The electric heating fabric (options), conductive thread for this fabric and method of making this thread

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of electrical engineering for the design of the electric heating fabric, intended to supply a controlled amount of heat to the surface. The fabric consists of a number of electroconductive yarns and at least two conductive tires. The pairs of conductive busbars connected set of electroconductive yarns, a binding with electrically conductive resistive threads, intended to supply uniform heat. To conducting buses is connected, at least two distribution bus to supply power to the conductive buses. Each conductive bus and each distribution bus includes at least one thread with low resistance to the transmission of electricity. The technical result is that the electroconductive resistive threads and yarns with low resistance creates a woven material having the necessary structural strength and the desired temperature characteristics. 6 C. and 16 h.p. f-crystals, 9 Il., table 1.

The invention relates to electrical machines, and more particularly to special requests, and concerns the construction of the electric heating fabric included as the heater is the actual content in some local area of the desired temperature. The invention also concerns the construction of electrically conductive resistive threads used to produce heating of tissue.

In connection with the increase in current requirements for environments with controlled temperature, there is increasing interest in flexible electric heating devices that can be used as devices that adapt the environment according to the temperature parameter. Tissue electric heaters are a type of flexible electric heaters, which are flexible and adaptable to the installation place a means of providing heat for different surfaces and environments. Such devices require the use of tissue electric heaters include automotive heated seats, handlebars, heated oil crankcases car engines, heaters for curing cement, clothing with heated devices, blankets, heaters, etc.

Simple, flexible electric heaters typically include a thin metal electric heating wire connected in a serpentine shape with a flexible surface. Electrical energy is supplied to the heating terial, on both sides of the heating wires, provides electrical insulation and heat conduction. However, providing heat using heating wires still usually ends by uneven heating, especially in devices where the heater is installed in close proximity to humans. In addition, metallic heating elements subjected to bending and shear and tend to fail. In addition, the maximum range of the heating temperature is limited by the size of the heater wires.

The use of simple tissue electric heaters is an attempt to alleviate flexible electric heaters by applying numerous conductive yarn as heating elements woven into the fabric. The fabric is a combination of conductive yarn heater type "sheath-core", going in the same direction of the fabric, and the main threads running in the other direction. Electrical energy is supplied to the filament heater using conductive yarns with low resistance along the edges of the fabric, running perpendicular to the threads of the heater within the tissues.

Tissue heaters clever the United States between the conductive tires.

In some devices, such as heaters, car seats, it is desirable to maintain a constant operating temperature of the heater is approximately 37oWith, with the possibility of increasing the heater temperature to approximately 150oWith in a short period of time in the production of seats for melting the adhesive material providing the bonding of the lining to the lodgement.

With the introduction of advanced composite materials that can withstand very high temperatures, it has become possible to produce instruments which are not subject to the requirements limit the maximum temperature within acceptable limits. Inclusion in the woven element for these devices conductive resistive threads like "sheath-core" made by known technologies, does not give the desired result on the extension temperature interval, for reasons that will be described below.

For example, from WO 95/17800, N 05 3/36, publ. 29.06.95 known electric heating fabric of plain weave, containing duck and based conductive resistive threads with a linear electrical resistance of 0.3 to 3.5 kω/m Conductive resistit of polycaproamide fibres, a "shell" in the role of a resistive material consisting of a composition comprising a copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene with vinylidenefluoride and carbon black. Electrically conducting resistive thread is produced by applying a layer of resistive material on polycaproamide fiber.

The disadvantages of this electrically conductive resistive threads are its low linear electrical resistance that can be used for the manufacture of woven heating elements, designed to operate at a voltage of not more than 36, it is received as a "kernel" only polycaproamide fiber specific configuration and, in addition, increased consumption of resistive material.

In addition, the heating temperature woven heating element, made on the basis of this thread, may not exceed the melting temperature of polycaproamide fiber (100 - 110oC). Otherwise, there is a destruction of the heating element. Two conductive bus located in the direction coinciding with the direction of the electroconductive threads that are posted on the canvas relative to each other at a considerable distance, which creates discomfort when connecting soedinitelnye duck conductive resistive threads with a linear electric resistance in the range 1 - 100 kω/m

Electrically conducting resistive thread for this tissue also represents the structure of the "sheath-core", "core" which consists of a synthetic fiber type nylon, polyester type, polyolefin type (having a low melting point 100 - 120oC) or high-melting fibers poliferation type and polyamide type, and the "shell" in the role of a resistive material consisting of a composition comprising polyurethane resin of the polyester type and carbon filler at a weight ratio of from 1:0.3 to 1:1, respectively.

As a carbon filler used carbon black (obtained from acetylene, furnace or channel, as well as mixtures thereof) and graphite (natural with protocrystalline, scaly or amortiziruemoe structure and artificial) at a mass ratio of 1:1.67 to 1:4 (in the text description 8 column, 2nd paragraph) or from 1:0.5 to 1:0.6 for examples 1 and 2), respectively.

Electrically conducting resistive thread is produced by applying one to three layers of resistive material on the above-mentioned synthetic fiber when the mass ratio of from 1.7:1 to 2.8:1, respectively.

The disadvantages of this elektroprovodnaya, as well as high consumption of resistive material even in a single application "shell", which increases the cost of manufacture of the yarn, and, in addition, this conductive fabric has two conductive bus located in the direction coinciding with the direction of the electroconductive threads and posted on the canvas relative to each other at a considerable distance, which creates discomfort when connecting the wires.

In connection with the above we can formulate some requirements which an electrically conductive fabric must meet: improve the heating characteristics of flexible heaters, ensuring uniform heating of the surface of the fabric to increase user comfort, the increase in the operating temperature range, convenience when mounting the heating element and reducing the cost of production. There is also a need in the emergence of the market for improved heating of the material, which could be used in different environments and to be reliable and effective.

