The protection device intakes from falling sludge
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to a device for producing or collecting water from surface water sources to protect water intakes from contact with sludge. Device to protect the intake from getting sludge volume contains the filter cartridge, which is a metal rectangular contour frame with grooves on the inner side, in which is tightly fitted permeable filter plastic pipe. The frame is installed in the guide groove design input Windows flooded intake end of the intake. Permeable filter plastic pipes can be placed in bulk filter cartridge vertically. Improved protection of water intakes from contact with sludge. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il. The invention relates to a device for obtaining or collecting drinking water or tap water from ground (surface) water, can be used in the field of hydraulic engineering construction, and is intended for process (water supply) and technical (pump and other equipment) protection of water intake from falling sludge.Requirements for drinking water quality from year to year steadily rastsenky the growth of industrial production worldwide, the increasing capacity of modern power plants, the needs of agriculture requires all high cost of supply.The withdrawal of water from surface sources is fraught with difficulties. Many of the existing problems are widely discussed in the literature: it was published many monographs, work intake was included in textbooks for students in related disciplines, reference manuals for professionals, regulatory documents for designing and so on. To mention here about all the problems too, but one of the main1threaten the normal operation of water intakes so clearly that considerable efforts of scientific and design organizations, operational services aimed at its solution. This threat is the presence in the water flow of the sludge.For operating intake problem moving in the flow of sludge is very serious. Sludge clogs the protective grid of water getting into the pump station, leads to failure of the equipment.It all makes of professionals from various sectors of industries and organizations to combine their efforts and technically sovershenstvovat next.Flooded tip is placed in the water where there is a depth that provides the abstraction of water at any time of year in any weather conditions.Submerged end of intake is concrete, sometimes ragavoy, the structure having a configuration that makes it possible to minimize energy loss flow friction and its interaction with the flooded end of the water intake. Building flooded end of the intake is equipped with input Windows with square cross-section, providing specified costs of water abstraction. Through the input window flooded end of the intake water is piped to the pumps of the pumping station intake. Near the flooded end of intake is formed a capture zone - the area from which there is direct power flooded end of the water intake. The dimensions are determined by the flow of water through the input window.For large values of the averaged longitudinal component of the velocity of the sludge is caught by the stream and is delayed in the input window. To avoid this, the input window include the installation of metal trash grates.The effect of the application of such devices is minimal: the sludge premarket the metal rods Soro">To reduce approach speeds at which it is possible to ensure the ascent of sludge and methods of flow control on the way down to the tip of the intake to take her, provide for the reduction of the longitudinal component of the velocity, however, with large accumulations of sludge, it may not always be effective. To change this situation, the input window install a special filter system, however, the imperfection of their structures is also not a solution. If the design of the mechanical filter provides as a filtering material, the use of metal (usually steel) products - items that have a large amount of conductivity - sludge, provided that the temperature of the metal products has passed through zero Celsius and took negative values, starts to stick to the metal parts and smartarse metal product.The way to prevent primerzanie sludge metal products monotonous increase of the approach of the front, the reverse pulse wash, heated metal elements, application of polymer (hydrophobic) coating which is less than the metal elements teploprovodnost these two methods are costly, and finding ways to reduce the cost of filters, and the work associated with its operation, is still actively continue, not only in the form of discussions on the pages of magazines.The basis for the industrial implementation of water filters sposibaniki are extended experimental investigations, primarily in the laboratory, and then transferring to the nature.New types of filters, intakes, if they are approved, meet the requirements of inventive step, novelty and industrial applicability.The applicant is aware of the following analogs.Known protection device of water withdrawal from contact with sludge, consisting of a water-permeable filter tubes placed in a water bucket in front of the recipient, and is connected to a compressor installation with air supply and creation before receiving water air / water veil (SU 1086063 And research Institute of water supply, Sewerage, waterworks and engineering hydrogeology, 15.12.1983, E 02 In 15/02).The disadvantages of this device is that it, firstly, does not provide removal of sludge from water, and secondly, the costs of operation of the device one located inside the drain pipe and pipe stream tangentially arranged nozzles flushing sludge (EN 2067144 C1, VNIIG them. B. E. Vedeneev, 27.09.1996, E 03 In 3/00).The disadvantage of this device is that it does not