Catalyst carrier and method of using it

 

(57) Abstract:

The carrier of the catalyst for conversion of hydrocarbons containing a frame having an inlet for fluid, an outlet opening for the liquid and the surface of the clutch that is designed to catch a porous monolithic structure, and a porous monolithic structure having first located upstream end, a second located downstream end, and a grip surface, and to provide an essentially impermeable to fluid sealing adhesion with the sealing force applied to the monolithic structure located on its upstream end, resulting in a pressure in excess of and, in fact, proportional pressure differential located between the upstream and downstream along the flow of the ends thereof, preferably the sealing force contains the current pressure fluid flow component(s) of the reaction or the environment(environments), a method of catalytic conversion of a liquid medium at elevated flow rate, temperature and pressure by contact with a catalyst on the catalyst carrier and the products of catalytic conversion. The technical result - the media rolled onality structure without interfering with the process. 2 C. and 8 C.p. f-crystals, 5 Il.

This invention relates to a catalyst carrier and method of using it, in particular the carrier catalyst containing a porous monolithic structure, which is adapted for fastening to the frame, and a method of catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons at elevated flow rate, temperature and pressure using a catalyst carrier, and more particularly to a method of catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbons.

How catalytic conversion using monolithic catalysts or structures of the carrier of the catalyst for conversion of hydrocarbons in axial flow require adaptations to accommodate the catalyst or catalyst carrier within the stream of hydrocarbons. Usually this method of placement shall not interfere with or adversely affect the process.

For the execution of processes at elevated flow rate, temperature and pressure, and especially with noticeable pressure drop across the catalyst or catalyst carrier, these requirements become more complex. It is obvious that there must be invented this form of fastening which could oppose the undesired deviation of flow or the like.

Published European patent application 0656317 (EP-A-0656317) describes a method of catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbons where the hydrocarbon is mixed with oxygen-containing gas is brought into contact with the catalyst. The catalyst is held in a fixed device having a high tortuosity (defined as the ratio of the length of the path passable gas flowing through the structure, the length of the shortest possible straight line path through the structure) of at least 1.1 and having at least 750 pores per square centimeter. The catalyst preferably contains a catalytically active metal on the carrier. Describes appropriate media materials, including refractory oxides, such as silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide, titanium dioxide, zirconium dioxide and mixtures thereof. The catalyst containing refractory foam Zirconia as a carrier, lead as an example.

Attractive way catalytic partial oxidation for industrial applications should be carried out at elevated pressure, typically in excess of 10 bar (1 MPa), for example about 30 bar (3 MPa), and high average speed gas flow (litres of gas in the standards is eacli partial oxidation, in order to obtain a high yield of carbon monoxide and hydrogen at elevated pressures, it is necessary to conduct the reaction at elevated temperatures. To achieve the required outputs commercial process requires temperatures of the order of 1000oC or higher.

In addition, in the description of the published International patent application WO 96/04200 speaks of thermal shock, which are refractory monolithic structure in the conditions of high temperature processes such shock is experienced when the catalyst is subjected to rapid temperature changes, allowing it to grow to significant temperature gradients across the structure, and the use of monolithic structures containing material based on zirconium dioxide, which provides high resistance to thermal shock.

The implementation of these processes is not narrowly critical in the sense of monitoring the working conditions and contacting the catalyst and raw materials, to essentially prevent the deterioration of the conversion to the desired products due to insufficient or excessive oxidation.

There is therefore a need for devices for fixing the carrier of the catalyst for use in the STI, temperature and thermal shock, and, moreover, essentially no impact on the course of the reaction or violation of it.

Currently, we unexpectedly found that the catalyst carrier containing a frame having a specific shape, which is adapted to engage a porous monolithic structure and oriented a specific way within the flow of fluid or liquid reagent that is able to use the volumetric rate of fluid in order to ensure sealing engagement of the monolithic structure, and moreover essentially without interference in the process.