The basis of the invention is based on the problem by creating electric heating tissue with uniform heating over the entire area of the canvas and a wide range of working temperatures is TNA, minimize the need to use multiple electrical leads and creating convenience when connected to a power source, reducing installation costs in the manufacture of electric heaters.

Achievable technical result is to increase the operational characteristics of the electric heating fabric, its reliability and efficiency by providing uniform heating area of tissue, the possibility of providing separate heating sections of tissue to different temperatures, ease of use in the manufacture of flexible heaters.

According to the present invention, the electric heating fabric consists of a set of basic electroconductive yarns and at least two conductive tires, located on the base. Between a pair of conductive tires are the second set of base electroconductive yarns and conductive heating resistive threads. To a conductive busbars for supplying electric power is connected, at least two distribution bus. Each conductive bus and each distribution bus includes at least one thread with low resistance, which serves as a guide for e is m for forming the electric heating fabric, with appropriate structure and appropriate characteristics for temperature range.

This technical result is achieved in that the electric heating fabric according to the first embodiment, representing the completed weave fabric, consisting of a main electroconductive yarns made of cotton or synthetic fibers having the first direction and the second direction perpendicular to the first electrically conductive resistive threads with linear electric resistance between 2.7 to 1800 Ohm/cm, each of which consists of synthetic or glass fiber with a sheath made of polymer resistive material that contains a carbon filler consisting of carbon black and graphite, is equipped with at least three conductive tyres, having the first direction coinciding with the direction of the major electroconductive yarns, for the distribution of electricity between the electrically conductive resistive threads, and at least two distribution buses arranged in the second direction coinciding with the direction of the electrically conductive resistive threads and separated from the latter electropneumatically barrier between the distribution of tires and electrically conductive resistive threads, in which for power distribution between the conductive tires are circuit breakers, these conductive bus exploded on the canvas relative to each other at the same distance, electrically conductive resistive threads are located between the said tire to transmit electricity from one conductive bus to another bus, and each of these conductive tires and each of these distribution tire includes at least one thread with low electric resistance, copper-plated.

As the electroconductive material can be used threads from cotton or Kevlar, or nomensa, or nylon. The same materials except cotton thread, and fiberglass can be used as a core of electrically conductive resistive threads.

Electrically conductive resistive threads can be executed with high or low linear electrical resistance between 2.7 to 1800 Ohm/see

Electrically conductive resistive threads with a linear low electric resistance, forming conductive and distribution busbars made of synthetic fibers coated with a material with low electric resistance, cacheAction resistive threads are arranged with a density of from 8 to 18 threads per inch of fabric.

It is advisable that the conductive bus had a width of from 1 to 20 mm and consisted of 4 to 80 separate threads with low electric resistance, and the distribution bus had a width of from 10 to 50 millimeters and contain from 8 to 90 individual fibres with low electric resistance.

This technical result is achieved in that the electric heating fabric according to the second embodiment, representing the completed weave fabric comprising at least two heating sections, each of which is designed for uniform heating of certain areas to different temperatures, consisting of the main electroconductive yarns made of cotton or synthetic fibers having the first direction and the second direction perpendicular to the first electrically conductive resistive threads with linear electric resistance between 2.7 to 1800 Ohm/cm, each of which consists of synthetic or glass fiber with a sheath made of polymer resistive material, containing carbon filler consisting of carbon black and graphite, is equipped with at least three conductive tyres with PE who do electrically conductive resistive threads, and at least two distribution buses arranged in the second direction coinciding with the direction of the electrically conductive resistive threads, and separated from the latter electroconductive threads of cotton or synthetic fibres, arranged in the same second direction and generating a dielectric barrier between the distribution of tires and electrically conductive resistive threads, which for power distribution between the conductive tires are circuit breakers, these conductive bus exploded on the canvas relative to each other at various specified distances to create the heated plots with different resistance and different power electrically conductive resistive threads are located between the said tire to transmit electricity from one conductive bus to another bus, and each of these conductive tires and each of these distribution tire includes at least one thread with low electric resistance, copper-plated. In this case the electric resistance of each section is determined by the distance between two conductive tires.

This technical result is achieved by the fact that h is of the threads of the canvas, includes one electric heating section and consisting of the main electroconductive yarns made of cotton or synthetic fibers having the first direction and the second direction perpendicular to the first electrically conductive resistive threads with linear electric resistance between 2.7 to 1800 Ohm/cm, each of which consists of synthetic or glass fiber with a sheath made of polymer resistive material that contains a carbon filler consisting of carbon black and graphite, with two conductive tyres, having a first direction coinciding with the direction of the major electroconductive yarns for the distribution of electricity between the electrically conductive resistive threads and one distribution bus, located in the second direction coinciding with the direction of the electrically conductive resistive threads, and separated from the latter electroconductive threads of cotton or synthetic fibres, arranged in the same second direction and generating a dielectric barrier between the electrically conductive resistive threads and distribution bus, which for power distribution between the conductive bus is a certain specified distance, electrically conductive resistive threads are located between the said tire to transmit electricity from one conductive bus to another bus, and each of these conductive busbars and distribution bus includes at least one thread with low electric resistance.

The basis of the invention is also based on the task of reducing the consumption of polymer resistive material with simultaneous extension of interval linear electrical resistance of the electrically conductive resistive threads used for the manufacture of woven heating elements operating in the range from 6 to 380 C. the Achieved technical result is to increase performance filament and its efficiency by reducing the consumption of polymer resistive material that is applied to the original thread, and extensions of interval linear electric resistance.