provide a reliable output of sludge, and the work of the unit is in emergency mode.Known protection device of water withdrawal from contact with sludge, equipped with a transfer pump, main water pipe, two parallel water pipes located inside the main pipe, a regulating shutter installed between the end of the pipe and pump. (US 5253954, Landsberger Samuel E., 19.10.1993. E 03 IN 3/04).The disadvantage of high operating costs.Known protection device intakes from falling sludge made at the bottom of a lake or river in the form of a water-permeable filter roofs with an area exceeding the cross-section of the inlet pipe, which provides a low absorption rate, and this is the main condition for the emergence of sludge (FR 2562580, Jenker Wolfgang R. , Christie, Alan E. et Emad Elsayed, E. M., 10.04.1985, E 03 B 3/04).The disadvantages of this device is that the water-permeable filter the roof is made of metal, and sludge, Primera to permeable filter the roof blocks the access of water to the pumping station.Known protection device in the relevant holes (US 3992886, Scott Robert A., 23.11.1976, E 02 In 13/00).The disadvantage of this device is that it does not protect the intake from being hit by the sludge high flow water usage.Known protection device of water withdrawal from contact with sludge, consisting of located at the bottom of the watercourse complex system of filters provides consistent filtration of water before supply to the pump station (EN 2124610 C1, Institute of water supply, Sewerage, waterworks and engineering hydrogeology, 10.01.1999, E 03 B 3/04).Disadvantages counterpart is that the device quickly becomes clogged with sludge and sediment.Of particular interest from foreign patents are not only water, but also devices for enclosing the upper part of the flow and retention of the sludge. Such devices are known to very many, but they all are similar, and it would be wrong to list all their types. A significant part of the patent was issued in the United States, France, and Germany. Here is an example of the most typical devices. These devices, in particular, invented in England and France.Known protection device intakes from falling sludge containing successively United Bons Oh, across the stream, and retaining floating on the surface of the ice (GB 2007747 A, Shuffman D K., May 23, 1979, E 02 In 3/00).The disadvantages of this device is that it does not protect the intake from getting sludge, floating in the depths of the stream.Known protection device of water withdrawal from contact with sludge, representing held on the surface of water by means of floats light vertically located sail-like design (US 4398844, Institut Francais du Petrol, Aug. 16, 1983, E 02 B 15/04).The disadvantages of this device is that it only delays the ice floating on the surface of the stream, but does not protect the intake from the sludge.Currently patented dozens of ways and devices of protection of water intakes from falling sludge.The closest to the invention by the combination of essential features is the protection device intakes from falling sludge containing large filter cartridge comprising fixed in a metal rectangular contour frame with grooves on the inner side of the reinforced concrete slab. Surround the filter cartridge is installed in the guide groove design vhodni in pumping station (Obrazovky A. C. , Erenow N. In., Resnov C. N., Kazan M. A. water Intake for water supply from surface sources, stroiizdat, 1976. With 368), (210 C.).The disadvantages of the prototype is that the device, first, easily clogged with sludge, secondly, unreliable in operation (when using the reverse pulse wash easily destroyed in the weakest places with holes), thirdly, it is extremely difficult to manufacture, fourth, has a large weight in running order.Described the essential features of the claimed invention distinguish it from the closest analogue, as used in the invention means providing a new technical result.The technical result is that the quality increases protection of water intake from falling sludge through the use of bulk filter cartridge into the filter material of plastics having a higher heat capacity and lower thermal conductivity than the claydite-concrete, which creates conditions less primerzanie sludge to surround the filter cassette.Specific heat - the ratio of the summed amount of heat to higher temperatures is s technical materials are very different, but, as a rule, higher metal products, and ranges from 1, most of ~ 1.5 to 2 kJ/(KGC). Steel and cast iron, for example, depending on the brand are the heat capacity (at normal temperature)...at 0.42 0.54 kJ/(KGC). The claydite-concrete - 0,84 kJ/(KGC). Thus, the heat capacity of plastic above the woodwork and much higher of metal products.thermal conductivity of molecular heat transfer (heat transfer) in a continuous medium, due to the presence of the temperature gradient, so different that her comment here is absolutely no place. thermal conductivity of steel varies from 10 to 110 W/(MK) or higher. That is, even in steels "low" thermal conductivity she still significantly (where important centi-degrees - in the formation of water crystals) is higher than, for example, expanded clay, concrete conductivity which is at a temperature of 25oWith 1.3...1.6 W/(MK), depending on armirovannoj. When this plastic masses have a thermal conductivity of 0.04. ..0,1, rarely - 0.2 W/(MK). Thus, thermal conductivity of plastics is much lower than thermal conductivity of claydite-concrete and many times lower thermal conductivity of metals.Therefore, the use of plastics as the filter material is of isobutane; especially do not use different kinds of metals.Maintaining a high filtration velocity, providing specified expenses water withdrawals from surface sources, it