Accordingly, in its broadest aspect the invention relates to a catalyst carrier containing (1) a frame having an opening for entrance of the liquid, the outlet fluid and the surface of the clutch, which is adapted to capture a porous monolithic structure, and (2) a porous monolithic structure having first located upstream end, a second located downstream end and the grip surface, which is adapted to interact with rim and provide essentially impermeable to fluid sealing connection through the sealing efforts attached to the monolithic structure on e is the emotional pressure drop located between the upstream and downstream flow of its ends. Preferably the sealing force contains the current pressure fluid flow component(s) of the reaction or the environment (environments). Link here to the liquid refers to a gaseous or liquid fluid, preferably gaseous fluid, or their combination. Link here to the extended axial flow force relates to such force or to an equivalent component of the flow in axial flow direction. Link here on impermeable to fluid sealing engagement refers to such a sealing engagement that essentially no liquid is able to pass through the rim otherwise than through its input and output apertures, for example, it may be provided in the form impermeable to the liquid layer containing the surface of the clutch structure or monolithic structure, or associate with them or between them.

Accordingly, the inlet and outlet structure are in line with the above stream and positioned downstream end with respect to the monolithic structure.

The catalyst carrier of the invention provides excellent image device for placing a monolithic structure with plataue the upstream and downstream flow ends.

This has the added advantage that the pressure of liquid flowing to the located upstream end of the monolithic structure, used for holding patterns within the structure.

In a preferred aspect of the invention a monolithic structure contains truncated solid cone and the frame contains a truncated hollow open ends of the cone, characterized in that the structure of the frame is limited essentially the same proplam cone and essentially the same cone shape, due to which the frame is adapted to capture a monolithic structure so that the two conical surfaces are in sealing engagement, preferably a monolithic structure and the frame can contain any form of rounded or polygonal cone or a combination of both.

Accordingly, the integrity of the sealing engagement of the monolithic structure and the structure is not affected by the offset of the monolithic structure in the direction downstream in the application of sealing efforts, but on the contrary, it is due to this intensifying.

The catalyst carrier can be used in any desired orientation, such as vertical or horizontal current environment. Media to the s, sealing mechanism is essentially not dependent on the scale, being more a function of the working opening (lumen), which should be used, and a pressure differential to be created between upstream and downstream ends of the monolithic structure.

It should be clear that located downstream end, for example, contains a plane of truncation, and also located upstream end of the monolithic structure may be configured to provide any desired property, such as control flow, volumetric strength of the monolithic structure, the angle of the surface section of the catalyst/fluid or the like. Preferably located downstream end is straight, broken or curved coplanar located upstream end. Optional monolithic structure is in the plane of truncation downstream from it in the usual way, resulting in the plane of truncation is used to limit located downstream end surface of the clutch. For example, the monolithic structure may include a curved or polygonal profile of the cylindrical extension. Accordingly, any such extension DC earlier. This elongation may be appropriately associated with the elongation of the frame.

The monolithic structure and the frame can contain essentially symmetrical truncated cones discrete or continuous rotation defined by the rotation about the Central longitudinal axis of the radiating angle of a straight line, where the frame and structure is determined by rotation at least partially the same straight line segment around a Central longitudinal axis, preferably discrete rotation is described by six symmetrical positions of rotation around the Central longitudinal axis. In this case, preferably, the monolithic structure was chercialis discrete or continuous rotation about the Central longitudinal axis of the straight line and the two lines connecting a straight line with the Central longitudinal axis, where the two connecting lines are straight, broken, curved, or a combination thereof. It should be clear that the symmetric conical surface of the discrete rotation catalyst carrier, i.e., representing a polygonal structure, and the structure can be closer to the surface of a symmetric cone continuous rotation when is on, for example, hexa-, hepta-, octagonal, etc. structure or the like.

It should be understood, as previously defined here that the monolithic structure of the invention is kept inside of the rim so that the application pressure of a liquid medium is sufficient to ensure adhesion of the respective surfaces, such as the mentioned conical surface. A particular advantage of this invention that the sealing engagement of the conical surfaces, for example, is a function of the differential pressure created through a monolithic structure with any given proplam cone, the ratio of height to diameter, porosity, structure, or the like. Under an appropriate choice of these parameters it is possible to ensure that the desired sealing engagement of the conical surfaces is achieved for any given flow rate, which is used.