This technical result in relation to the threads is achieved in that the electrically conductive resistive yarn consisting of synthetic or glass fiber with a sheath made of polymer resistive material that contains a carbon filler consisting of carbon black and gr is Italia when the mass ratio of from 1:0.3 to 1: 0.6 to, respectively, carbon filler includes carbon black obtained from acetylene, and colloidal graphite in a mass ratio of from 1: 0.1 to 1:1,4, respectively, and the mass ratio of the polymer resistive material and the source fiber is in the range of 0.2:1 to 0.65:1, respectively.

This technical result in relation to the method of obtaining the threads is achieved by the fact that according to the method of manufacturing electrically conductive resistive threads is preparing polymer resistive material including carbon filler consisting of carbon black and graphite, and applying it as a coating on synthetic or glass fiber, for making specified polymer resistive material get 12-15% solution of PVDF in acetone by mixing the components in a sealed mixer at room temperature until complete dissolution of thermoplastic mixing carbon black with the obtained polymer solution, perform circulation resulting suspension in a closed loop scheme mixer-preterechny node mixer for dispersion of particles of carbon black, and obtain a homogeneous solution, and then smile mill is applied in the form of a shell on the source fiber by passing through the solution and the die plate, the diameter of the hole which regulates the amount of sediment resistive material on the fiber, and removing the solvent from the resistive membrane by drying yarns in a current of hot air at a temperature of 105-110oC.

These characteristics for each of versions, fabrics and threads are essential and interrelated with the formation of a stable set of essential features, sufficient to obtain the desired technical result.

The present invention is illustrated by specific examples, which, however, are not only possible, but clearly demonstrate the possibility of achieving given for each option sets the characteristics of the desired technical result.

In Fig.1 shows the electric heating fabric;

in Fig. 2 in an enlarged view showing the connection conductive resistive threads of the conductive bus;

in Fig. 3 in an enlarged view showing the connection conductive bus with distribution bus;

in Fig. 4 shows a cross-section of conductive wires with low resistance;

in Fig. 5 shows a cross-section of conductive resistive threads with high resistance;

in Fig.8 Dan variant electric heating fabric with one heating zone;

in Fig.9 Dan variant electric heating fabric with two heating zones and two dielectric barriers.

According to the invention the electric heating fabric according to the first embodiment, representing the completed weave cloth, consists of the main electroconductive yarns made of cotton or synthetic fibers having the first direction and the second direction perpendicular to the first electrically conductive resistive threads with linear electric resistance between 2.7 to 1800 Ohm/cm, each of which consists of synthetic or glass fiber with a sheath made of polymer resistive material that contains a carbon filler consisting of carbon black and graphite. The fabric is also provided with at least three conductive tyres, having a first direction coinciding with the direction of the major electroconductive yarns, for the distribution of electricity between the electrically conductive resistive threads, and, of electrically conductive resistive threads and separated from the latter electroconductive threads of cotton or synthetic fibres, located in the same second direction and generating a dielectric barrier between the distribution of tires and electrically conductive resistive threads, which for power distribution between the conductive tires are circuit breakers. These conductive bus exploded on the canvas relative to each other at the same distance, electrically conductive resistive threads are located between the said tire to transmit electricity from one conductive bus to another bus, and each of these conductive tires and each of these distribution tire includes at least one thread with low electric resistance, copper-plated.

Also according to the invention the electric heating fabric, representing the completed weave fabric includes at least two heating sections, each of which is designed for uniform heating of certain areas to different temperatures, consisting of the main electroconductive yarns made of cotton or synthetic fibers having the first direction and the second direction perpendicular to the first electrically conductive resistive nastelennogo fiber with a sheath made of polymer resistive material, containing carbon filler consisting of carbon black and graphite. Also the fabric is provided with at least three conductive tyres, having a first direction coinciding with the direction of the electroconductive yarns for the distribution of electricity between the electrically conductive resistive threads, and at least two distribution buses arranged in the second direction coinciding with the direction of the electrically conductive resistive threads, and separated from the latter electroconductive threads of cotton or synthetic fibres, arranged in the same second direction and generating a dielectric barrier between the distribution of tires and electrically conductive resistive threads, which for power distribution between the conductive tires are circuit breakers. These conductive bus exploded on the canvas relative to each other at various specified distances to create the heated plots with different resistance and different power, electrically conductive resistive threads are located between the said tire to transmit electricity from one conductive bus to another bus, and each of these conductive tyres and cardatavideo, covered with copper.

Electrically conductive resistive threads with a linear low electric resistance is used in conductive and distribution tyres, consist of synthetic filaments coated with a material with low electric resistance, which can be used copper, lead or aluminum.

In the tissue of the main thread and/or electrically conductive resistive threads are arranged with a density of from 8 to 18 threads per inch of fabric.

Conductive bus has a width of from 1 to 20 millimeters and contain from 4 to 80 separate threads with low electric resistance, and distribution busbars have a width of from 10 to 50 millimeters and contain from 8 to 90 individual fibres with low electric resistance.

