Global satellite system positioning and navigation, radio beacon and receiver used in this system

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to a global system that is designed for navigation and radio positioning location containing a segment of ground-based, which includes a global network of radio beacons on the ground, emitting radio signals with a wide range in the direction of the user satellites, control center, designed for the formation of the plan of operation for certain user-defined satellites and its transmission statement for each of these satellites over the leading beacons; processing center, used for receiving remote measurements, sorted by control center, division of remote measurement remote measurement, necessary for processing performed in the processing center, and remote measurement required services to users, given by this system; the space-based segment, which includes leading companions, jointly participating in the system, and user satellites, user segment, consisting of the user beacons and fixed or mobile user receivers. To achieve technological and positioning. 3 S. and 29 C.p. 33 Il., table 1.

The technical field

The present invention relates to the global system designed to radionavigation and determine the location of mobile devices (e.g., satellites) and stationary objects. The invention also relates to radio beacons and receivers for use in this system.

Prior art

To well-known systems of the above type include the DORIS system, GPS (global satellite positioning system), GLONASS (global satellite navigation system) and the PRARE system.

The DORIS system described in [1], [2] and [3].

GPS-NAVSTAR described in [4].

The GLONASS system is described in [5].

The PRARE system described in [6].

Object of the invention is the creation of a universal system of radio navigation and positioning, characterized by higher accuracy and more efficient in solving various tasks of navigation and positioning than the above-mentioned system known from the prior art.

The invention can be used in the system GNSS (global system for space on the water spread spectrum.

The invention

The present invention relates to a global system that is designed for navigation and radio positioning the location of the mobile and stationary objects, characterized in that it contains a segment of ground-based, space-based segment and the user segment, while the segment of ground-based and includes the following elements:

the main network of radio beacons on the ground, emitting a unidirectional radio signals with a wide range in the direction of the user satellites, and each of these beacons transmits a message containing the identification code of the radio beacon;

the control center for building plans of operation for certain user-defined satellites and its transmission statement for each of these satellites over the leading beacons;

processing center, used for receiving remote measurements, sorted by control center, division of remote measurements into two groups, one of which contains remote measurement, necessary for processing performed in the processing center, and the other contains the remote measurement required of polesaw himself leading the satellites and user satellites, moreover, the leading satellites jointly participate in the system, and the user segment consists mainly of mobile devices with specialized receivers, and custom stationary beacon.

Ground-based radio beacons preferred are of two types, more specifically, include the beacon building orbits, the position of which is precisely known and which continuously transmit a signal and periodically transmit the data to your location (in some cases also their speed);

custom radio beacons, which may be initially unknown location at the initial stage of entry into the service;

leading beacons, which transmit useful information and plans of operation for certain user-defined satellites and/or at the receiving part of the system.

The system also contains a stand-alone local receiver and the cell radio beacons, not necessarily connected by a radio link with the satellites in the system.

The Central processing preferably produces the following output:

accurate data for the construction of orbits and procedural commands for user-defined satellites;

t;

data current control bias beacon intended for orbit determination;

the coefficients of time for the beacon reference data relative to the system time, the actual system time generated by the processing center;

the Earth rotation parameters;

moreover, these data are distributed, first, users of services provided by the system in accordance with the invention, and returned to the control center, which uses them for planning and programming, and to provide a standard orbits for stations on remote sensing and remote control that uses services provided by the system corresponding to the invention.

Leading the satellites can be equipped with a special receiver that is connected to a high-stability oscillator; raw measurements performed by this receiver, and the data received from the beacon is formatted in the form of distance measurements taken ground point, and the processing center is used as the destination address. Leading the satellites have the capability of processing messages transmitted by leading beacons.

Leading companions have orbity.

For custom satellites is not required addressing their remote measurements to the processing center. Also for custom satellites is not mandatory processing messages transmitted by leading beacons.

Custom satellites can remain in orbit of any type and at the same time can form part of the space-based segment and segment users on the system.

Custom beacons mainly represent the beacons for positioning and radio beacons to determine the time.

Preferably, the beacon is connected to the microcomputer used for programming the parameters of the beacon and to verify the correctness of their operation.

The microcomputer preferably connected to the local measuring sensors, such as

sensors, weather data,

the sensors raw data of the measurements of the global space navigation system,

sensors coefficients of time,

sensors determine the status of the various elements included in the beacon, for remote diagnosis of faults in the control center,
.

System corresponding to the invention, includes precision beacons.

In the above-mentioned system, two radio beacon, which allocated an identical psevdochumoy (PN) code and which are nominally will be monitored by a single satellite, selectrows range greater than the diameter of a circle observability for these satellites.

Preferably, the signals of carrier frequencies transmitted by the beacon is modulated short code spread spectrum (called the reference code).

System corresponding to the invention may contain a single-frequency or dual-frequency receivers.

Precision beacons can be designed as a dual-frequency, whereby each transmitted carrier frequency is modulated by the long code spread spectrum (called precision code and short code (called the reference code).

Preferably, the system corresponding to the invention, includes orbital receivers or receivers placed near the earth surface (stationary or mobile).

Receivers can represent the following:

basic receivers

cheap navigation receivers

cheap receivers navigation is possible,

receivers for navigation, orbit determination and precise determination of the spatial position,

receivers of mixed type, providing processing of the signals transmitted by the system beacons and satellites within the constellation of global positioning system.

System corresponding to the invention may contain receivers for handling only reference codes, and the receivers, providing processing of the reference codes and precision codes simultaneously (precision receivers).

System corresponding to the invention may contain a precision current control subsystem drift orbital atomic clock.

In the system corresponding to the invention, the sequence of radiation from a custom radio beacons (if they exist) can be controlled on the basis of the daily cycle described by "Week " Words" ("the code word of the week").

In one embodiment, the implementation of the structural, electric and antenna characteristics of all ground-based radio beacons are similar, except for the following:

beacon designed for precision current control drift orbital atomic clock with antenna napravleniya can have the antenna pattern of a specific type.

In conjunction with the method of interferometric imaging with the use of satellites carrier of synthetic aperture radars, the system corresponding to the invention can be used for accurate monitoring of deformations of the area covered by a mesh beacon signals which are accepted by the receiver in the above-mentioned system installed on satellites media radar.

Through the use of moving in orbit or geostationary satellites with on-Board receiver mentioned system, it is possible to obtain detailed information on the difference of times between the hours of beacons, in particular on the beacons to determine the time data.

Navigation satellites type GNSS2 can use the receiver for the system to solve their navigation tasks and to generate tables of parameters of orbits and ephemerides delivered to the users mentioned satellites such GNSS2.

System corresponding to the present invention, may include a local Autonomous cell radio beacons and receivers, and these cells, in some cases, can be connected by radio with the leading or custom spusteni, characterized in that they contain

one or more sensors of the local data,

a control computer connected to the said sensor data,

the reference signal generator, controlled by the mentioned oscillator,

module generation and transmission signal for each transmitted carrier frequency that is controlled by a reference signal generator, and this module contains

the generator carrier frequency,

the shortcode generator spread spectrum,

block formatting data managed by the host computer, and said data modulate mentioned short code in the band of the modulating signal through the integrator and full-formed block of data modulates a carrier by a modulator, an antenna connected to the modulator via a radio frequency amplifier

Preferably the carrier frequency transmitted by the beacon, defined for this system.

Precision radio beacon transmits a dual frequency signal. In precision beacon of this type, at least one of the two modules of generation and transmission signal contains

the long code generator spread spectrum,

integrator providing modulation upon long code, integrated with data

Phaser on /4 for the said modulated carrier, the adder, integrating carrier, modulated by the long code, in quadrature with the carrier, modulated short code

Precision beacon of this type passes the long codes for carrier frequencies allocated to the system.

The invention also relates to a receiver for use in the above system, characterized in that it contains for each received carrier frequency

from one to four receiving antennas,

from one to four modules receiving the radio frequency and conversion to an intermediate frequency, which can be a radio frequency chip, connected to the analog-to-digital Converter, and these modules correspond to the carrier frequency received from the system,

one or several dedicated integrated circuits (SIS), in particular intended for processing short code spread spectrum modulation of the received carrier, and the above-mentioned SYSTEMS provide processing of short codes mentioned system,

and the receiver contains

the unit of the microprocessor is interconnected with atomnogo signal and conversion to an intermediate frequency, SYSTEM and microprocessor package.

Preferably, the module receiving a radio frequency signal and converting to an intermediate frequency connected to each antenna in the case of receivers with parallel architecture of the radio frequency channel, or a single module receiving a radio frequency signal and converting to an intermediate frequency connected with all the antennas through a high speed switch in the case of receivers with a serial architecture of the RF path.

Preferably, one of the modules receiving a radio frequency signal and converting to an intermediate frequency in the receiver of mixed type is designed to operate at one of two frequencies used in the system corresponding to the invention, while another module receiving a radio frequency signal and converting to an intermediate frequency is designed to work in one of the frequency bands used for transmission to the satellites within the constellation global navigation satellite system.

Preferably, at least one of the two precision systems designed to receive long codes in said system carrier frequencies mentioned system, SIS, tie the molting codes associated with the said receiving system.

System corresponding to the invention, is competitive with respect to the GPS and GLONASS for most space applications. It's even more is competitive in relation to modern systems DORIS and PRARE. Moreover, the system corresponding to the invention, is potentially more effective than, the systems for most applications involving the use of space systems.

Brief description of drawings

In Fig.1 illustrates the various components of the system corresponding to the invention.

In Fig.2 presents a diagram of the reference beacon corresponding to the invention.

In Fig. 3 shows the radiation parameters of the antenna for the radio beacons.

In Fig.4 shows a diagram of the precision of the beacon.