Accordingly, the monolithic structure and the frame define proplam cone in the range of 3o20oto the axis, preferably in the range of 4ounder 18omore preferably in the range of 5o15ofor example in the range of 6oup to 10o.

DL, as stated above, it is possible to ensure that the sealing pressure does not become excessive to the extent that the monolithic structure has been damaged, cracked or warped, but nevertheless polypol cone is sufficient to ensure that the structure was kept in the mount and could not be detached in an axial direction downstream from it.

Link here to polypol cone refers to the angle, limited to the Central longitudinal axis of the cone and any "forming", i.e., the line lying on the surface of the cone.

Accordingly, the monolithic frame and structure are determined in the same or different ratio of the average length in axis to the average width in the range from 1:10 to 1:1,1, preferably 1:8 to 1:1.5 and more preferably from 1:5 to 1:2. Relative and specific dimensions may, for example, depend on the nature of the reaction and the mechanical strength of the monolithic structure and/or structure.

The catalyst carrier may contain additional, saralaya devices respectively containing one or more relief items provided on the frame and/or monolithic structure. Such details are, respectively, about the and pressure through the monolithic carrier or other violation of compactive effort.

Preferably, one or more relief items are located circumferentially with respect to the monolithic structure and the frame, for example, contain an annular protruding belt which is integral with the monolithic structure, or frame, or is separate from them and adapted for Association with a corresponding annular part with a recess present in one or both of the bonding surfaces of the monolithic structure, and structure.

Relief items, as defined here above may, for example, contain a cord fastened around a monolithic structure, or structure that is designed to communicate with the annular recess in one or both of the bonding surfaces. For example, the surface of the clutch having an annular rim, a recess or ledge around it, can be adapted to capture the cord or to join him. The use of flexible or elastically deformable material of the cord, for example braided cord has the advantage that the sealing engagement and pressure can self-regulate, as defined here above.

Preferably the cord or the like secured in place by appropriate means, such as stitching thread of similar material or by the CSOs as alloy or the like.

Respectively provided for sealing or cushioning means containing a flexible or elastically deformable material, with adjustment to the boundary surface between the respective surfaces of the clutch. They can be procured in the form of one or more continuous sheets, preferably of woven structures of inorganic fibers, fragments or the like, distributed around the inner surfaces of the clutch or parts thereof. Such sealing or cushioning means preferably can be used to improve the range of effective sealing engagement, moreover, to account for any irregularities on the surfaces to ensure that they are accurate grip, despite any differences of palouge cone in the manufacture of composite cones, or a high degree of self-regulatory bias monolithic structure with respect to the frame, each of which has a small polypol cone, or the like. Sealing or cushioning means respectively establish an integral or separate from one or both of the bonding surfaces so that to provide such self-regulatory offset surfaces without prejudice to pack the devices for securing the frame in a catalytic reactor. It should be understood that the frame may have any external shape, distant from the surface of the grip, due to which it can be attached in a suitable manner to the catalytic reactor. Because the frame is essentially impermeable to liquid, its external form is not essentially influence or affect the flow inside the reactor and can actually be designed in such a way as to eliminate the effect on the local temperature at any point within a monolithic structure, or reactor.

Integral part of the catalyst carrier, specifically a monolithic structure, the frame, additional fasteners and sealing and cushioning means, respectively, may contain an inorganic material with high heat resistance, selected from compounds of elements of groups IIA, IIIa, IVa, IIIb, IVb and group of the lanthanides of the Periodic system of elements and combinations thereof, preferably selected from oxides, carbides, nitrides or the like, zirconium oxide, lanthanum oxide, aluminum oxide and combinations thereof with any of the above compounds.

The monolithic structure may be any structure as described above, through which you can create a difference having harakterizuetsya high tortuosity, preferably the tortuosity more than 1.1, more preferably in the range of from 1.1 to about 10.0, more preferably a monolithic structure has the form of a foam.