According to the invention the electric heating fabric, representing the completed weave cloth, includes one electric heating section, consisting of the main electroconductive yarns made of cotton or synthetic fibers having the first direction and the second direction perpendicular to the first electrically conductive resistive threads with linear electric resistance between 2.7 to 1800 Ohm/cm, kaderali, containing carbon filler consisting of carbon black and graphite. The fabric is also provided with two conductive tyres, having a first direction coinciding with the direction of the major electroconductive yarns for the distribution of electricity between the electrically conductive resistive threads and one distribution bus, located in the second direction coinciding with the direction of the electrically conductive resistive threads, and separated from the latter electroconductive threads of cotton or synthetic fibres, arranged in the same second direction and generating a dielectric barrier between the electrically conductive resistive threads and distribution bus, which for power distribution between the conductive tyres is a circuit breaker. These conductive bus exploded on the canvas relative to each other at a certain specified distance. Electrically conductive resistive threads are located between the said tire to transmit electricity from one conductive bus to another bus, and each of these conductive busbars and distribution bus includes at least one thread with low electric resistance, coated copper is">

In Fig.1 shows the electric heating fabric 1 according to the present invention. The electric heating fabric 1 consists of a flexible fabric that provides simultaneous distribution of heat in two modes, the high mode and heating mode normal heating.

The electric heating fabric 1 includes an electrically resistive filament 2, which stretched horizontally and are intertwined with the main electroconductive thread 3 extending vertically in the basis for the formation of a woven fabric, which is based paintings conductive bus 4. Distribution busbars 5 are used for distribution of energy between the conductive tyres 4, they are located in duck tissues outside of the heating areas of the canvas. The dielectric partition wall 6 made of electroconductive fibers, separates bus 5 from the heating field 7. Electric current from the energy source is distributed between the conductive tire 4 by using the distribution of the tire 5. Part of the energy flowing through the conductive bus 4, is dissipated in the resistance of the tire 4, the remainder of the energy is scattered when passing through the conductive resistive threads 2 with parallel connection between p for conductive resistive threads 2. In Fig.6 depicts the main electroconductive thread 3 used in this embodiment. Although in this embodiment as the material for the core yarns are cotton and nylon, the invention provides for the use of other suitable non-conductive materials, such as nylon or Nomex, or combinations thereof. Electroconductive yarns 3 are located in the base fabric and have a density of 8 to 18 threads per centimeter, and electroconductive yarns 3 are located on a duck in the dielectric partition 6 and have a density of 8 to 18 threads per centimeter.

Is depicted in Fig.1 conductive resistive threads 2 are parallel connection between the pairs of conductive tire 4, which are the basis of tissue. Main electroconductive yarns 3 are interwoven with conductive resistive threads 2 to provide structural strength. The density of the electrically conductive resistive threads 2 should be in the range from 8 to 18 threads per centimeter. In Fig.5 shows an electrically resistive filament 2 used in this embodiment. Electrically conducting resistive thread 2 having the structure "sheath-core" consists of a core or Central fiber 8, is made of fiberglass or synthetic which I electrical energy. In the General case, the polymer shell contains a carbon filler consisting of carbon black and graphite.

Although in the present embodiment, as the Central fiber core used fiberglass and nylon, the principles of the invention allow the use of other materials having a wide range of operating temperature and provide sufficient structural strength, such as nylon and Nomex. The resistance of each conductive resistive threads 2 varies from 2.7 to 1800 Ohm/see Electrical energy flowing through the filaments 2, is dissipated in the resistance of the filaments 2, leading to the fact that the heat is distributed in the heating field 7.

Is depicted in Fig.1 conductive bus 4 are located at the base fabric for the distribution of electricity between the electrically conductive resistive threads 2 at the same distance L from each other (L1=L2=L3) that defines the same resistance R in each plot. Each conductive bus 4 throughout its length connected with electrically conductive resistive threads 2, and in the end is connected to a distribution bus 5. Conductive bus 4 connected to each other in parallel. The electricity from the source patination reminiscent of the electrical network. Is depicted in Fig.2 conductive bus 4 includes at least one thread with low resistance 10. Electrically conductive resistive threads 2 are interwoven with conductive busbars 4 and provide electrical contact by pressure created by the weave. In Fig.4 shows the thread 10 with low resistance made the type of "shell-core" and having a terminal or Central fiber 11 from nylon or Kevlar coated 12 made of copper, which, in turn, covered with tin. Although in the present embodiment, as the core material are nylon or Kevlar, the invention provides for the use of other materials having suitable strength, flexibility and range of operating temperatures, these materials include nylon, Nomex, etc. depending on the engineering performance can be used and other materials, and combinations thereof.

The design of the distribution bus repeats the design of the conductive threads of the tire (Fig. 3). Distribution bus as a conductive bus bar includes at least one thread 14 with low resistance (Fig. 4).

Is depicted in Fig.1 wall 6 consists of electroconductive yarns 3 cotton, nylon, cewla the em heating field 7 from the distribution bus 5. Circuit breakers 13 are located on the partition 6. According to the invention can be used in a partition other dielectric materials, if it will save the appropriate characteristics. In the present embodiment, the resistance of the conductive yarns 10 and 14 with low resistance can vary from 0.02 to 0.08 Ohms per centimeter. However, the invention provides the possibility of using threads with low resistance, with different resistance values. This resistance and the number of threads 10 and 14 with low resistance can be adjusted in each case depending on the resistance and density conductive resistive threads 2 so that along the threads 2 and conductive tyres were set to be relatively the same size heating. At higher density and lower resistance conductive resistive threads 2 in the zone of these threads generated a greater amount of heat with a commensurate increase in the current flowing through the bus 4, and 5.

In Fig. 7 presents another embodiment of a flexible electric heating fabric 1. It consists of a pair of distribution of the tire 5, four conductive tyres 4, two dielectric walls 6, the first variant creates three separate heating field 15, 16 and 17 having different resistance R(R1<R<R), which are used to form a separate heating zones or areas with different power P(R1>R2>R3). The electrical resistance of each plot is determined by the distance L(L1<L<Lbetween two neighboring conductive tires. This invention allows the manufacture of a fabric with a large number of heating fields. Distribution busbars 5 are duck cloth for power distribution between the conductive tire 4. Each distribution bus 5 connects the power source with two or more conductive buses 4. Electricity flows from the energy source through the distribution bus 5 along one conductive bus 4 through the filament 2 to another conductive bus and to the opposite distribution bus heater where the end of the circuit. In order to prevent the connection conductive bus 4 from the distribution bus 5 having different voltage potential, in the partition 6 has a built-cutter or circuit breaker 13. The cutter or chopper circuit 13 generates an electrical connection between zones 15, 17 and 16.