In Fig. 5 is a diagram illustrating the operation of various types of radio beacons ZZZ.

In Fig.6 presents subsystem precision measurements of the drift of the atomic clock installed on the satellite.

In Fig.7 illustrates the circles of observability for a satellite at a height of hi.

In Fig.8 presents the in, using signals with a wide range.

In Fig.11 shows an example of allocating codes to the satellites orbit determination ZZZ.

Fig 12 shows the interferometric image is built using a radar with synthetic aperture.

In Fig.13 and 14 illustrate the operation of the user satellites containing batteries, recharged by solar panels.

In Fig.15, 16 and 17 presents the schema of the leading satellite.

In Fig.18 shows a diagram for the base receiver ZZZ.

In Fig.19, 20 and 21 illustrate two other types of receivers ZZZ.

In Fig.22 shows a diagram of the receiver of mixed type GNSS-ZZZ.

In Fig. 23 and 24 are examples of receiver ZZZ, providing a determination of the spatial position.

In Fig. 25 illustrates the operation of the antenna in the case of a satellite in low orbit.

In Fig.26 illustrates space communication channel between the radio beacon ZZZ and receiver ZZZ.

In Fig. 27A, 27B and 27C shows three configurations of the reference receiver for use in the system corresponding to the invention.

In Fig.28 illustrates the study of Doppler parameters.

In Fig.31 shows a graph illustrating footprint on the earth's surface to the satellite orbit height h2.

In Fig. 32 and 33 illustrate deviations in time determined by the satellite.

Detailed description of embodiments of the invention

System corresponding to the invention is primarily intended for radionavigation radiodetermination-satellite locations, and vehicles or stationary objects on the Earth's surface. This system will first be provisionally designated ZZZ before determining its final name. The National Center for space studies, the system was named DORIS NG system (DORIS new generation).

This system ZZZ combines the main advantages of each of the current systems, GPS and DORIS.

System ZZZ corresponding to the invention, and advanced space navigation systems for civil purposes are complementary and are intended to ensure the creation of a universal system of radio navigation and positioning, called GNSS3. This designation can condition the invention, classified in accordance with different kinds of needs:

- Most of the satellites for which the operational needs associated with the synchronization of airborne/ground subsystems, and/or navigation, and/or determination of the orbit, and/or determination of the spatial position, compatible with precision, and provide for those needs, it is usually better than in modern systems, GPS and DORIS. The reference trajectory of these custom satellites are classified in four main categories of circular orbits:

- low altitude orbits, denoted by h1. These orbits are typically used mini-satellites and micro-satellites;

- sun synchronous orbit at a height of h2. These orbits are usually used by satellites for earth observation;

- geosynchronous orbit with an average altitude of h3that have a period close to 12 hours. These orbits are typically used constellations of radio navigation satellites (GPS, GLONASS, GNSS2, and so on).

- geostationary orbit with a height of h4. These orbits are typically used telecommunication, meteorological and navigation satellites (GNSS1, GNSS2).

The height of the orbits of the following: h1=400 km, h2=800 km, h3=20000 to the terms. System corresponding to the invention, also provides the functions of orbit determination and/or navigation for positioning these satellites.

The problem of determining the orbit/navigation/orientation can be classified as follows and are shown in table.

- Research organization, the objectives of which are the following:

B1: Observations of the ionosphere.

B2: Physical and meteorological studies of the gaseous atmosphere of the Earth.

B3: Geodesy, geodynamics, Geophysics in the regional or global scale (moving poles, tectonics and T. p.

B4: Studies of the gravitational field.

B5: Space altimetry, applications related to the research of the ocean.

B6: Research related to theory of relativity.

B7: Research highly stable onboard clock.

B8: Precision relative clock synchronization on the surface of the Earth.

B9: Geodesy, geodynamics and Geophysics at the local scale (the overlap region of the mesh for accurate monitoring of movements and so on), research and forecasting of earthquakes and, more generally, the risks associated with some natural manifested is ansirovanie.

In particular, the system corresponding to the invention, can contribute to the definition of international standards in the following areas, see for example:

standard time,

geodetic reference system,

gravimetric reference system,

models of the ionosphere.

System corresponding to the invention, is potentially more adapted and more accurate for most of the applications than the current system, GPS, DORIS, GLONASS, PRARE.

System land navigation:

S1: Providing assistance for EN-route navigation (aircraft, ships).

C2: Providing assistance when boarding aircraft.

C3: Sending corrections to the GNSS system in the direction (for aircraft, ships, satellites).

C4: relative air navigation (also applicable for relative navigation systems convergence in space).

C5: Synchronization for airports.

C6: Synchronization of monitoring stations and/or control system GNSS system (GNSS1-phase 3, WAAS and GNSS2).

C7: Positioning using space assets of mobile objects with low dynamics, such as the court.

C8: Post> National community:

D1: Planetary monitoring specific events strategic interest.

D2: Synchronization of air and ground bases and ships.

D3: Local navigation of vehicles (aircraft, ships, satellites, launch vehicles).

D4: the Positioning in space of mobile objects with low dynamics, such as the court, on the surface of the Earth.

Task D1-D4 can be solved in the context of ensuring a high stability with respect to intentional interference. System components relevant to the invention and shown in Fig.1, include a segment of ground-based, space-based segment and user segment.

A segment of ground-based

Ground segment contains the following elements:

A major network of ground - based radio beacons (RBS), transmitting radio signals user-defined satellites. Each beacon transmits a message containing the identification code. There are different types of these beacons, in particular, it describes the following three basic categories:

- beacons build orbits (IN), the position of which is well known. System corresponding to the invention determines the orbit floor the signal. The beacons build orbits periodically transmit radio signals your location (and in some cases their speed);

- custom beacon (SU), for example, the beacon location (BL) or radio beacons determine the time (W), the position and/or time for which initially unknown when they first entered service. System corresponding to the invention can localize these beacons. These custom radio beacons, also form part of the user segment;

leading beacons (VM), which convey useful information or plans for custom satellites and/or at the receiving part of the system. They are beacons build orbits (IN) the extent to which the location of the original well-known These beacons are connected with a high-stability clock (for example, an atomic clock or a clock on the basis of hydrogen masers). These beacons distribute system time in accordance with the invention (for example, the standard universal time) in the form of coefficients of time.

Center tasks and control (CMC): this center creates work plans for custom satellites and passes these Spotmatic, contains the identification code for that satellite. The control center generates a configuration message for some of the satellites that are associated with it. He also produces and classifies remote measurements made for the implementation of the positioning Board user satellites, since the signals transmitted by the beacons. These remote measurements also contain some of the parameters registered by the beacon (for example, data from meteorological sensors, data General status and so on ). These remote measurement stations remote sensing and remote control (TM/TC) (not necessarily specialized for the system corresponding to the invention that monitors the user satellites. The results of these remote measurements fall within the control center, either directly or through the control centres specifically designed for the considered satellites (satellite control (CCS)).

Center treatment (ART): this processing center (which may be spread across multiple elements of the system) takes the results of distance measurements, sorted by control center. Dunn is rhenium, required to process specific to the processing center, and the other contains messages specific to users of services provided by the system corresponding to the invention.

For example, the output resulting from processing performed in the processing center, include the following:

precision orbit determination and procedural commands for user-defined satellites;

precision determination of the spatial position of the user satellites;

the parameters characterizing the ionosphere;

the coefficients of time for radiobeacons referred to the system time generated by the processing center, the Earth rotation parameters;

updated location data of beacons.

These findings are distributed primarily to the users of services provided by the system corresponding to the invention, and returned to the control center, which uses them to prepare their business plans and programming, as well as to ensure standard orbits for stations remote measurement and remote control that uses services provided by the system corresponding to the invention.

and user satellites.

Leading satellites (SM) jointly participate in the functioning of the system. Remote measurement carried out systematically addressed to the processing center. Each one has a specialized receiver, provisionally designated in this description ZZZ and connected with high-stability oscillator (OUS). The raw data of the measurements performed by this receiver, and the data received from the beacon systematically formatted in the form of distance measurements taken by the Earth indicating the processing centre (ST) as the final destination. Leading companions have the ability to handle messages sent by the leading beacons. These satellites have orbits quasi-sun synchronous type, possibly in conjunction with low-altitude orbits and geostationary orbits.

Custom satellites (SC) does not need to transmit their data to remote measurements to the processing centre. Therefore, it is not necessary to equip high-stability oscillators. Custom satellites does not need to handle messages sent by the leading beacons. These satellites may be the orbit of any type, in particular low-altitude earth, heliosynchronous-based and user segment, corresponding to the invention.

The user segment

The user segment includes stationary or mobile devices, such as user-defined satellites, aircraft or vessels equipped receivers ZZZ, and custom radio beacons, such as beacons of the positioning (or beacons for determining the time).

In Fig.1 illustrates the various components of the system corresponding to the invention. This drawing shows an aircraft 10, the vehicle 11 and runway 12.

This drawing also shows the local Autonomous cell 13 custom radio beacons and receivers, which can be both stationary and mobile, and are located near the Earth's surface. These cell Autonomous to the extent that the use of satellites (both major and custom) is not strictly required. However, these cells can be connected by radio with some of the satellites in the system, to provide an additional use of the system. For example, these local cells can accomplish a number of tasks mentioned above and indicated B9, C1, C2, C3, C4, C8 and D3.

In Fig.2 shows a diagram of the reference Radiomania module 22 of the generation and transmission of signals from the carrier generator 24 at a frequency f1and with generator 25 short code Cc1and in module 23 of the generation and transmission of signals from the carrier generator 26 at a frequency f2and with generator 27 short code WITHC2.