Accordingly, as described above, the pressure drop through the monolithic structure between the upper stream and lower stream ends its smaller than the sealing pressure between the bonding surfaces of the structure and the frame, preferably the ratio of differential pressure to the sealing pressure is less than 1, preferably in the range of from 1:1.2 to 1:10, more preferably from 1:1.5 to 1:8, for example from 1:3 to 1:6.

Accordingly, the structure contains one or more monolithic parts, for example, it is possible, according to this invention to provide a lot of parts that connect the inside of the sole structure, as described, for example, in the form of sections of conical disks constituting a truncated cone, as described above. This has the advantage of improving thermal shock resistance due to the reduced length of the temperature gradient in a single monolithic section.

Preferably the frame contains additional materials that provide the necessary mechanical strength, resistance to apparances matrix, enhanced continuous inorganic fiber.

The catalyst carrier may contain any catalyst suitable for the conversion of hydrocarbons in the above-mentioned operating conditions. Accordingly, the catalyst is injected by known methods, for example by impregnation or the like, in a known form, for example with a uniform distribution or a distribution with a gradient or something.

From the preceding it should be clear that the carrier of the catalyst of the invention is perfectly suited for use in the processes as described above when referring to the object of the present invention. In particular, it should be clear that the carrier of the catalyst makes possible the implementation of such processes without significant interference or interruption.

Accordingly, in an additional aspect, the invention relates to a method of catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons, containing the contacting of the feedstock and oxygen-containing gas at elevated hourly average speed of a gas flow and at an elevated temperature with a catalyst containing a catalytically active material on the carrier in the form of a porous monolithic structure, as described above, where the monolithic structure of Pilia, attached to the monolithic structure at the top to thread the end of it, as stated above, preferably the sealing force contains pressure fluid stream.

By means of the method of the invention, the catalyst carrier is attached due to the different features of the process, which would be problematic when working with standard devices for fastening catalyst, specifically through the use of features high flow rate, temperature and pressure. It provides excellent compatibility catalyst carrier for use in the method of the invention.

In particular, it was found that an excellent seal monolithic structure can be achieved by selecting the dimensions and properties of the catalyst carrier, as described above, in accordance with operational conditions of the process, which must be used, whereby it may be provided with a specific range of the relationship of pressure drop through the monolithic structure to the sealing pressure, as described above. It should be understood that the choice of a monolithic structure and relationship of the pressure will be determined by the severity of the process conditions and an acceptable degree of compaction. In some processy product was not able to bypass the catalyst carrier or the part of it, in other cases, it may be less important. In addition, the degree of compaction can provide a picture of the current environment, which remains linear along the axis of the reactor in cases where leakage around the catalyst carrier would cause deflection of the flow, affecting the course of the reaction.

Preferably the method of the invention is a method of catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, which contains the contacts of the source material containing hydrocarbons and oxygen-containing gas with a catalyst on a catalyst carrier, as described above, at a temperature in the range from 590 to 1400oWith, preferably 750-1400oS, more preferably 850-1300oWith, especially 1000-1300oWith, and at an average hourly rate of gas supply in the range from 20,000 to 100.000.000 nl/kg/h, especially 50.000-of 50,000,000 nl/kg/h Preferred method respectively used for receiving from a hydrocarbon mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in a desirable ratio. This method is a means to obtain very useful products, known as synthesis gas, by a highly exothermic reaction, where the molar ratio of carbon monoxide to hydrogen in the products can regulate the tion of carbon monoxide to hydrogen in the products.

The hydrocarbon is in the gas phase when it is in contact with the catalyst. The method is particularly suitable for the partial oxidation of methane, natural gas, associated gas or other sources of light hydrocarbons. In this regard, the term "light hydrocarbons" refers to hydrocarbons having from 1 to 5 carbon atoms. The method can be advantageously used for the conversion of natural gas from reserves of methane, which contains significant quantities of carbon dioxide. Source material preferably contains methane in the amount of at least 50% by volume, more preferably at least 70% by volume, especially at least 80% by volume.