As shown nuances connected with 10 threads with low resistance conductive bus through the weave. In the present embodiment, the type of threads 14 with low resistance distribution bus selected in the same manner as the filament 10 with low resistance conductive bus. However, the invention provides for the use of different types of yarns, such as yarns having different resistance, and using different numbers of threads in a distribution bus 5 in comparison with the number of threads in the conductive bus 4.

As a synthetic material for electroconductive yarns used nylon, or Kevlar or Nomex, and as a synthetic material for fiber conductive resistive threads used fiberglass, or Kevlar or Nomex, or nylon.

The wires with low resistance composed of a base material coated with a material with low electric resistance, which used lead, or aluminum, or copper.

Electroconductive yarns made of cotton or synthetic material, are located in the dielectric wall with a density of from 8 to 18 threads per inch of fabric. Main electroconductive filaments are arranged with a density of from 8 to 18 threads per inch of fabric, and electrically conductive resistive threads ratpouch from 4 to 80 separate threads with low electric resistance, and distribution busbars have a width of from 10 to 50 millimeters and contain from 8 to 90 individual fibres with low electric resistance.

In Fig. 8 presents another embodiment of a flexible electric heating fabric 1. It consists of one distribution bus 5, the two conductive tyres 4, two partitions 6, which is the dielectric barriers, a large number of electric heating resistive threads 2 and cotton or synthetic electroconductive yarns 3. This option creates one heating field. The upper dielectric barrier separates the distribution bus 5 from the heating field 7. And the lower dielectric barrier forms the end of the heating field along the length of the fabric. In this embodiment, the electric heating fabric circuit breaker 13 is located in a distribution bus 5 between the conductive tire 4, and for convenience, the connections can be placed centrally between the conductive busbars 4 and closer to the inner edge of one of them.

With respect to the electric heating fabric shown in Fig.1, consider the heating of the material.

According to the present invention will be using, at which the maximum heating to the heating element for about 10-30 seconds voltage 60-100 when the current 17-25 And to create a temperature more than 150oS. the Device of the present electric heating fabric allows equal distribution of heat across its surface. This can be used as the DC and AC current and voltage sources can vary from 9 to 380 C. the Present invention provides for the use of electric heating fabric that can work within different time periods and at different temperatures in order to create the desirable characteristics of the pool.

When the heating element is working under normal conditions, at a lower voltage (13-14 At the current 4-5 (A) to ensure that the temperature of normal operation. This mode is used, for example, when it is necessary to warm up the car on a cold winter day. In this mode, the material is heated to a temperature of 10-55oC. During normal operation, the operator can adjust the voltage in order to achieve the desired heating temperature. In addition, it is possible to make the heated material which will maintain a constant temperature for an indefinite period of time.

Further the present invention rassmatrivaemikh areas or zones 15, 16 and 17 on this canvas heated material separated conductive tyres, separated from each other at different distances L(L1<L<L). For example, you must ensure that the temperature in the first zone 15 of the heating and temperature B in the second zone 16, and so on, This invention can be used in automotive, construction industry and in other areas where it is desirable to use multiple temperature zones. Creating multiple zones or fields on the same canvas heated material, this area can be heated to various pre-specified temperatures. This can be achieved by using off valves or circuit breakers 13 in different segments of the dielectric partitions 6, which allows each field to be connected in parallel with the adjacent electric field. Circuit breakers are made with contacts 18 for connecting the wires from the power source. This invention also minimizes the need to use multiple electrical terminals.

In Fig.9 presents an example of execution of the electric heating fabric in the form executed by the weave of the cloth, consisting of the main nelec is acting in the second direction, perpendicular to the first electrically conductive resistive threads with linear electric resistance between 2.7 to 1800 Ohm/cm, each of which consists of synthetic or glass fiber with a sheath made of polymer resistive material that contains a carbon filler consisting of carbon black and graphite. The fabric is equipped with at least three conductive tyres, having a first direction coinciding with the direction of the major electroconductive yarns, for the distribution of electricity between the electrically conductive resistive threads and at least one distribution bus, located in the second direction coinciding with the direction of the electrically conductive resistive threads and separated from the latter electroconductive threads of cotton or synthetic fibres, arranged in the same second direction and generating a dielectric barrier between the distribution bus and electrically conductive resistive threads, which for power distribution between the conductive tyres is a circuit breaker. These conductive bus exploded on the canvas relative to each other by a given distance for the formation of two heated sections.the first conductive bus to another bus. Each of these conductive busbars and distribution bus includes at least one thread with low electric resistance. The fabric is made with an additional dielectric barrier positioned side edges of the blade, opposite the placement of the dielectric barrier, which is a circuit breaker. The lower dielectric barrier forms the end of the heating field along the length of the fabric.

From the above it becomes clear that the invention is a device for supplying a uniform heat in controlled quantities. In addition, the device can operate for a limited period of time at elevated temperatures to increase the production of car seats, which will include the heating system. In addition to the above variants of the present invention are possible and other options.

For the manufacture of fabrics with specified performance characteristics according to the invention is used resistive conductive thread, which is a structure "sheath-core", "core" which is a synthetic or glass fiber or synthetic or glass fibers, and the resistor monolithic or a combination of threads.