The sensor 28 local data connected with the control computer 29, which may be connected to the modem and/or a radio receiver 30. The management computer is connected to the first block formatter 31, located in the module 22 of the generation and transmission of signals, and the second block formatter 32 located in the second module 23 of the generation and transmission of signals.

In each module the generation and transmission of the signal generator carrier 24, 26 is connected with the corresponding modulator 33, 34, which receives the control signal from the integrator 35, 36 connected to the code generator and block formatting. Each modulator is connected with the antenna chart 37, 38 type hemispheres via a corresponding radio frequency amplifier 39, 40. Single-frequency radio beacon contains only one of the modules 22 and 23.

Detailed description of the system corresponding to the invention

A segment of ground-based

The following definitions are used when describing the beacons and signals transferred from the od modulating the i-th carrier frequency.

Di- informational message, the modulating codeciin the band of modulating frequencies.

Rci- the frequency of the i-th pseudo-random code (symb./C).

Nci- the number of characters in a pseudo-random code WITH aCI.

Tci- period of the repetition code Cci(C).

Tci=Nci/Rci.

ANDei- the phase center of the transmitting antenna at a frequency fi.

Peci- the initial current code Cci.

12Aedifferential delay between the phase codes Cc1and Cc2at points Ae1and ae2respectively.

12Pedifferential delay between the phase codes Cc1and Cc2at the points of Pec1and REC2respectively.

fosc- frequency generator beacon.

frefthe frequency of the reference signal, the control code generators and the carrier.

npi; mpi- ranks dividing integers, used the i-th generator of the carrier.

fi=frefxnPI/mPI< / BR>
nCCI, ; mCCI- ranks dividing integers, used the i-th generator short pseudo-random code.

pornego signal.

fref=foscxnr/mr< / BR>
Pei- the power of the signal transmitted at the time ANDei.

Yeiexpression of time for a signal transmitted at the time ANDei.

eithe phase of the carrier transmitted at the time ANDei.

< / BR>
iPAe- group propagation time between points aeiand Pcci.

For example, the following values can be taken as the fundamental parameters of the radio beacon and transmitted reference signal:

fref=10,23 MHz.

Fosc=10,23 or 10 MHz.

f1#S - band (2025-2110 MHz) or X - band (7145-7235 MHz).

f2# ultra high frequency range (401-403 MHz) or L - band (960-1214 MHz or 1215-1240 MHz or 1240-1260 MHz or 1427-1429 MHz or 1559-1610 MHz or 1613,8-1626,5 MHz) or S - band (2025-2110 MHz).

RCel#1,023 Msymb./C.

RCc2#1,023 or 0,511 Msymb./C.

RD1=50 bits/s, or 500 bits/s

RD2=50 bits/s, or 500 bits/s

NCc1#1023

NCc2#1023 511 or

Codesc1and Cc2can be identical. In this case, generators, codes Cc1and Cc2shown on Fig.2, are the same. This leads to the equality

cicalled the reference codes.

For example, short pseudo-random codes can be a C/a code GPS and/or GLONASS. The data transfer rate can, for example, to match the transmission speed of signals in the GPS (and/or signals systems GLONASS and/or RGIC-INMARSAT 3). These examples show that existing technologies can be used for electronic circuits in the radio beacons and receivers ZZZ, without any change or no significant change - Such reuse can be useful from the point of view of reducing the cost of building the radio beacons and receivers due to the continuous support competitive basic system, based on the use of a standard format radionavigation signals.

The beacons in the system corresponding to the invention, conventionally designated as beacons ZZZ.

Basic radio beacons ZZZ made in the form of two-frequency beacon. However, single-frequency radio beacons can also be used as part of a segment of ground-based system corresponding to the invention.

The oscillators of the base beacons ZZZ are high-quality Vysokoye can be connected to them.

Dual frequency beacon, coupled with a highly stable clock on medium or long term, and equipped with a calibration time. forms a beacon to determine the time.

Basic radio beacons ZZZ connected to the microcomputer (internal or external), which provides programming for some parameters of radio beacons and checks the correctness of their operation. The microcomputer is connected with sensors local measurements. These sensors can be of different types, including the following:

The meteorological sensors (e.g., pressure, relative humidity, temperature). For example, these meteorological data can be used to determine the errors of the measurements made by the receivers ZZZ caused by the atmosphere in which spread signals received by the said receiver, and for accumulation of meteorological data in order to use them for monitoring and forecasting the weather.

The sensor raw measurements type GNSS ( pseudoallele, pseudokarst) or sensors GNSS differential correction. These data are used for the purposes of relative navigation (orbital or aerial) Il is the rates of time. The coefficients of time0,1,2such that the difference T between the time of the beacon and the time system corresponding to the invention, is approximated by the following formula:

T(t)#0(t0)+1(t-t0)+2(t-t0)2,

where t is the current time, tabout- the time at which the measured coefficients of time.

These factors of time can be measured by means of GPS or GLONASS or GNSS2, located next to the beacon. These coefficients can also be determined independently by using Central processing system corresponding to the invention, and transmitted to the beacon via a wired communication line or radio. These coefficients can be passed in messages transmitted by the beacons determine the time (W).

Sensors General condition for the various components of the beacon for remote fault diagnosis, out-of-control center for the system corresponding to the invention.

Sensors calibration: these sensors periodically measure various differential and/or absolute delays that occur during transient calibration of the specific beacon. These parameters prgo from different types of sensors, can be transmitted using binary messages D1, while the data obtained from different type of sensors, can be transferred using binary messages D2. Binary messages are D1 and D2 can also be identical.

The beacon ZZZ can be performed as a single frequency. Therefore, they will radiate the signal ye1orE2depending on the specific case.

Reference beacons are also characterized by their transmitting antennas, is described by the following parameters, shown in Fig.3:

ethe elevation angle of the satellite, as it is observed from the beacon relative to the local horizontal.

emij- minimum elevation angle observed with respect to the local horizontal to the i-th frequency and the satellite at a height hj.

e- the angle of sight of the satellite, measured relative to the local vertical.

emij- maximum angle of sight for the i-th frequency and the satellite at a height hj.

Gei(e)- gain of the transmitting antenna to the angle of sighteand for the i-th frequency.

The reference antenna is made of dual-frequency and not very directional; they have a pattern type of the hemisphere. Monomedia rotation relative to the local vertical. The antenna is designed to radiate signals with circular polarization. Its phase center is well-defined.

The carrier frequency (or one of the carrier frequencies associated with some local Autonomous cells of the beacons and receivers may be different from the frequency f1and f2as described above, if you do not want mentioned cells were completely linked by radio with the host or user companion. In this case, the frequency of the local Autonomous cells labeled f3.

System corresponding to the invention also contains a subset of beacons, called precision beacons. These beacons also transmit the signal YeiPincluding short codes Cciand long codes marked WITHLi. These long codes are called precision codes. For example, these codes can be a P-code GPS and/or GLONASS.

For the same full radiated power creating mutual interference signal of this type is much more difficult than in the case of short codes, and the interference with the specified short code is much more difficult than in the case of narrow-band modulation.

These shall be the graph with high thrust for orbit determination and precise synchronization for geostationary satellites.

Hours used: precision beacon, may represent an atomic clock, or the clock on the maser, or cold atomic clock, if the beacon is placed on the Ground.

Precision beacons can also be connected to a cold atomic clock, placed on an orbital satellite. If the satellite is equipped with receivers ZZZ adapted to receive signals transmitted precision beacons placed on the Ground (combined with receivers ZZZ), then the subsystem high-precision monitoring drift of cold atomic clocks.

Precision beacons associated with a clock with long-term stability, at least this exactly what is the stability of the atomic clock, and thus represent the beacons to determine the time.

Subsystem ZZZ, consisting of directional precision beacons and associated receivers, called "ZZZ-time."

< / BR>
The factor airepresents the relative amplitude component signaleipcontaining long code, modulating the carrier fiin the quadrature.

If the beacon is largely directional, frequency fican otlav.

Similarly, if the satellite receiving signals from precision radio beacons on the Ground, includes on-Board precision beacon, frequency fiassociated with this beacon must not be the same as the frequency associated with precision beacons on the Ground. This avoids mutual interference between the direct and reverse communication channels.

RLi- frequency long code, modulating the carrier fi,

NLi- the number of characters of the long code,

TLi- the duration of the long code,

nCLi- integer ratio between the frequency WITHLiand Ccicodes.

For example, the above parameters can have the following values:

RLi=10,23 or 5,11 Msymb./with,

nCLi=RLi/Rci=10,

TLi=one week.

Message Dipassed precision beacon includes periodically updating the time counter. The data contained in the counter is used to pre-install the schema detection precision of the code.

Precision radio beacon can be performed, as shown in Fig.4.

In this drawing there are a number of elements already shown earlier in Fig.2, they are pre the cops: sensor calibration time 45, highly stable clock 46, two integrator 47, 48, two modulator 49, 50, two Phaser on /4 51, 52, two generators 53, 54 codes L1 and CL2, two adder 55, 56.

If the precision code is required, in particular, to improve noise immunity, it is not strictly necessary to precise the beacon passed this code at frequencies f1and f2at the same time.

In one variation of the system corresponding to the invention, some of the leading beacons can be a precision beacons.

In Fig.5 is a diagram showing the different types of radio beacons ZZZ (hatching presents reference system corresponding to the invention (base case); the remainder of Fig. 5 shows possible improvements to the base case).

In Fig.6 presents subsystem precision measurements of the drift of cold atomic clock installed on the satellite. The drift of these hours is controlled with high precision, if the satellite is geostationary.