The hydrocarbon feedstock is brought into contact with the catalyst in the form of a mixture with an oxygen-containing gas. The air is suitable for use as the oxygen-containing gas. However, the use of essentially pure oxygen as the oxygen-containing gas may be preferred. In this way eliminates the need to transport the huge amount of inert gas, for example nitrogen, as when using air as the oxygen-containing gas. The feed material may not necessarily contain pairs.

fir quantities to ensure that the ratio of oxygen to carbon in the range from 0.3 to 0.8, more preferably in the range from 0.45 to 0.75. Links here on the ratio of oxygen to carbon related to the ratio of oxygen molecules (O2) to carbon atoms present in the hydrocarbon feedstock. Preferably the ratio of oxygen to carbon is in the range from 0.45 to 0.65 when the relationship of oxygen to carbon in the region of the stoichiometric ratio of 0.5, that is, the relationship in the range from 0.45 to 0.65, which are especially preferred. If the feed material is vapor, the ratio of steam to carbon is preferably in the range from about 0.0 to 3.0, more preferably from 0.0 to 2.0. Hydrocarbons, oxygen-containing gas and steam, if present, preferably well mixed before bringing into contact with the catalyst.

The method of this invention can be carried out at any suitable pressure. For applications in industrial scale high pressure, i.e. pressure above atmospheric pressure, are the most profitable. The method can be carried out at pressures in the range of up to 150 bar (15 MPa (absolute). Preferably the 10 MPa).

The method can be carried out at any suitable temperature. In the preferred conditions of high pressure prevailing in the processes carried out on an industrial scale, the feed material is preferably in contact with the catalyst at high temperatures. This is necessary if a high degree of conversion, which must be achieved, are preferred when high pressures. Accordingly, the feed mixture is preferably contacted with the catalyst at temperatures above 950oC, more preferably at a temperature in the range of 750-1400oWith, especially from 1000 to 1300oC. the feed mixture is preferably pre-heated before contact with the catalyst.

The feed mixture can be prepared during the implementation of the method at any suitable flow rate. The advantage of the method of the present invention that can be achieved a very high flow rate of gas. Thus, the flow rate of the gas in the process (expressed in liters of gas at normal conditions per kg of catalyst per hour) are in the range of from 20,000 to 100.000.000 nl/kg/h, more preferably in the range of 50,000-of 50,000,000 nl/kg/h Volumetric speed is utilizator, used in the method of the present invention, contains a catalytically active metal on the carrier in the form of a monolithic structure, as described above. The catalytically active metals for inclusion in the catalyst selected from group VIII of the Periodic table of elements. Links here on the Periodic table belong to the CAS version, published in the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 6 th edition. Preferred catalysts for use in the method of the present invention contain a metal selected from ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, osmium, iridium and platinum. Particularly preferred catalysts containing ruthenium, rhodium or iridium as catalytically active metal. Iridium is the most suitable catalytically active metal.

The catalyst contains a catalytically active metal on an inorganic carrier is preferably based on zirconium dioxide in the form of a monolithic structure, as described above.

Can be used any suitable material based on zirconium dioxide. Suitable materials based on zirconium dioxide are commercially available. The material preferably contains at least 70% by weight of zirconium dioxide, for example, selected from known is habilitowany zirconium dioxide, containing oxides of one or more rare earth elements, elements of Group IIIB or Group II of the Periodic table, is a particularly preferred material based on zirconium dioxide. The most preferred materials based on zirconium dioxide containing zirconium dioxide, stabilized or partially stabilized by one or more oxides of SB, Sa, Al, Y, La or CE. Stabilized or partially stabilized Zirconia may be any commercially available form, such as a composite material particles, fibers or whiskers.

The monolithic structure may contain an inorganic material as described above is covered with a material having a desirable property to give superior resistance to thermal shock (for example, SiC, SiO2, Al2ABOUT3or their mixture), improved stability of the catalyst or improved heat resistance.