For the manufacture of electrically conductive resistive threads as "core" use the twisted synthetic or glass yarn in two or three additions with the number of turns in the range of 40 - 50 meter having a linear density in the range 28 to 50 Tex. As synthetic threads use threads with different cross-sectional shape of the fiber.

Polymeric carbon-containing composition, which represents a resistive "shell" consists of PVDF thermoplastic, carbon black obtained from acetylene, and colloidal graphite.

Polyvinylidene fluoride is a thermoplastic polymer having a molecular weight of 80 to 200 thousand, the density of 1.77 g/cm3, melting point 160 - 170oC, the decomposition temperature >300oWith an operating temperature from -40 to +150oC, soluble in acetone, dimethylformamide, dimethylsulfoxide, and insoluble in water. Get polyvinylidene fluoride radical polymerization of vinylidenefluoride. Polyvinylidene fluoride is used in the manufacture of insulation, electret films, heat shrink tubes, fibers, etc.

Studies have shown that a wide range of existing is the material "shell" threads provides technical carbon brand A-e (TU 14-106-357-90. Carbon technical element A-e) obtained in the process of thermal decomposition of acetylene at high pressure (explosive process) and used in the manufacture of chemical current sources, magnetic media, polymer and rubber compositions. Carbon black obtained from acetylene, has a low ash content (not more than 0.07%), high mass fraction of pure carbon (at least of 99.75%) and high specific surface area (140-160 m2/g).

Use in the composition of the polymer resistive material fine particles (ranging in size from 0.5 to 100 μm) of natural graphite with protocrystalline, scaly or amortiziruemoe structure or artificial graphite is not possible to solve the problem that is likely caused by the structure of their crystal lattice. When using the above-mentioned graphite in the composition of the polymer resistive material to reduce linear electrical resistance filament requires a larger cross-sectional area "shell", which leads to an increase of consumption of polymer resistive material.

According to the invention this disadvantage is eliminated by introducing into the composition resisting the CSOs graphite with a particle size less than 5 microns.

One of the ways of obtaining colloidal graphite is the conversion of the hydrophobic surface of the fine graphite particles in hydrophilic. This may occur when there on her oxygen-containing functional groups, contributing to its wetting. For this thermally obessilennyj natural scaly graphite structure is subjected to vibration grinding and subsequent treatment with a mixture of anhydrous nitric acid and water at a temperature of 90oC. the Final stage of processing of graphite particles in acids is the formation of graphite oxide. The limitation of time and temperature of processing and sizes dispersible particles allows you to pause the process at the stage of formation of colloidal graphite. After this processing the graphite particles are thoroughly washed from the oxidizing mixture, filtered, and be able to form colloidal solutions with water, methyl and ethyl alcohols, acetone. Special advantages of colloidal graphite are abilities when drying to form a film with good adhesion to the substrate, with a stable electrical conductivity and the absence of outgassing. Depending on conditions prigotovleniya the use of colloidal graphite - it's getting colloidal graphite products for the lubrication of dies matrix during hot stamping, lubrication of heavily loaded bearings and they also found use as an electrically conductive coating glass of cathode ray tubes and tapes.

Linear electrical resistance of the electrically conductive filament depends on the properties of the polymer resistive material, the mass ratio of the resistive material and the original thread. In turn, the properties of the polymer resistive material is determined by its component composition and ratio of components.

Research on optimization of the composition of the polymer resistive material showed that to obtain a conductive yarns with a linear electrical resistance in the range of 0.2 - 180 kω/m required:

- firstly, to observe the mass ratio of carbon black obtained from acetylene, and colloidal graphite in the range from 1:0.1 to 1:1,4, respectively;

- secondly, to observe the mass ratio of PVDF thermoplastic and carbon filler in the range from 1:0.3 to 1:0.6 to, respectively;

- third, to comply with the mass ratio of polymer resistive Mat the purpose of colloidal graphite below the specified value of the resistance of the conductive filament rises above the permissible value, and it becomes unstable along its length, and increasing the concentration of colloidal graphite above the specified value reduces the physico-mechanical properties of the resistive shell, which is destroyed in the process of making cloth.

The decrease in the concentration of carbon filler in the resistive material below this value leads to a linear increase in the electrical resistance of electrically conductive filaments is higher than the permissible value, and makes it unsuitable for the manufacture of woven heating elements and increasing the concentration of the carbon filler is above this value reduces the physico-mechanical properties of the resistive shell and its adhesion to the filament, which makes conductive thread unsuitable for the manufacture of fabrics.

The reduction in the value of nanos resistive material on the original thread or fiber below the specified value leads to the discontinuity of the coating and makes the thread electroconductive, and increase the value of nanos resistive material on the filament/fiber above the specified value is impractical from an economic point of view.

According to the invention a method of manufacturing electrically conductive resistive threads is preparing polymer resistive material, vcli synthetic or glass fiber. For the preparation of the specified polymer resistive material get 12-15% solution of PVDF in acetone by mixing the components in a sealed mixer at room temperature until complete dissolution of thermoplastic mixing carbon black with the obtained polymer solution, carry out the circulation of the resulting suspension in a closed loop scheme mixer-preterechny node mixer for dispersion of particles of carbon black, and obtain a homogeneous solution, and then mixing the obtained homogeneous solution with colloidal graphite and produce peretirku mixture, this mixture after the mill is applied in the form of a shell on the source fiber by passing through the solution and the die plate, the diameter of the hole which regulates the amount of sediment resistive material on the fiber, and removing the solvent from the resistive membrane by drying yarns in a current of hot air at a temperature of 105-110oC.