In Fig.6 shows the satellite 60 and precision station 61. The satellite 60 contains the computer 62 associated with precision beacon 63 and precision receiver 64, and cold atomic the traditional receiver 72, as well as atomic clocks or watches on hydrogen maser 73. Airborne and terrestrial antenna in this embodiment is made directional.

System corresponding to the invention, is also characterized by the rules of allocation of pseudo-random codes for radio beacons. These rules take into account the principle of circles observability. Circle observability outlines of the earth's surface observed from a satellite at an altitude of hias shown in Fig.7.

Circle observability WITHj, characterized by its center located on the surface of the Earth vertically below the satellite, and its square

,

where RT- the radius of the Earth.

The ratio of the area of circles of observability associated with heights hiand hjdenoted by Rsij, is defined as follows:

,

where hj> hi.

Circles observability are also associated with the beacons. These circles are the same as defined above, but centered on the beacon. It is assumed that the satellite is located vertically in line with the beacon.

In Fig. 8 shows four circles observability (C1WITH2WITH3WITH4respectively the heights h1h2h3h4 different. Therefore, the corresponding ratio Rs34=1. This ratio holds for orbits with altitude in excess of h4.

Circles observability affecting the scale of the system corresponding to the invention is first of all circles of type C1WITH2and C4.

The basic rule for building a network of radio beacons ZZZ is the following: two beacon, which allocated an identical code and which should nominally be monitored by one and the same satellite, must be separated by a distance greater than the diameter of the circle of observability associated with these satellites. This rule helps prevent mutual interference between two identical pseudo-random codes.

In Fig.9 and 10 presents the group's beacon emitting a signal with a wide range, for example in the case of a system with two pseudo-random codes. There are two types of beacons in this example, using the above build rule group beacon described above:

- beacons identified by the pseudo-random code, indicated by the symbol "o",

- beacons identified by the pseudo-random code marked with this symbol .
j
within which these beacons can be used. In Fig. 9 presents an example of the first subnet, illustrating this rule. In Fig. 10 presents an example using the same elements and adding a second subnet that corresponds to the specified rule.

The rule to create a network of radio beacons must be observed even more clearly in the special case when each beacon is associated with code that is different from all other codes (special case of the system corresponding to the invention).

It is useful to define the following additional parameters:

Nij- total number of maximum maximorum beacon ZZZ, simultaneously transmitting signals at a frequency fiin terms of observability Cj. This number is determined by the required efficiency of the system corresponding to the invention. It essentially depends on the balance error of the communication channel and measurements.

Nijo- the maximum number of maximorum radio beacons, orbit determination, transmitting a signal at a frequency fiin terms of observability WITHj.

Nijottypical maximum number of beacons the determination of the orbit, transmitting the of Yaakov the determination of the orbit, transmitting a signal at a frequency fiused in the range of Cj.

Nijcttypical total maximum number of user beacons transmitting simultaneously at a frequency fiin terms of observability WITHj.

Nijc- the total number of the maximum of the first operational activity of the user beacons transmitting simultaneously at a frequency fiin terms of observability.

Coi.k- the number of the k-th pseudo-random code associated with the beacon building orbits for frequencies fi.

NMA- the total number of leading beacons.

NMj- the number of leading beacons in the circle WITHj.

Nio- the total maximum number of beacons the determination of the orbit, transmitting at a frequency fion the surface of the Earth.

Niottypical maximum number of beacons transmitting on the frequency fion the surface of the Earth.

othe attenuation coefficient of the density of the network of radio beacons determination of the orbit due to the presence of surface areas covered by oceans, without Islands or ships-carriers.

Example distributions of pseudo-random codes

In this example, will be considered a beacon over eight beacons determine the orbit. Consider the case where N12o=8.

In accordance with the fundamental rule that all pseudo-random codes associated with these eight beacons. These codes are denoted by Co1.1Co1.2WITHO1.3WITHO1.4WITHO1..5WITHO1.6WITHO1.7and CO1.8.

Determine the average number of N1lombeacon construction of the orbit in the range of Ci. This number is determined by the following ratio:

,

RS12=1,88 for h1=400 km, hence N1lom=4,25.

This should provide sufficient overlap of the beacons, so that satellites in low orbit will be able to see at least four of the beacon.

Therefore, we can write: N1loN1lot4.

The number of beacons four selected to provide flexibility in the tasks of the Autonomous determination of spatial position on the orbits of height h1and to ensure rapid convergence of specific ZZZ onboard navigation systems at this altitude. ZZZ receivers designed exclusively for solving navigation tasks and the tasks of determining the spatial position can be equipped with low-precision oscillators, such as Ter is ibraimo small compared to the drift thermally stabilized crystal oscillator in the process of canonicalization (or even in normal mode).

Deviations of this generator can thus be monitored on-Board navigation filter (ZZZ Navigator) almost instantly, even in low orbit.

Therefore, a sufficiently dense network (for example, when Nlot4) opens up the possibility of applications of the system corresponding to the invention, for solving problems in low-earth orbits, which were previously excluded for systems such as the present system of DORIS (because of the risk of saturation of the network at a density in the presence of the beacon location and PRARE (PRARE ground station too complicated, which results in unacceptably high costs on the creation of a network of such density).

Currently, the solution of such problems is only possible with the use of GPS and GLONASS.

In addition, a sufficiently dense network simultaneously available beacons could provide precise orbit determination for satellites in low orbit, in order to perform research in the gravitational field at the corresponding heights without the need for use of specialized beacons on these satellites. Such beacons are assumed to be tracked satellites in higher orbits, not trebula, it is assumed that you must be able to simultaneously track seven beacons determine the orbit of a circle WITH3or4. These seven beacons are not strictly necessary to achieve the required navigation accuracy, but they provide some degree of redundancy, and ensure the procedure RAIM (current Autonomous integrity monitoring receiver). So we use the value of N4ou=7. Basic system ZZZ benefit uses the same type of ground radio beacons (chart antennas, transmission power, etc. for all types of orbits, including the geostationary orbit and the orbit of the transition to a geostationary orbit. The difference between beacons is only possible when using pseudo-random codes and identification numbers.

Codes from Co1.1to Co1.8defined above, are not obviously used, because each of them placed in the same circle WITH4at the same time. The obtained value of RS24#7,5 for h2=800 km and h4=36000 km

Therefore, pseudo-random codes seven beacons observed from the circles C3 and C4 must be different from the codes from Co1.1to Co1.8. These new codes are called C=N12otRS24+N14ou,

N14ot=7.58+7,

N14ot=67.

Codes from Co1.9to Co1.15you can, thus, be observed by all satellites located at altitudes less than h3or h4and especially this is the case for satellites in sun synchronous orbit h2or in a low orbit of h1.

The average number of codes from Co1..9to Co1.15observed in the range FROM2is that

.

In order to limit the value of N12oand so to guarantee a minimum value for N12cthe maximum number of beacons build orbits, for which the code is between Co1and Co1.15in the circle WITH2limited m=2:

N12o=N12ot+m

N12o=8+2=10.

A network of radio beacons build orbits must include at least the N4M=2 the leading beacons on the circle observability WITH4(one leg leading to the beacon and one leading beacon hot spare). Everyone has to pass specific information to the satellites (master and user) in a geostationary orbit, between the aisles orbiting satellites. Therefore, pseudo-random codes associated with the leading beacons must be between C and Co1.15orthogonal to each other.

In Fig. 11 shows an example of allocating codes ZZZ beacon build orbits.

The total number of leading beacons NMso is at least the

,

where ST- the surface of the Earth, ST= 4R2TNMA#2,352#5.

ZZZ leading beacons can be installed gradually. Two or three leading beacon can be sufficient for covering the needs of satellites placed into orbit with a height of h2type, and geostationary satellites associated with areas of observability, which are two or three beacon. The need to increase the number of leading beacons in relation to their original configuration due partly to ensure full coverage of geostationary orbits and partly by a small number of contacts satellites in low-altitude orbits (altitude h1type) with specific leading beacon. These beacons are associated with the system time according to the invention, which itself is associated with the global reference time. They can be used to bind the onboard clock to a known time standard (sync Board-Land"). The increase in the number of leading beacons (and/or beacons, opacity reducing time-to-canonicalization onboard systems orbital navigation receivers ZZZ aboard orbiting satellites.

Below, we use the following entry:

mijothe number of single-frequency radio beacons build orbits, transmitting at a frequency fiin Cjcircle.

bjothe number of dual-frequency radio beacons in Cjcircle.

So get:

nijo=bjo+mijo.

In the above example it was assumed that the range of C2does not contain more than eight beacons build orbits, transmitting at a frequency f1a:

N12o=b2o-m12 8.

Similarly, it was assumed that the number of beacons build orbits, transmitting at a frequency f1contained in the circle C1that is at least 4, if it is possible in accordance with the geography of the area (for example, remote from areas of earth's surface covered by ocean, no Islands), i.e.:

N1lo=b1o+m1lo4.

Therefore, you can be satisfied needs listed above as task type A11, A21, A31 and A41.

Similarly, in this example it is assumed that a circle WITH a2must contain at least four dual-frequency radio beacons build orbits to meet the needs outlined above, as tasks>0
4.

From the above inequalities we get, that the condition relating to the number of single-frequency radio beacons transmitting on the frequency f1in the circle WITH2is:

0m12o4.

This double inequality represents the different choices for the composition of frequencies in a network of radio beacons ZZZ:

or all the beacons are dual frequency (m12o=0);

any single-frequency radio beacons "compensate" the possible lack of radio beacons for satellites placed in low orbit (altitude type h1), under the assumption that mainly uses single-frequency receivers ZZZ for solving navigation tasks and define the spatial position.

In the example described above, it is possible to estimate the maximum number of beacons to build orbits, transmitting at a frequency f1:

N1o#N14otST/S4#157,

Nlot#ON1p# 110, whereo# 0,7.