Monolithic structure, which in its greatest dimension may be of the order of 1 cm to 1 m or more, may contain one or more separate monolithic parts. Although several parts provide a higher resistance to thermal shock than similar edinstvena space velocities, used in this invention. However, the structure may contain a partitioned monolithic structure, according to known technologies, and as indicated here above. Porous monolithic structure can have any suitable shape. One form of a monolithic structure is an extruded honeycomb structure, suitable materials for which are known and commercially available. Extruded cellular materials are characterized by the fact that there are many straight elongated parallel channels passing through the structure. However, the preferred monolithic structures are those that have a high tortuosity. The term "tortuosity" is a common term which, as used here, is defined as the ratio of the path length, passable gas flowing through the structure, the length of the shortest possible straight line path through the structure. Thus, it follows that the extruded honeycomb structure have a tortuosity of 1.0. Monolithic structure used in the method of the present invention, has a high tortuosity, i.e. tortuosity more than 1.1. Monolithic structure preferably has a tortuosity in the range from 1.1 to about 10.0, b is itnow patterns from 1.3 to 4.0.

Monolithic structure used in the method of this invention is porous, as described above. The monolithic structure is preferably highly porous. These pores should be distinguished from the micropores, which may be present in the material medium. Monolithic structure preferably contains at least 500 pores per square centimeter, more preferably at least 750 pores per square centimeter. The preferred monolithic structures are those that are from 1000 to 15000 pores per square centimeter, more preferably from 1250 to 10,000 pores per square centimeter.

Monolithic structure preferably has a fraction of free volume in the range from 0.4 to 0.9, more preferably, to avoid excessive pressure drop from 0.6 to 0.9.

The most suitable and particularly preferred monolithic structure for a catalyst carrier used in the method of the present invention is a foam. Suitable foams for use in the method of this invention are commercially available.

The catalyst used in the method of this invention may be obtained by known methods. The most appropriate posotively material is preferably brought into contact with the catalyst under adiabatic conditions. In this description, the term "adiabatic" refers to reaction conditions under which prevent essentially any heat loss of izlucheniya from the reaction zone, with the exception of the heat remaining in the exhaust from the reactor a gaseous stream.

The following aspect of this invention relates to a carbon monoxide or hydrogen, ever obtained by the method as described above. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen obtained by the method of this invention can be used in any process that uses one or both of these substances. The mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen obtained by the method of this invention, particularly suitable for use in the synthesis of hydrocarbons, for example, by the Fischer-Tropsch process, or for the synthesis of oxygenates, such as methanol. Methods of conversion of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in such products are well known. Alternatively, the product from carbon monoxide and hydrogen can be used in the manufacture of hydrogen by the reaction of conversion of water gas. Other products include processes hydroformylation and carbonylation.

Now the invention is illustrated is not limiting way with reference to figures 1-5, where
figures 4 and 5 represent the top view of each of the media figures 1-3.

The figure 1 shows the carrier of the catalyst of the invention containing a monolithic structure (1) having located upstream end (11), located downstream end (12) and the surface of the clutch (13) and the frame (2) having an inlet (21), the outlet (22) and the surface of the clutch (23). The frame is made from relatively resistant to thermal shock material, such as inorganic reinforced with inorganic fiber matrix, which is essentially impervious to liquid. Monolithic structure (1) contains inorganic foam as described above, with winding through the channels, as described above. Strip (3) is placed around the monolithic structure (1) and between the bonding surfaces (13) and (23). The inset illustrates polypol cone with a Central longitudinal axis And selected from the ranges as specified above. On the shape of the monolithic structure (1) is coplanar rounded truncated cone, not necessarily containing many monolithic sections (dotted line). The frame (2), in turn, is adapted for installation in current flow reactor through suitable is(2), the flange is adapted to fasten in a suitable slit or hole (not shown), for example between the opposite blocks mounted on the wall of the reactor. Mounting wall of the reactor may be constructed of any suitable material, such as quartz, carbon, alloys and the like. Optional insulating material laid between the flange (4) and the metal mounting fixture wall of the reactor.

