Method of briquetting waste
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the processing of waste in plants using waste gases and can be used in the fuel and energy complex. The method includes grinding the waste, the processing of coolant and subsequent pressing, and after grinding the waste is moistened to a moisture content of 5-50 wt.% through the water, and as the coolant using the vapour-gas mixture containing water vapor and products of thermal decomposition of the waste mass ratio (1-20):1, which is obtained by evaporation of moisture from the waste and thermal decomposition of the latter at a temperature of 180-320oC and a pressure of 1-10 kg/cm2. The method allows to reduce the energy intensity of the process and reduce the amount of harmful emissions into the environment. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 1 tab., 1 Il. The invention relates to the processing of waste in plants using waste gases and can be used in the fuel and energy complex.Known device, in which wood waste is crushed to particle sizes (0,04 - 10,9)10-3m, is treated with superheated steam at temperatures up to 300oWith mode filtering through a layer of waste 2,48 m/s (RF patent 2046821, 1995).The disadvantages of this method are:
- high consumption of the process, due to the need of energy consumption for the production of superheated water vapor, as well as the fact that the process uses only the heat of superheat and the heat of vaporization (more than 80% of the energy consumption for receiving superheated steam) is not used;
- large costs of water vapor, due to the high (2,48 m/s) velocity filtering it through a layer of waste;
- the formation of large quantities of liquid products, which must be cleaned before returning to the steam generator for generating steam;
the special system overheating steam up to 300oWith that complicates the equipment for the production of fuel briquettes in this way.The task of the invention is to reduce energy consumption and reduction of emissions into the environment.The problem is solved by the fact that after grinding the waste is moistened to a moisture 550 wt.% through the water, and as the coolant using the vapour-gas mixture containing water vapor and products of thermal decomposition of the waste mass ratio of (120):1, which produces the Institute of 110 kgf/cm2.Also new is the fact that moisture condensate waste used in the amount of (0,0531,0)kg / kg waste, which is produced by condensation of the exhaust gas mixture.The drawing shows a combined-cycle power plant for implementing the method.The apparatus comprises a shredder residues 1, connected neurotransmittor with storage hopper 2, which features a hygrometer 3, the capacity for condensate 4, the water meter 5, the valve 6, screw 7, is installed in the storage hopper 2, a dispenser for feeding waste 8 into the heat treatment chamber 9, the furnace 10, the jacket 11 of the camera 9, the exhaust fan 12, is connected to a flue 13, a motor 14 connected to the screw 15, the temperature sensor 16 and the sensor 17 mounted in the chamber 9, the dispenser 18 for feeding waste into the press 19, the roller 20, the gauge-regulator 21 and the actuator 22, the valve 23 for controlling the feed gas mixture in the condenser 24, the fan 25, valve 26, valve 27 for supplying gas mixture in the furnace 10.The device operates as follows.In chopper 1 serves wood waste and crushed them. In addition, can be recycled such waste biomass like straw, selujat in the storage hopper 2, where using a hygrometer to measure the humidity of the waste. From the tank 4 through the flow meter 5 and the valve 6 in the hopper 2 serves water (condensate). With the help of the screw 7, the waste is stirred to achieve a uniform moisture and then through the spout 8 is fed into the chamber 9.At the same time in the furnace 10 burn dry wood waste and combustion products are fed into the jacket 11, and then using the induced draft fan 12 and the combustion products to display in the flue 13. Simultaneously with the feeding of waste into the chamber 9 through the motor 14 to cause the rotation of the screw 15, which moves the waste from the entrance into the chamber 9 to the outlet. The temperature in the chamber see the readings of the temperature sensor 16, and the composition of the gas mixture according to the prescriptions of the detector 17.To provide a given composition of the gas mixture and the temperature at the outlet from the chamber to regulate the number of revolutions of the screw and change the quantity pumped through the jacket 11 of the combustion products through the exhaust fan 12. When reducing the content of decomposition products in the gas-vapor mixture (increasing the amount of water vapor that shows the device 17) reduce the number of revolutions of the screw, which increases the residence time of the waste in the chamber, and increase the flow of products of combustion