It is assumed that the deterioration factorolimited by the following factors: 1) the installation of a number of beacons build orbits near the Earth's poles to meet the needs of the task In 10, 2) installation of beacons on the many Islands with a favorable geograficas rbit can be installed gradually until it reaches the final number, to ensure a level of redundancy required for the integrated operational use. After that we can talk about a full operational system performance.

Custom radio beacons

The number of Nijcand the number of Nijctcustom beacon simultaneously transmitting signals within the range of C, such that

Nijct=Nij-Nijot,

Nilc=Nij-Nijo.

However, the number of user beacons located within the circle Cjmay be much larger. Some beacons can transmit only on some days of the week. So defined "code word of the week" (WW) according to the following format:

< / BR>
where each value bk is a Boolean value associated with one of the days of the week. If one of these values is set to "I", it means that the beacon will transmit its signal within a day of the week associated with this value. If the other Boolean value is set to "0", it means that the beacon will be placed in standby mode for the corresponding day of the week.

Custom radio beacons located bmike and Geophysics at the local level) will share the same weekly code word(ww). This means that the set of beacons, forming a grid on the controlled area, can transmit signals at the same time. Although these beacons are very close to each other, they do not provide each other mutual interference due to multiple access with distribution codes. The accuracy of the positioning relative to the two-frequency beacon ZZZ, forming a grid on the ground, is extremely high, as the transfer are carried out simultaneously. This leads to the accumulation of a large number of raw measurements made on Board satellites observer it is Also possible to use interferometric methods using the phases of the received carrier, similar to techniques used in geodesy and precision geophysical studies using GPS systems.

Deformation area can be controlled very accurately using Earth observation sensors with on-Board receiver ZZZ and radar with synthetic aperture, and thus to apply the methods of radar interferometry. System corresponding to the invention provides for the determination of the orbits of the satellites with onboard radar, and the determination of the relative and absolue control changes to specified locations in time.

Determining locations implemented in the claimed system may be provided with higher accuracy than with the use of modern systems GPS, GLONASS, DORIS, PRARE.

Interferometric images obtained by radar with synthetic aperture, provide curves deformation areas.

The relationship between ZZZ and radar with synthetic aperture can be profitably used for monitoring and forecasting of natural phenomena (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and so on). This ensures satisfaction of the requirements specified above for the task B9.

In Fig. 12 presents an interferometric image obtained by radar with synthetic aperture curves illustrating the deformation areas 80 and detailed position change custom beacon included in the grid on the ground.

Custom beacons forming a grid on the terrain in potentially hazardous areas, can be used in conjunction with located near them by seismic sensors of a type.

Some custom beacon located at the position for an extended period BP is the batteries, rechargeable using solar panels, for example, as shown in Fig.13. In this case, it may be necessary in a certain way to distribute the value of a Boolean numbers corresponding to the days of the week to program the cycles of charge and discharge of battery power for a specific beacon.

In Fig. 14 shows an example of a percentage to charge as a function of time.

Code word of the week for the offline user beacons should be transferred to a Central control system corresponding to the invention.

The control center regulates the use of all code words of the week subject to the following rules:

If Nijgcthe global value number of user radio that can transmit on the frequency f1in the circle WITHjall Boolean values bkithe code words of the week for the user of the i - th beacon shall be selected so as to satisfy the relation

< / BR>
for all values from 1 to 7.

Note that, although NjGcNijchowever , there is no need to manage the weekly code words. All beacons connected to the network power supply (i.e., for which there is probie:

< / BR>
Pseudo-random codes, the selected user to the beacon must be chosen consistently with the weekly code words. Codes allocated to these beacons marked Cci.1WITHCI.2WITHCI.3,...,CI.n. These orthogonal codes all codes allocated to the beacon building orbits. Their selection is almost identical selection for radio beacons build orbits.

The number of destination code for each beacon ZZZ contained in the transmitted information message, not the same as the number of destination code for all other beacons.

The advantage of single-frequency radio beacons is determined as a function of the following parameters of an economic nature:

CMB= development costs for single-frequency radio beacon, if a dual frequency radio beacons have already been developed.

WITHMn- recurring costs for a single-frequency radio beacon, required for the production of n beacons.

NM- the number of beacons that do not require a strictly two-frequency mode.

WITHBm- recurring costs of a dual frequency beacon, required for the production of m beacon.

NB- the number of beacons, which ought to be Dvoretsa the following relationship:

< / BR>
Therefore, it is possible to make a choice between different options for providing a set of terrestrial network beacons if the number of beacons and associated costs are known.

Segment space-based

In Fig.15 shows a diagram for a leading satellite (SM).

Leading the satellites are equipped with dual-frequency receiver ZZZ 85 and two respective receiving antennas 86, 87. A receiver connected to a satellite system data bus 88. This bus is connected to the onboard computer 89 designed to control all on-Board system. Block formatting data 91 is also connected to the bus 89.

The bus is also connected to the block format data, paired with the transceiver 90 remote sensing and remote control. The raw measurements and data received by the receiver ZZZ, are sent to the antenna remote sensing and remote control, which transmits them to the Earth. Plans functioning leading receiver taken in the form of data remote control sent to the receiver via the data bus of the satellite.

If the system corresponding to the invention is used for the standard pic is Antonych measurements, do not necessarily have to be coherent transceiver designed for measuring bilateral distribution (and/or Doppler measurements) in the ground station, which produces the tracking of the satellite.

Therefore, satellite transponders and ground stations in this case substantially simplified.

One of the frequencies of the system corresponding to the invention, may be in the S - band allocated for remote control and remote measurements (2025-2110 MHz). This frequency f1can the preferred way to get to the compatibility of the satellite-carrier transceiver with antenna remote sensing and remote control in S - band. The number of antennas for a given satellite can be reduced if the bandwidth used antenna S - band compatible with strips of service-type remote measurement and remote control and with the band at a frequency f1system corresponding to the invention. In this case, the schema used for the leading satellite may be one shown in Fig.16 and 17, the elements identical to those given in Fig.14, are denoted by the same Sega satellite, with the following exception:

1) the receiver may be a reference or precision single-frequency or dual-frequency receiver;

2) raw measurements and data received by the radio beacon is not transmitted systematically to the Ground, and depending on the tasks the user satellite.

In Fig. 18 shows a diagram for the base receiver ZZZ. This drawing shows two antennas 100, 101, each of which is connected with the radio frequency chip or hybrid elements 102, 103 and the analog-digital Converter 104, 105, digital switches 106, 107, specialized circuits 98, 99 (see Fig.18), the microprocessor 108, coupled to the memory unit 109 and the interface 110. The microprocessor 108 includes one or two microprocessor or one microprocessor associated with the coprocessor.

The receiver also comprises a generator 111 and the power source 112. Specialized integrated circuit can be designed as a multi-standard; the channels are programmable (if Cc1not equal TOc2) and provide processing codes Cc1and Cc2. This scheme eliminates the cases of receivers of signals from satellites of the GPS, GLONASS or GNSS1.

In Fig.19 shows desease presents antennas 114, amplifiers 115, connected to the first programmable switch 116, the radio frequency IC chip 117 (f1or f2connected with two n-channel specialized IP 118, 119 for a single code, the microprocessor 120, the memory unit 121, an interface 122, a power source 123 and thermally stabilized crystal oscillator 124. This scheme eliminates the use of receivers of signals from satellites of the GPS or GLONASS.

In Fig.20 shows a single-frequency receiver ZZZ for solving navigation tasks and define the spatial position. This drawing shows the antenna 130, a radio frequency chip 131 to the frequency f1the sampling switch 132, two n-channel specialized circuits 133, 134 for a single code, the microprocessor 135, a memory unit 136, the interface 137, the power source 138 and thermally stabilized crystal oscillator 139.

In Fig. 21 shows a dual frequency receiver ZZZ for navigation, build orbits and precise determination of the spatial position. This drawing shows the antenna 140, a chip 141, a switch 142 sampling, specialized circuits 143, 144, the microprocessor 145, a memory unit 146, the interface 147, generator 148 and the power source 149.

Each companie together, depending on the optimization of the development costs and market conditions.

In Fig.22 shows a basic receiver, a mixed type of GNSS-ZZZ. The drawing shows the antenna 150, chip 151, operating at a frequency fithe switches 152, specialized circuits 153, 154, the microprocessor 155, a memory 156, the interface 157 and generator 158.

Here fiis ZZZ-frequency (f1f2or f3.

fkis the frequency of the GPS or GLONASS system, or system GNSS2.

Codes Cckrepresent the C/a codes of the GPS or GLONASS or codes of the GNSS system.

Such a receiver can satisfy the above needs, conventionally denoted by A11. A12, A13, A14, A31, A32, A33, A34, C1, C2, C3, C4, C7, C8, D3, D4.

Receivers of mixed type GNSS-ZZZ

Receivers of mixed type can be of the following types:

GLONASS-ZZZ,

GPS-ZZZ,

GNSS2-ZZZ. i.e.GNSS3.

These receivers meet the maximum needs of Autonomous systems for space applications.

Features navigation and plotting the orbit can be ensured, even if you only use one of two systems (a constellation of satellites in orbit, or a network of radio beacons on the Ground).

For example, smashana time when used satellite constellation can go from A - code mode "paid" service or in connection with the required data.

In addition, simultaneous observability of these satellites and beacons will provide a very short convergence time for on-Board navigation systems, to install or maintain position and to improve the appropriate precision in the process of functioning of the systems used.