It is desirable that the frame (2) had a minimum wall thickness sufficient to withstand the conditions in which it will be used. This ensures minimal effects of heat exhaustion and other effects of the process. The axial length of the monolithic structure (1) is slightly less than the axial length of the rim (2), or equal to it.

The catalyst carrier has additional fasteners, containing the relief items (5), for example a separate braided cord (Nextel TM) (51) communicates with the recess (52), the annular protrusion (53) and/or conical rim (54).

Cord (51) weave so that it can be connected clip or staple, as described above, without affecting the sealing connection of the conical surface is the quiet are primacomunione truncated cones, in figure 3 the medium contains in the direction of the downstream extension (6). In figures 4 and 5 show the media catalyst containing the corresponding conical structure (1) continuous or discrete rotation symmetric or rounded and polygonal. Now the invention is described as an embodiment of the method with reference without limitation to the following example.

Commercially available porous monolithic structure, as shown in figure 1, containing inorganic foam having a winding channels and impregnated with an active catalyst by conventional technologies impregnation has the desired final degree of saturation of the catalyst.

Impregnated monolithic structure is fixed inside the frame, as illustrated in figure 1, in a steel reactor. Neutral gas and oxygen are thoroughly mixed, the resulting mixture is used as the feed material and injected into the reactor for contact with the catalyst at the desired ratio of oxygen to carbon. The feed material is served at specified hourly average volumetric gas velocity, temperature, creating the flow pressure at the upper stream end (11) of the monolithic structure (1).

The working temperature of the catalyst carrier is gas chromatography. Determine conversion and selectivity towards carbon monoxide and hydrogen (based on the converted methane).

The measured pressure drop through the monolithic structure is about 2.5 bar (0.25 MPa) (absolute.). Discovered that the rim of the catalyst gives excellent sealing engagement monolithic structure without detectable effect on the process in terms of conversion and selectivity.

Therefore, it is apparent that the catalyst carrier of the invention can best be utilized in the method of the invention, as described above.

For example

Materials

Part of the ceramic foam, consisting of Zirconia, partially stabilized with yttrium (Y-PSZ), was impregnated with an aqueous solution containing trichloride rhodium and iridium tetrachloride, to obtain a foam containing 2.5 wt.% rhodium and 2.5 wt.% iridium based on the weight of the Y-PSZ. Foam Y-PSZ has 65 pores per inch, i.e., 650 then cm2.

Part foam has the shape of a truncated cone, as shown in Fig. 1, whose length is 20 mm and maximum diameter of 50 mm, the Half angle of the cone has an angle of 10o. The weight of the impregnated foam is equal 55,4,

Impregnated foam pieces hidden end having a wall thickness of 3.5 mm and the half angle of the cone 10oand consists of 50% by volume of the fibers of alpha-aluminum oxide (Nextel 610) in the form of mullite. The length of a hollow cone 60 mm

Catalytic partial oxidation

The mixture of raw materials, including natural gas (21103l/h) and air (68103l/h), with a temperature of 200oC was applied to the upper end of the foam. The ratio of carbon to oxygen is 0.65 and volumetric hourly rate of gas is 1.600.000 l/kg/h Working pressure 25 bar (absolute), the pressure drop through the structure of the foam is 1.0 bar.

The temperature at the upper end of the foam is measured by the optical pyrometer and it is 1200oC. the Degree of conversion of methane, i.e., the weight of methane, which is converted into oxides of carbon, determined by gas chromatography and it is above 90% (weight/weight). The process of catalytic partial oxidation is carried out sequentially, i.e., without damage to the catalyst or catalyst, for 1000 hours.

1. The carrier of the catalyst for conversion of hydrocarbons containing a frame having an inlet for fluid, an outlet opening for the liquid and the surface of the clutch that is designed Toi'm on the thread end, the second is located downstream end and the grip surface, and to provide an essentially impermeable to fluid sealing adhesion with the sealing force applied to the monolithic structure located on its upstream end, resulting in a pressure in excess of and is essentially proportional to the pressure difference between the located upstream and downstream along the flow of the ends thereof, preferably the sealing force contains the current pressure fluid flow component(s) of the reaction or the environment (environments).