Technology for producing electrically conductive resistive threads according to the invention includes the following operations:

- preparation of 12-15% solution of PVDF in acetone by mixing the components in a sealed mixer at room however is alimera;

- circulation resulting suspension in a closed loop scheme mixer-preterechny node mixer for dispersion of particles of carbon black, and obtain a homogeneous solution;

the mixture obtained homogeneous solution with colloidal graphite and peretirku mixture;

- drawing the shell of the polymer resistive material on the original thread by passing through the solution and the die plate, the diameter of the hole which regulates the amount of sediment resistive material on the thread;

- removing the solvent from the resistive membrane by drying yarns in a current of hot air at a temperature of 105-110oC.

Use when receiving electrically conductive resistive threads PVDF thermoplastic, carbon black obtained from acetylene, and colloidal graphite is possible to reduce the consumption of polymer resistive material that is applied to the original thread, and to extend the interval by linear electric resistance of the conductive threads.

The invention in part of the method is illustrated by examples.

Example 1. 100 mass parts of PVDF thermoplastic is dissolved with stirring in 600 mass parts of Aceto is a, the mixture is stirred and fray, and then added under stirring 7 mass parts of a colloidal graphite and fray again.

Application of polymer resistive material is carried out on woven polyester thread 35 rooms with 40 turns per meter and the linear density of 28.6 Tex (0,0286 g/m). The process of applying the polymer resistive material on the thread is carried out at 20oWith the speed of pulling the threads 25 m/min by passing through a solution of resistive material with subsequent passage through the die plate, the diameter of the hole which regulates the amount of sediment solution on the thread. After passing through the die, the thread is subjected to drying in a current of hot air at a temperature of 105-110oWith removal of the solvent and is wound on a bobbin. The result is an electrically resistive filament, the characteristics of which are presented in the table, examples 1/1 and 1/2.

Example 2. 100 mass parts of PVDF thermoplastic dissolved under stirring at 700 mass parts of acetone. In the obtained polymer solution add 15 mass parts of carbon black obtained from acetylene, the mixture is stirred and fray, then added with stirring to 20 mass is on the thread is produced analogously to example 1. The result is an electrically resistive filament, the characteristics of which are presented in the table, examples of 2/1 and 2/2.

Example 3. 100 mass parts of PVDF thermoplastic dissolved under stirring at 650 mass parts of acetone. In the obtained polymer solution add 27 mass parts of carbon black obtained from acetylene, the mixture is stirred and fray, and then added under stirring 23 mass parts of a colloidal graphite and fray again.

Application of polymer resistive material is carried out on woven polyester thread 20 rooms, with 50 turns per meter and a linear density of 50 Tex (0,050 g/m) at a pulling velocity of the filament 20 m/min. and the result is an electrically resistive filament, the characteristics of which are presented in the table, examples 3/1 and 3/2.

Example 4. Prepare a solution of the polymer resistive material as in example 3.

Applied polymer resistive material on woven glass filament 20 rooms, with 45 turns per meter and a linear density of 50 Tex (0,050 g/m). The polymer coating of resistive material on the filament is produced analogously to example 3, but with the speed of pulling the threads 15 m/min. and the measures 4/1 and 4/2.

The table also presents the characteristics of the electrically conductive resistive threads obtained according to the prototype (US 4783814, sample 1, sample 4). From the presented data it is seen that an electrically resistive filament obtained according to the invention (example 3/1 and 3/2), with comparable values for linear electrical resistance with conductive thread, obtained in the prototype, has 4 to 5 times less resistive material.

This result was achieved thanks to the use in the composition of the polymer resistive composition of polyvinylidene fluoride, soluble in acetone, colloidal graphite, capable in the presence of acetone to form a colloidal solution and interact with particles of carbon black obtained from acetylene, at the level of functional groups located on their developed surface, which improves the conductivity of the polymer resistive material, and this, in turn, leads to the possibility of reducing consumption when receiving electrically conductive resistive threads with the required linear electrical resistance; a specific ratio of components of the carbon filler and a polymeric material, and polim is industrially applicable, because its implementation uses a technology that is currently used in the manufacture of flexible heating structure.

1. Electric heating cloth, representing the completed weave fabric, consisting of a main electroconductive yarns made of cotton or synthetic fibers having the first direction and the second direction perpendicular to the first electrically conductive resistive threads with linear electric resistance of 2.7 - 1800 Ohm/cm, each of which consists of synthetic or Central glass fiber with a sheath made of polymer resistive material that contains a carbon filler consisting of carbon black and graphite, characterized in that it includes at least three conductive tyres with the first direction, coinciding with the direction of the major electroconductive yarns, and at least two distribution buses arranged in the second direction coinciding with the direction of the electrically conductive resistive threads and separated from the latter electroconductive filaments, arranged in the same second direction, and creating dielectrics the value of electricity between the conductive tires are circuit breakers, these conductive bus exploded on the canvas relative to each other at the same distance, electrically conductive resistive threads are located between the said tire, and each of these conductive tires and each of these distribution tire includes at least one thread with low electric resistance.

2. The fabric on p. 1, characterized in that the synthetic material for the electroconductive yarns used nylon, or Kevlar or Nomex.

3. The fabric on p. 1, characterized in that the synthetic material to the Central fiber conductive resistive threads used fiberglass, or Kevlar or Nomex, or nylon.

4. The fabric on p. 1, characterized in that the electrically conductive resistive threads with a low linear electric resistance made of synthetic fibers coated with a material with low electric resistance, which used copper, or tin, or lead, or aluminum.

5. The fabric on p. 1, characterized in that the main electroconductive filaments and/or electrically conductive resistive threads are arranged with a density of 8 - 18 threads per inch of fabric.

them electric resistance, and distribution busbars have a width of 10 to 50 mm and contain 8 - 90 separate threads with low electric resistance.

