mass of the vibrating part of the material. The response representing two amplitude-frequency characteristics is recorded for the same part of the material to be tested for various masses of two bodies that cause deformation. The deformation characteristics are calculated from equations of vibration theory for viscoelastic bodies.
EFFECT: enhanced precision and reliability.
FIELD: investigating or analyzing of materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises investigating threshold capabilities of the multi-layer polymeric material and determining maximum permeability of oil product and time period required for reaching the maximum permeability.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: investigating or analyzing of materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises preliminary conditioning of rubber specimens in paraffin hydrocarbon with 12-16 atoms of carbon in the atmosphere of neutral gas and in the fuel to be tested at a temperature of 130-150°C for 3-5 hours.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
1 dwg, 2 tbl, 1 ex