2. Catalyst carrier under item 1, where the monolithic structure contains truncated solid cone, the frame contains a truncated hollow and open at both ends of the cone, characterized in that the structure and the frame define essentially the same proplam cone and essentially the same cone shape, due to which the frame is adapted to hook monolithic structure so that the two conical surfaces are in sealing engagement, preferably a monolithic structure and the frame may include a rounded or polygonal conical shape or a combination thereof.

3. Catalyst carrier under item 2, where the monolithic structure is passed upstream end of the structure.

4. The catalyst carrier according to any one of paragraphs. 2 and 3, where the monolithic structure and the frame defined by proplam cone in the range of 3 - 20oto the axis, preferably in the range of 4 - 18omore preferably in the range of 5 - 15ofor example in the range of 6 to 10o.

5. The catalyst carrier according to any one of paragraphs. 1-4, containing additional fasteners in the form of one or more relief items placed on the rim and/or monolithic structure.

6. The catalyst carrier according to any one of paragraphs. 1-5, containing sealing or cushioning means located on the boundary surface between the respective clutch surfaces, and sealing or cushioning means include flexible or provideproperty material or the like.

7. The catalyst carrier according to any one of paragraphs. 1-6, where the monolithic structure, the structure, additional mounting hardware and sealing or cushioning means includes an inorganic material with high heat resistance, selected from compounds of elements of groups IIA, IIIA, IVa, IIIb, IVb and group of the lanthanides of the Periodic system of elements and combinations thereof, preferably selected from oxides, carbides, nitrides or twice compounds, the frame contains a reinforcing fiber, preferably contains inorganic matrix, enhanced continuous inorganic fiber as described above.

8. Method of catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons, containing the contacting of the feedstock and oxygen-containing gas at elevated hourly average speed of a gas flow and at an elevated temperature with a catalyst containing a catalytically active material on the carrier in the form of a porous monolithic structure, wherein the monolithic structure as described above with reference to any one of paragraphs. 1-7, is adapted to be tightly geared essentially to the impermeability of the frame, as described above with reference to any one of paragraphs. 1-7, through the sealing force applied to the monolithic structure at the top to thread the end of it, as described above with reference to any one of paragraphs. 1-7, preferably sealing force contains pressure fluid stream.

9. Method of catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons under item 8, which contains the contacts of supply of raw materials and oxygen-containing gas with a catalyst on a catalyst carrier, as described above, at a temperature in the range 750 - 1400oAligator contains as catalytically active material, selected from elements of group VIII of the Periodic system of elements, preferably selected from rhodium, platinum, palladium, osmium, iridium and ruthenium.

10. The method according to p. 9, where the hydrocarbon feedstock contains methane, natural gas, associated gas or a source of light hydrocarbon, oxygen-containing gas is substantially pure oxygen, preferably hydrocarbons and oxygen-containing gas are present in quantities which gives the ratio of oxygen to carbon of 0.3 to 0.8, preferably of 0.45 to 0.75.

 

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The invention relates to the technology of carbon materials that enables the collection, storage, transportation of hydrogen, in particular, to a technology of material having high sorption activity to hydrogen

The invention relates to a process for the preparation of natural gas for ammonia production

Catalytic converter // 2177363
The invention relates to catalytic converters for neutralization of toxic substances in exhaust gases of automotive engines

The invention relates to the field of chemistry and relates to a reactor block catalyst honeycomb structure, comprising a housing with connections for input of initial reagents and output of the target product, inside of which is placed a block catalyst honeycomb structure, through channels of which with respect to the incident flow is oriented at an angle equal to 90

The invention relates to a method of manufacturing a cell element of a heat-resistant metal sheets, typed in the package and/or rolled

The invention relates to chemistry, namely the three-phase catalysis processes "gas-liquid-solid"

The invention relates to a method of manufacturing a cell element made of sheet metal, typed in the package and/or rolled

The invention relates to a catalyst and method of conducting the reaction of steam reforming of ethanol
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