Receivers of mixed type can be used in strategic satellites. For satellites of mixed type can have the following ways to build systems depending on the configuration of the switch:

a) 2n channels allocated to the system corresponding to the invention,

b) n channels, the selected constellation of satellites used, and n channels allocated to the system corresponding to the invention,

C) 2n channels, the selected constellation of satellites.

Configuration (b) is preferred for tasks C1, C2, C3, C4, D3.

Dual-frequency receivers are of mixed type (dual-frequency receivers of the system GNS S3) are optimal for scientific applications B1-B10.

Fig.23 and 24 illustrate a cheap single-frequency (navigatio astata chip 161 frequency fi, ADC 162, specialized IP codecithe microprocessor 164, the memory 165 and interface 166.

In Fig.24 shows the antenna 170, the RF circuits 171, 172 frequency f1and f2, ADC 173, 174, two reference precision specialized circuits 175, 176, microprocessor 177, memory 178, interface 179, high-precision clock 180. Each specialized precision IP associated with the frequency fican handle short code Cciand a long code WITHLi. Two calibration module 181, 182 connected between each of the specialized IP and chip, corresponding, respectively. Reference precision receiver ZZZ is designed to handle signals for precision radio with antenna pattern type of the hemisphere. Receivers ZZZ, intended for the control of atomic clocks in orbit, equipped with specialized precision IP, modified relative precision reference ASIC, to reduce instrumental noise measurements due to reasons other than heat.

The receiving antenna

Satellites are also characterized by their foster antennas is described by the following parameters:

r- angle IU the first elevation, relative to the local horizontal, for the i-th frequency (i{1; 2}) and the altitude of a satellite hj.

r- the angle of sight of the beacon relative to the local vertical.

rmij- maximum angle of sight for the i-th frequency and height of the satellite, hj.

Gri(r)- gain receiving antenna for angle of sightrand the i-th frequency.

The reference receiving antenna is made of dual-frequency and have the pattern type of the hemisphere for satellites with orbits of type h1and h2and, therefore, are not vysokonapolnennyh. Ideally they should have a symmetry of rotation relative to the local vertical.

The antenna is designed for reception of circular polarized signals emitted by the beacons type ZZZ.

Chart shown in Fig.25, corresponds to the case of a satellite in low orbit.

The relationship between angles and characterizing the line of sight to the beacon satellite, have the following form:

For a satellite in low orbit (h1or h2):e# ror /2 #e+r.

The system is determined by considering the following relationship

rmij#emijnamely SUB>3or h4) get:

,

.

In the case of a geostationary satellite (or satellites GNSS2) that are already installed in the specified position, the receiving antenna is oriented so that its area of overlap in areas similar to the area covered by a circle WITH4(or3).

In addition, Ari- the phase center of the receiving antenna at frequency fi.

System characteristics ZZZ

Fig. 26 illustrates space channels of communication between the beacon ZZZ and receiver ZZZ.

Define the following parameters:

C/No is the ratio of signal power (S) to the spectral noise density (No).

the ratio C/No, adjusted the antenna taking into account thermal noise for frequencies fiand height hj.

equivalence ratio C/No, based on the other beacons transmitting simultaneously in the circle WITHjat a frequency fu.

the equivalent ratio C/No, given the narrow-band sources of interference present in the range of Cjfor frequencies fi.

the equivalent ratio C/No, given the white noise of non-thermal origin, present in the range of Cjfor frequencies fi.

equivalent globalname.

Taking into account the introduced relations'll get:

,

.

Also defines the following parameters:

C is the speed of light=3108m/s,

Dij- the distance between the phase centers of aeiand Ariassociated with satellites at a height of hj.

For subsequent calculations use the following approximation:

D1j#D2j#Dj,

Leijthe attenuation in free space for frequencies fi(Le< 1) and a height of hj,

Lai(r)- weakening other than in free space, for frequencies fi(La> 1) and angle of sight r< / BR>
,

k - Boltzmann's constant=1,37910-23J/K

Tij- noise temperature of the system, adjusted the antenna for frequencies fiand height hj,

NOthijis the spectral density of thermal noise, adjusted the antenna for frequencies fiand height hj,

WITHijthe useful power of the received signal in the antenna for frequencies fiand height hj< / BR>
,

NOthij=CTij,

.

In the best case you will get:

,

.

In worst case you will get:

,

.

In addition, you will receive:

,

wow beacon are taken under the worst case and (Nij- 1) other beacons carrying out transmission at the same time in the range of Cjaccepted as, at best.

.

This calculation gives an optimistic estimate, since it assumes that the signals used beacon accepted in the best case and (Nuj-1) other beacons carrying out transmission at the same time in the range of Cjare considered in the worst case; and

,

.

The parameters of the system corresponding to the invention, are chosen so that

,

where Mi - margin cross-correlation related to codesci. This avoids mutual interference between orthogonal codes WITHci. Additional stock may be taken into account when the Doppler frequency associated with the different codes, sufficiently removed from one another.

The parameters of the medium taking into account the mutual interference can be represented as follows:

Noxijthe density of white noise (or equivalent noise) caused by the individual sources, perceived receiving antenna for the first frequency and a height of hj.

bij- average power powerful narrowband interference sources for the i-th frequency and height hj, vospriniali hj.

FMij- the difference in the mean frequency for high-power narrow-band sources of interference for the i-th frequency and height hj.

Fmij- the difference in the mean frequency for weak narrowband interference sources for the i-th frequency and height hj.

Relationships are calculated using the parameters given above:

,

,

,

,

where E denotes the integer part of the expression in parentheses, a sinc denotes a sinusoidal function.

The parameters of the system corresponding to the invention is chosen so that

.

Frequencies f1 and f2 of the system corresponding to the invention are chosen from the condition of maximizing values

< / BR>
.

to the extent permitted by law distribution of the frequency range.

The following parameters are introduced to characterize the ASIC in the reference receivers ZZZ:

Bbmij- for single-sided noise bandwidth of the measurement range for frequency fiand height hj.

Bnpijthe noise bandwidth for one-way Doppler measurements for frequencies fiand height hj.

T - time Doppler measurements.

Li- the inner pot.

the standard deviation of the noise of the pseudorange measurement (m) at frequency fiin the absence of interference, for the height h.

the standard deviation of the noise measurement pseudokarst (m/s) at a frequency fiin the absence of interference, for a height of hj.

the corresponding standard deviations in an environment with interference.

Using the entered parameters will receive:

< / BR>
< / BR>
Standard deviations are calculated using a formula that is identical to the above with the following substitution

.

Noise measurements associated with the generators, are as follows:

PDosc- standard deviation of 1 Sigma noise measurements of pseudorange caused by generators.

PVosc- standard deviation of 1 Sigma noise measurement pseudokarst caused by generators.

Measurement noise caused by generators, are calculated using the following options:

F is the frequency difference (Hz)

F - Central oscillator frequency (Hz).

Transient stability of the generator is denoted by Si (i=b for the on-Board generator, i=S for ground generator).

Stability opalenik short-term measurements of pseudorange (or pseudokarst marked as PDorPVare expressed as follows:

In an environment without obstacles:

,

.

In an environment with noise:

,

.

Strategy initialization of the system corresponding to the invention

In the case of the reference receiver, shown in Fig.27A or 27B, the receiver switches to single-frequency mode if the initialization procedure. The switch can be configured for these purposes as follows.

Specialized circuits are assumed to be multi-standard (suitable for codes Cc1and Cc2). Each channel searches for the code Coi..kobserved from the circle Cj.

For example, in the case of the orbit at a height of h1or h2the observed codes can be designated asoi.1WITHoi.2,..., Coi.8WITHOI.9,...,OI.15(see rule distribution codes for radio beacons build orbits).

The receiver ZZZ simultaneously performs the determination of the energy for all short pseudo-random codes associated with the beacons build orbits.

In the case of the above example, this is the number of codes is equal to 15. If specialized circuits have n channels, then they should theoretically obey the following rule:

2n15, sledovatel the x IP mode for the parallel determination of energy.

We adopt the following notation:

BDij - Doppler band at frequency fjassociated with height hj.

Vjmax - maximum radial velocity between the satellite and the beacon for the height hj.

Fijna - width of the Doppler band associated with the frequency fiand height hjoffline detection.

Tj is the average duration of observability beacon in the range of Cj.

Trmaxija- the maximum duration of the Autonomous search energy for frequencies fiand height hj.

NcDijnathe number of Doppler bands for Autonomous search energy for frequencies fiand height hj.

ijna- full duration of the scan for a short pseudo-random code WITH acifor the height hj.

Using the entered parameters will receive:

< / BR>
Doppler measurements are investigated for direction opposite to the direction of the average change observed Doppler frequencies, as shown in Fig.28.

In one embodiment of the invention investigated only Doppler measurements corresponding to the positive change of the Doppler frequency. This Strategia frequency positive, if the satellite and the beacon are approaching each other.

The original data (without processing) are performed periodically.

Doppler measurements are performed in sequential mode, provided that the periods of Doppler samples are strictly related.

Navigation system receiver ZZZ uses Doppler measurements and their relative Dating to determine the source of the orbit in the same way as is canonicalization in navigation systems current systems DORIS.

Used absolute Dating by using signals from the leading beacons, which transmit the coefficients of time relative to the system time ZZZ and the world of time and possibly from some beacon for the construction of the orbits, and to determine the time, also transmitting the said coefficients of the time.

Improved on-Board precision orbit determination is achieved gradually, until a stable value. Such precision is characterized by a standard deviation of 1 evaluation of the distance (radius) between the satellite and the beacon markedD< / BR>
The navigation system then can the range associated with the said beacon. Discusses the beacon Bjmoreover , it is believed that the satellite is equipped with dual-frequency receiver ZZZ, as shown in Fig.29.