is impossible without pore volume of the filter cassettes were not free from scoring their frozen sludge. The technical result is that increases operational reliability due to the use of more durable material volume of the filter cassettes, easier manufacturing technology, as well as decreases the volumetric weight of the filter cassettes.The essence of the invention consists in the following.Volume of the filter cartridge 1 is a metal rectangular contour frame 2 with grooves on the inside 3. In a metal rectangular contour frame 2 in grooves on the inner side 3 is tightly fitted permeable filter plastic pipe 4. The material of which is made permeable filter plastic pipes 4 are plastic, strong enough not to break during installation and operation of the volume of the filtration cassette. Permeable filter plastmassa is the means for further processing. Metal rectangular contour frame 2 into the slots on the inner side 3 of which firmly establish permeable filter plastic pipe 4, is made from durable metal. Permeable filter plastic pipe 4 can be accommodated in bulk filter cartridge 1 vertically or horizontally in one row or several rows. Surround the filter cartridge 1 equip on land, and then plasticrete, for example from a barge, dipped under the water and set in the guide groove design 5 input boxes 6 flooded intake end of the intake 7. The guide groove design 5 input boxes 6 flooded intake end of the intake 7 are made of metal and mounted in place of the input window 6 flooded intake end of the intake 7 flooded during the construction of the water intake end of the intake 7.Description of the invention contains four figures of the drawings. In Fig.1 presents a General view of the volume of the filter cartridge 1 is loaded, and Fig.2 shows the flooded water-intake end of the intake 7 is inserted into the guide groove design 5 entrance window 6 volume filter cartridge 1 of Fig. 3, 4 - procedure isThe device contains a volume of the filter cartridge 1, consisting of a metal rectangular contour frame 2 with grooves on the inner side 3, which is tightly fitted permeable filter plastic pipe 4. Volume of the filter cartridge 1 is placed in the guide groove design 5 entrance window 6 flooded intake end of the intake 7.The device is implemented in multiple instances of industrial samples.It has the following weight and dimensions.The volumetric weight of the filter cartridge loaded from 100 to 500 kg.Dimensions: height up to 2000 mm; length up to 2000 mm, width up to 500 mmThe device operates as follows.After the installation volume of the filter cartridge 1 into the guide groove design 5 entrance window 6 flooded intake end of the intake 7 the device is ready to work. The water enters the pump station intake structure through the entrance window 6 flooded intake end of the intake 7 and passing through the volume of the filter cartridge 1, is filtered. When filtering water is its clearance from the sludge.what is for receiving the input boxes 6 flooded intake end of the intake 7 and approaching surround filter cartridge 1, begins to pass through it. Filtration features surround the filter cartridge 1 such that the sludge, lingering, does not penetrate into the flooded water intake end of the intake 7. The sludge accumulates in front surround filter cartridge 1, but not premarket to permeable filter plastic pipe 4, as shown in numerous experiments, freezing sludge occurs with a high thermal conductivity material, which plastic masses do not possess. Accumulated before the bulk of the filtration cassette sludge methods reverse pulse washing, or using other methods, distilled in the area of transit, ensuring free access of water to the input window 6 flooded intake end of the intake 7.Thus, the invention allows to take water from surface water sources and, unlike many existing devices and methods to protect water from getting sludge. 1. Device to protect the intake from getting sludge containing large filter cartridge into the guide groove design input window flooded the receiving end vadose who eat that metal rectangular contour frame into the slots on the inner side of the tightly fitted permeable filter plastic pipe.2. The device under item 1, characterized in that the metal rectangular contour frame into the slots on the inner side of the permeable filter plastic pipe installed vertically.3. The device under item 1, characterized in that the metal rectangular contour frame into the slots on the inner side of the permeable filter plastic pipe installed horizontally.4. The device under item 1, characterized in that the metal rectangular contour frame into the slots on the inner side of the tightly fitted permeable filter plastic pipes in several rows.
FIELD: hydraulic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to devices for taking water from surface sources and it is designed to provide protection of diversion facilities from slush ice. Proposed device contains three-dimensional filtering cassettes installed in guide of slot structure of intake port of submerged water intake head of diversion facility consisting of metal rectangular frame with filtering plastic tubes tightly fitted in slots on inner side. Plastic tubes are made truncated along their generatrices on secant line of base of corresponding filtering plastic tube. Chord of secant line of base of filtering plastic tubes is either equal to or non- equal to outer diameter of tubes, and dimensions of metal rectangular frame are multiple of said chord. Truncated filtering plastic tubes can be installed in metal rectangular frame in slots on inner side, either vertically or horizontally, being interconnected by hydraulic insulating material.
EFFECT: provision of effecting protection of diversion facilities from slush ice.
4 cl, 2 dwg