7. Electric heating cloth, representing the completed weave fabric comprising at least two electric heating section, consisting of the main electroconductive yarns made from cotton or synthetic fiber, having a first direction and a second direction perpendicular to the first electrically conductive resistive threads with linear electric resistance of 2.7 - 1800 Ohm/cm, each of which consists of a Central synthetic or glass fiber with a sheath made of polymer resistive material that contains a carbon filler consisting of carbon black and graphite, characterized in that it includes at least three conductive tyres with the first direction, coinciding with the direction of the electroconductive fibers, and at least two distribution buses arranged in the second direction coinciding with the direction of the electrically conductive resistive threads, and separated from the latter electroconductive filaments, arranged in the same second direction, and mazdausa between conductive tires are circuit breakers, these conductive bus exploded on the canvas relative to each other at various specified distance, electrically conductive resistive threads are located between the said tire, and each of these conductive tires and each of these distribution tire includes at least one thread with low electric resistance.

8. The fabric on p. 7, characterized in that as the material for the electroconductive yarns used nylon, or Kevlar or Nomex.

9. The fabric on p. 7, characterized in that as the material for the Central fiber conductive resistive threads used fiberglass, or Kevlar or Nomex, or nylon.

10. The fabric on p. 7, characterized in that the electrically conductive resistive threads with a low linear electric resistance made of synthetic fibers coated with a material with low electric resistance, which used copper, or tin, or lead, or aluminum.

11. The fabric on p. 7, characterized in that the material with low electric resistance is used, lead, or aluminum, or copper.

12. The fabric on p. 7, characterized in that electroplating by p. 7, characterized in that the main electroconductive filaments are arranged with a density of 8 - 18 threads per inch of fabric.

14. The fabric on p. 7, characterized in that the electrically conductive resistive threads are arranged with a density of 8 - 18 threads per inch of fabric.

15. The fabric on p. 7, characterized in that the conductive bus has a width of 1 to 20 mm, and include 4 - 80 separate threads with low electric resistance.

16. The fabric on p. 7, characterized in that the distribution busbars have a width of 10 to 50 mm and contain 8 - 90 separate threads with low electric resistance.

17. Electric heating cloth, representing the completed weave fabric comprising a single heating section and consisting of the main electroconductive yarns made of cotton or synthetic fibers having the first direction and the second direction perpendicular to the first electrically conductive resistive threads with linear electric resistance of 2.7 - 1800 Ohm/cm, each of which consists of synthetic or glass fiber with a sheath made of polymer resistive material that contains a carbon filler consisting of technical operadays.eu with the direction of the main electroconductive yarns and one distribution bus, located in the second direction coinciding with the direction of the electrically conductive resistive threads, and separated from the latter electroconductive filaments arranged in the second direction and generating a dielectric barrier between the electrically conductive resistive threads and distribution bus, in which between the conductive tyres is the circuit breaker, these conductive bus exploded on the canvas relative to each other by a given distance, electrically conductive resistive threads are located between the said tire, and each of these conductive busbars and distribution bus includes at least one thread with low electric resistance.

18. Electric heating cloth, representing the completed weave fabric, consisting of a main electroconductive yarns made of cotton or synthetic fibers having the first direction and the second direction perpendicular to the first electrically conductive resistive threads with linear electric resistance of 2.7 - 1800 Ohm/cm, each of which consists of synthetic or glass fiber with a sheath made of polymer resistive material provided at least three conductive tyres, having the first direction coinciding with the direction of the major electroconductive yarns, and at least one distribution bus, located in the second direction coinciding with the direction of the electrically conductive resistive threads and separated from the latter electroconductive filaments arranged in the second direction and generating a dielectric barrier between the distribution bus and electrically conductive resistive threads, which is the circuit breaker, these conductive bus exploded on the canvas relative to each other by a given distance, electrically conductive resistive threads are located between the said tire, and each of these conductive busbars and distribution bus includes at least one thread with low electric resistance, this fabric is made with an additional dielectric barrier positioned side edges of the blade, opposite the placement of the dielectric barrier, which is a circuit breaker.

19. Electrically conducting resistive thread representing a synthetic or Central glass fiber covered by a sheath of polymer resistive material that includes the resistive material obtained from PVDF thermoplastic and carbon filler in a mass ratio of 1: 0.3 to 1: 0,6 respectively.

20. Thread on p. 19, wherein the carbon filler includes carbon black obtained from acetylene, and colloidal graphite in a mass ratio of 1: 0.1 to 1: 1,4, respectively.

21. Thread under item 19, characterized in that the mass ratio of the polymer resistive material and the material of the Central fiber is in the range of 0.2: 1 is 0.65: 1, respectively.

22. A method of manufacturing electrically conductive resistive threads, which consists in the preparation of the polymer resistive material including carbon filler consisting of carbon black and graphite, and applying it as a coating on synthetic or Central glass fiber, characterized in that for the preparation of the specified polymer resistive material get 12-15% solution of PVDF thermoplastic in acetone by mixing these components in a sealed mixer at room temperature until complete dissolution of the specified thermoplastic mixing carbon black with the obtained solution, perform circulation resulting suspension in a closed loop mixer-preterechny node mixer for dispersion parts colloidal graphite and produce peretirku mixture, this mixture after the mill is applied in the form of a shell on the Central fiber by passing through the solution and the die plate, the diameter of the hole which regulates the amount of sediment resistive material on the fiber, and removing the solvent from the resistive membrane by drying yarns in a current of hot air at a temperature of 105-110oC.

 

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