Measuring the pseudorange PDijassociated with the beacon for which j= a and b at a frequency fisuch that:

PDij= Dj+CTjsat+Cionoj-sati,,

where Tjsat- the time difference between the satellite clock and the clock on the j-th beacon;

(ionoj-sat)i is the ionospheric delay associated with satellite and j-th beacon, for frequencies fi.

Dj- the distance between the j-th beacon and companion, typically well known after the navigation system achieved the status of convergence.

Therefore, the required difference in time Tjsatis defined as follows:

.

Unknown remained ionospheric delay (ionoj-sat(i )It is determined in the following form:

,

where Ej is the elevation angle of the satellite track for the j-th beacon at the maximum electron concentration of the ionosphere (in radians), which is well known in advance.

SETH - complete content of electrons in the ionosphere vertical (electron/m2), well known in advance.

Ecevit measurement of the pseudorange. 'll get:

.

The ionospheric delay can therefore be measured:

.

The standard deviation (ionoj-sat(i )to measure the ionospheric delay is determined as follows:

,

wherePDij- the standard deviation of the measurements of pseudorange computed for the environment without noise or interference, depending on the specific case.

The standard deviation of the sync Board-Ground Tjsatis defined as follows:

.

The uncertainty of the calculated difference time Tjsatignores the error calibration of airborne and ground equipment, marked Ecal.

The full error in the instant evaluation of Tjsatmarked ETjsat. The value of this error may increase when the following entry:

ETjsatTjsat+Ecal.

In practice, the navigation system ZZZ can filter this failure to pass on a specific radio beacons, in order to reduce it. This filtered error is denoted by ETjsat< / BR>
Nominal strategy of functioning of the system corresponding to the invention

If the number of navigation systems ZZZ reference receivers, initiatives and the limited number of channels, the receivers move in dual frequency mode.

Corresponding to the configuration shown in Fig.27.

Leading companions and some custom satellites dump the raw measurements and data taken on Board in the control center, and control center prepares work plans for these satellites. These plans work composed mostly of numbers of the user of the radio beacons that should be monitored, and of the related observation period.

The control center may also transfer plan initialization on some satellites through leading beacons, if necessary. For example, these plans may include orbital parameters for these satellites and/or the difference in time between the time the beacon and the time data of the satellites. As soon as the beacon is captured on the support, he tracked orbiting satellites until it is installed.

Initialized navigation system ZZZ perform Doppler prepositionally (or prepositionally range) to reduce circuit photoslideshow circuit (or time path tracking code), integrated in the structure jk- band Doppler prepositionally associated with height hjfrequency fiand k-m onboard generator.

Fija- band width of the Doppler measurement associated with the frequency fiand height hjwhen the system is in discovery mode.

NCDijathe number of Doppler measurements for nonautonomous search energy at frequency fifor a height hjand the k-th on-Board generator

.

Trmaxija- the maximum duration of a non-Autonomous search of energy.

ija- scanning period for a range of prepositionally in range for a short pseudo-random code Cciand height hj.

Tijk- the width of the range prepositionally range.

< / BR>
is chosen so that

Trmaxija<maxija.

Tacq- the maximum difference in time between the two nonautonomous detections of the same beacon.

the maximum frequency drift of the beacon over a period of Tacq.

Using the above parameters will receive:

.

The width of the Tijkcan be reduced, if the evaluation of shift-Board h is roscow frequency for the Central line of the spectrum of the radio beacon and associated pseudodominant.

Thresholds for detection and tracking of pseudo-random codes can be reduced, if the prediction of the Doppler values are more accurate than the band prediction INFi.

If the reduction is provided by the method of "code-only", then the circuit carrier for receiving channel ZZZ open and digital controlled generator is driven by the predicted Doppler value.

Contour tracking code receiving channel is the path of the second order and is supported by Doppler measurements. He compensates for the error between the actual Doppler frequency and the predicted Doppler frequency and supports digital controlled oscillator in the circuit of servo control. It is used for measuring the pseudorange.

However, because the contour tracking of the carrier is open, the message ZZZ no longer is demodulated. This method, therefore, provides tracking of pseudo-random codes in an environment with strong interference sources.

Method "code-only"; especially useful for receivers located in a geostationary orbit (type h4).

Measuring the pseudorange corrected ecotarian can take place, when the relationship C/No small that can occur when taking ZZZ signals to a geostationary orbit.

To identify and rejectee such false detections are two methods:

Autonomous integrity monitoring receiver (RAIM method)

This method has been tested for GNSS receivers. It consists in performing probabilistic validation of the quadratic sum of the residues for the measurement of the pseudorange. For the effectiveness of this method is to find the minimum number of NRAIMthe beacon.

Strengthening the reliability of the search energy

All position codes for which the limit capture mode "code-only" exceeded, should be recorded, and should be chosen position code associated with the maximum of maximum detected energy corresponding to the main correlation peak, which reduces the risk of false detections when scanning the search area of energy.

When using geostationary satellites receivers should be able to provide:

- signal processing: two synchronized beacons (i.e., distribution coefficients) time taken exceeds the normal threshold of detection (i.e., without the use of methods, taken exceeds the normal threshold of detection.

In this case, the receiver may determine a coarse orbital parameters to calculate a reasonably accurate forecast Doppler values for use by the method of "code-only". The beacon signals received exceeds the normal threshold detection fixed geostationary satellites have the latitude is less than the limit, depending on the state of the balance of the connection.

However, such initial conditions described above are not strictly necessary for most geostationary satellites in the prescribed position. The maximum Doppler value may actually be less than the projected bandFi. This means that the original Doppler predicted value issued by the navigation system may simply be zero and can be discovered only mode for code, provided that the on-Board generator is stable enough.

In Fig.30 shows an example of using the navigation payload GNSS2 (in orbit type (h3or h4).

This drawing shows the computer 200 associated with blocks of formation the 201, connected to an antenna 206, a block of high-stability oscillator and the local oscillator 202, the generator 203 signal L-band system GNSS2, coupled with the two antennas 204 and 205.

The choice of the type of receiver ZZZ (single-frequency or dual-frequency) is a function of the required accuracy of the construction of the orbit and absolute on-Board synchronization.

The navigation payload is equipped with a system of global calibration required for absolute synchronization. This system of global calibration is simplified if the formats for signals ZZZ and GNSS2 the same.

The use of the system corresponding to the invention for clock synchronization

System corresponding to the invention, can be used to determine the difference in time Tabbetween the hours of two beacons a and b with high accuracy.

The difference in time Ta-satbetween the hours of beacon and satellite is determined as described above.

The difference in time Tb-satbetween the hours of beacon b and the satellite is determined as described above.

Therefore, the instantaneous values of the difference at time Tab'll get:

Tab= Ta-sat-Tb-sat.

which of computations, should be carried out simultaneously.

Obviously, this difference in time can be filtered on Board receiver ZZZ in real time, or with higher accuracy Autonomous in the control center (standard clock) or in the processing centre (precision synchronization).

An example of the synchronization network ZZZ with the use of satellites in orbits of type h2.

"Synchronization" means knowing the difference in time between beacons.

In Fig. 31 shows a graph showing the footprint on the Earth's surface during the passage of such a satellite over the radio (here INi- beacons observed by satellite; C2i- circles of observability for a satellite at a height of h2).

The difference in time TB1B2between beacon B1and beacon2determined to range observability C21.

Similarly, the difference between the time obtained for each range observability presented below.

< / BR>
Therefore, estimates of the difference in time between beacons may periodically adjust.

An example of the synchronization network ZZZ using geostationary satellites in addition to the JV limited to a small area, which is almost a point; therefore, by definition, the satellite is always over the same portion of the surface of the Earth.

So in the above example, the beacons IN4IN5IN6IN7and B8continuously observed from geostationary, which therefore can simultaneously and continuously to define the following difference time:

< / BR>
as shown in Fig.32 and 33.

In the more General case, the number of differences in time NTthis type associated with n beacons in range observability, is defined as follows:

.

Therefore, it is clear that it is more profitable to use leading geostationary satellites to receivers ZZZ on Board for synchronization of a network of radio beacons with higher accuracy than can be provided by using satellites in low orbit or on a sun synchronous orbit, provided Autonomous navigation referred to geostationary satellites.

In principle, measurement of pseudorange performed all the leading companions and some custom satellites, can be used to synchronize the network, without requiring prerequisites simultaneous nabludatelnost use of technology C/a-code GPS (or GNSS) for frequencies f1and f2.

In this case, the cost of single-frequency receivers ZZZ produced using competitive industrial technology, will be similar to the cost of GPS receivers, for equivalent precision navigation, or better for receivers ZZZ (no "selective availability", "funds contradirectional suppression", the best positioning emitting reference sources located on the Ground).

Moreover, the cost of the dual frequency reference receiver ZZZ can be more competitive than the cost of dual-frequency receivers - GPS or GLONASS, because, unlike the latter, they do not require technology that is designed to track long codes. In addition, for dual-frequency receivers civilian applications of GPS are additional costs caused by the use of schemes bestowed" measurements.

In other words, the system ZZZ corresponding to the invention, is more competitive than GPS or GLONASS for most applications in space. The same justifications are fair to an even greater extent in respect of the current systems or DORIS PRARE. In addition, the system is suitable the changes in the area of related to space.

Sources of information

1. M. Dorrer. Le systeme DORIS (Space positioning and navigation), Toulouse, March 1989, CNES (French national Centre for space studies).

2. J. P. Berthias, C. Jayles, D. Pradines. Calculation d orbite a bord de SPOT avec DORIS (on-Board orbit calculation using DORIS), (presented at the Symposium "Space systems detect and determine the position", organized by the Society of electrical and electronics engineers 3 February 1993).

3. F. Nouel, J. P. Berthias et al. Precise Centre National d'etudes Spatiales orbits for TOPEX/POSEIDON: is reaching 2 cm still a challenge? (Journal of Geophysical Research, v.99, N C12, p. 24; 405-24. 419, December 1994).

4. N. de Cheyzelles. Le systeme de localisation et de navigation GPS NAVSTAR System positioning and navigation GPS-NAVSTAR). Space Positioning and Navigation Systems, Toulouse, March 1989, CNES.

5. Technical Description and Characteristics of Global Space Navigation System GLONASS-M (RTCA Paper N 502.94/SC159-594).

6. W. Lechner, Ch. Reigber. The PRARE/GPS Experiment - A Contribution to Geodesy, Geodynamics and Navigation (Satellite navigation. Conference of the Royal society for the navigation, 1989).

1. Global system for navigation and positioning satellite locations, vehicles or stationary custom items, Otley is isolately, when this segment of ground-based and includes the following elements: a global network of radio beacons on the ground, emitting a unidirectional radio signals with a wide range in the direction of the user satellites, and each of these beacons transmits a message containing the identification code, the control center for building plans of operation for certain user-defined satellites and their transfer in the span of these satellites over the leading beacon processing center, used for receiving remote measurements, sorted by control center, division of remote measurements into two groups, one of which contains the remote measurement required for processing, carried out at the processing center, and the other contains the remote measurement required by users of the services provided by this system, the space-based segment includes leading satellites and user satellites, and leading the satellites are participating together in the system, and the user segment consists of fixed and mobile stations-media user receivers and polzovatelya to build orbits for custom satellites, accurate data of the spatial position of the user satellites, characteristic parameters of the ionosphere, the coefficients of time for the beacon relative to the system time generated by the processing center, and the specified data is distributed partly to the users of the services mentioned by the system and returned to the control center, which uses them for planning and programming, and to provide a standard orbits for stations on remote sensing and remote control that uses services provided by the mentioned system.

2. The system under item 1, characterized in that uses ground-based radio beacons of various types, including radio beacons build orbits, the position of which is precisely known and which continuously transmit a signal and periodically transmit the data to your location, custom radio, including radio beacons of the positioning, the position of which in the General case is unknown when entering their service, leading beacons, which transmit useful information and plans of operation for certain user-defined satellites and/or to the receiving part of the system.

3. System is determined as being the generator, and designed to handle messages transmitted by leading beacons, while raw measurements to be performed by this receiver, and the data received from the beacon is formatted in the form of distance measurements made by the ground point, and the processing center is used as the destination address.

4. The system under item 3, characterized in that the leading satellites have orbits quasi-sun synchronous type and, if necessary, additional low-earth orbit and/or geostationary orbit.

5. The system under item 1, characterized in that for custom satellites is not required to transfer their remote measurements to the processing center, and is not mandatory processing messages transmitted by leading beacons.

6. The system under item 5, wherein the user-defined satellites can remain in orbit of any type and at the same time can form part of the space-based segment and segment users on the system.

7. The system under item 1, characterized in that the custom radio beacons mainly represent the beacons for positioning and radio beacons to determine the time.

8. The system p is mA by p. 1, characterized in that it includes precision beacons.

10. The system under item 1, characterized in that two of the radio beacon, which allocated an identical psevdochumoy code and which are nominally will be monitored by a single satellite, selectrows range greater than the diameter of a circle observability for these satellites.

11. The system under item 1, characterized in that the signals of carrier frequencies transmitted by the beacon is modulated short code spread spectrum, which is the reference code.

12. The system under item 1, characterized in that it contains a single-frequency or dual-frequency receivers.

13. The system under item 1, characterized in that the precision beacons designed as a dual-frequency, whereby each transmitted carrier frequency modulated by the long code spread spectrum, which is the precision code and a short code, which is the reference code.

14. The system under item 1, characterized in that it includes orbital receivers or receivers placed near the earth's surface which is stationary or mobile.

15. The system under item 1, characterized in that it contains the following receivers: basic receivers, cheap navigation, when the population of the spatial position, receivers for navigation, orbit determination and precise determination of the spatial position, the receivers of mixed type, providing processing of the signals transmitted by the beacon system and satellites within the constellation of global space navigation system.

16. The system under item 1, characterized in that it contains the receivers, providing processing only reference codes, and the receivers, providing processing of the reference codes and precision codes simultaneously and are precision receivers.

17. The system under item 1, characterized in that it contains a precision current control subsystem drift orbital atomic clock.

18. The system under item 1, characterized in that the sequence of transmission custom radio controlled based on the daily cycle described by code words of the week.

19. The system under item 1, characterized in that the electrical and antenna characteristics of all ground-based radio beacons are similar, except for the beacon designed for precision current control drift orbital atomic clock with antenna directional diagrams, instead of the antennas with the chart type of the hemisphere for="ptx2">

20. The system under item 1, characterized in that when the interferometric image formation using satellite carriers synthetic aperture radars, the system can be used for accurate monitoring of deformations of the area covered by a mesh beacon signals which are accepted by the receiver mentioned system installed on satellites - media radar.

21. The system under item 1, characterized in that with the use of moving in orbit or geostationary satellites with on-Board receiver mentioned system, the system provides precise information about the deviations in time for the clock radio beacons, in particular, the beacon data definition time.

22. The system under item 1, characterized in that the navigation satellites of the type GNSS2 use the receiver mentioned systems for their navigation tasks and to generate tables of orbital parameters and ephemeris transmitted to the users mentioned satellites such GNSS2.

23. The system under item 1, characterized in that it includes local Autonomous cell radio beacons and receivers, and these cells are connected to radican the system according to any one of paragraphs. 1-23, characterized in that it contains at least one local sensor data (28), such as weather data, raw data measurements of global satellite navigation systems (GNSS) or differential correction data global satellite navigation systems (GNSS), the coefficients of time, the data determine the status of the various elements included in the beacon, for remote diagnosis of faults in the control center, and calibration data of the absolute and/or differential delays, the control computer (29) connected to the said sensor data, the reference signal generator (21) is controlled oscillator, module generation and transmission signal (22, 23) for each transmitted carrier frequency, controlled by the reference signal generator, and this module contains the generator carrier frequency (24, 26), the generator short code spread spectrum (25, 27), block format data (31, 32), managed by the host computer, and said data modulate mentioned short code in the band of the modulating signal by the integrator (35, 36), and the generated data block modulates a carrier by a modulator (33, 34), the antenna (37, 38), connected with fashion is concerned the value of the days of the week, during which the specified beacon transmits its signals, and mentioned the beacon is connected to the microprocessor associated with the local data sensors, enabling the programming of some of its parameters and verify its proper functioning.

25. The beacon on p. 24, characterized in that the carrier frequencies transmitted by the beacon, are the own frequencies of the system.

26. The beacon on p. 24, characterized in that it is made in the form of precision beacon, and at least one of the two modules of generation and transmission signal comprises a generator of a long code spread spectrum (53, 54), integrator (47, 48), providing modulation mentioned long code message output block format data modulator carrier (49, 50), use the long code, the summarized data, the Phaser on /4 (51, 52) for the said modulated carrier, the adder (55, 56), summarizing the carrier, modulated long code, in quadrature with the carrier, modulated by a short code.

27. The beacon on p. 24, characterized in that it is made in the form of precision beacon intended for transfer to long codes on the frequency, Pisa fact, it contains for each received carrier frequency from one to four receiving antennas (100, 101), from one to four modules receiving the radio frequency and conversion to an intermediate frequency (102, 103) connected to analog-to-digital Converter (104, 105), and these modules correspond to the carrier frequency received from the system, at least one specific integrated circuit (SIS) (98, 99), designed to handle short code spread spectrum modulation of the received carrier, moreover, the above-mentioned SYSTEMS provide processing of short codes mentioned system, in fact the SYSTEM detects and tracks the codes beacons build orbit codes and custom radio with built-in contour tracking code, and these codes are assigned to satellites in low orbit or satellites at low and high orbit, and the receiver includes a microprocessor unit (109), interconnected with circuits SYSTEM and memory (109), and unit digital interface (110), and the unit microprocessor controls the circuits of the SYSTEM and, in particular, detection and tracking codes and demodulation of beacon messages, and will mention the one being tracked, if necessary, before sunset, and when you reach a synchronization beacon is Doppler prepositionally and prepositionally range with on-Board tools for trajectory calculations and synchronization generator (111), the Manager, in particular, the modules receiving a radio frequency signal and converting to an intermediate frequency circuits of the SYSTEM and the microprocessor package.

29. The receiver on p. 28, characterized in that the module is receiving a radio frequency signal and converting to an intermediate frequency (131) is connected to each antenna in the case of receivers with parallel architecture of the radio frequency path.

30. The receiver on p. 28, characterized in that it contains one module receiving a radio frequency signal and converting to an intermediate frequency (117) that is connected to all the antennas through a high speed switch (116) in the case of receivers with a serial architecture of the RF path.

31. The receiver on p. 28, characterized in that in the case of its implementation in the form of a receiver of mixed type one of the modules receiving a radio frequency signal and converting to an intermediate frequency (151) is designed to work on one of the two frequent the Finance to an intermediate frequency (151) is designed to work in one of the frequency bands, used to send satellites within the constellation global navigation satellite system (GNSS).

32. The receiver on p. 28, characterized in that it is made in the form of receiver precision type, with at least one of the receiving channels is designed to receive long codes from the system at carrier frequencies of the entire system and circuit SYSTEM (175, 176) associated with at least one of the two receiving channels provide simultaneous processing of short codes and long codes associated with the said receiving channel.

 

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2 dwg, 1 tbl

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