across the and) through spout 18 of the processed waste output in press 19 and pressed into briquettes, which the roller 20 is sent to the warehouse. Formed in the cell mixture creates pressure, the magnitude of which is supervised by the manometer readings controller 21. When the excess pressure in the chamber 9 through the valve 22 and the valve 23 mixture serves partially to the condenser 24 where it is condensed by the cooling air supplied by the fan 25. Part of the mixture and non-condensable gases through the valve 22, the valves 26 and 27 is applied to the furnace 10 and burn.Waste treatment, superheated steam is useful only used the heat of superheat, which is spent on heating of the waste, evaporation waste overheating formed from the moisture of the waste water vapour, thermal decomposition of wood.The ratio of the heat of the overheated steam to the heat required to obtain, is the value (see theoretical fundamentals of heat. Thermal engineering experiment: a Handbook/edited by C. A. Grigoriev, V. M. Zorin - 2nd ed. , Rev. M.: Energoatomizdat, 1988, S. 211, kN.2, PL.3.15; p. 127, PL.2.10)
< / BR>where Cpp= 2 kJ/kgoC - specific heat of water vapor;
Ttrans.= (Tpair- 100oS) - superheat steam;
WITHpin= 4,18 kJ/kgoWith specific the P> From (1) it follows that the amount of heat overheating may be comparable to the cost of heat for steam production only at considerable overheating. For example, the heat overheating is equal to the heat required for steam, at Ttrans.= 1337oC. When using superheated steam with T=1437oWITH (Ttrans.= 1337o(C) for processing wood waste efficiency factor representing the ratio of the heat of superheat to the total amount of heat required to receive and steam superheat, will not exceed 50%.At the same time, to produce steam at high temperature (T=1000o(C) requires special equipment of heat-resistant materials, and the use of such steam as coolant can cause overheating and gasification, i.e. the transformation of wood into gas by reactions interaction of water vapor with charred wood that will result in a decrease in the strength of the briquettes during the subsequent pressing and release of harmful gases into the gasification gases contained in the atmosphere.Use as a coolant instead of water steam gas mixture obtained by evaporation of moisture from the waste and termites and reducing the amount of harmful emissions into the environment.This is because the carrier for processing waste do not get in the steam generator, and the mass of waste, resulting simultaneously removes moisture from the waste generated and superheated steam. In this case, the heat consumed for heating and evaporation of water (moisture waste) is used is useful. At the same time is reduced and the flow of superheated water vapor through the use of steam generated from the moisture of the waste. Thus, for the processing of waste is not only the heat of superheat and heat heating and evaporation of water as it is heated and vaporized own moisture waste. The amount of useful heat (efficiency), applied to waste in this case is determined only by the amount of heat loss during processing and can achieve (with good insulation) 80-85%.Because of heat loss depends not only on the quality of insulation, but also on the temperature level of the process (by reducing the process temperature decreases heat loss), to improve efficiency it is necessary to reduce the temperature of the processing, and hence the temperature of the coolant. Lowering the temperature of the waste treatment leads to a reduction in the number of gaseous products formed in the roar of the heat-carrier gas mixture (superheated steam and the products of thermal decomposition of wood) leads to an increase in the intensity of heat transfer processes and to accelerate heating of the waste, and means to reduce the processing time, the coolant flow and, consequently, reduction of energy consumption.Intensification of heat transfer from the coolant to the wood waste is ensured by the fact that the gas-vapor mixture has a density greater compared with superheated steam.It is known that the density of the superheated water vapor decreases with increasing temperature (see table).To increase the density of the fluid it is necessary to peregrym water vapour add gaseous components with a higher density than water vapor. Such components in our case are the gaseous products of thermal decomposition of waste.Thus, the gas-vapor mixture will have the greater the density, the greater the number of gases of thermal decomposition of wood in it contained. At the same time on the production of gases thermal decomposition of the spent heat and carbon contained in the wood and which is the fuel element and the oxygen of the wood. Remove carbon from wood reduces its heat of combustion and the release of oxygen to increase the heat of combustion of treated wood. The amount of gases thermal decomposition d is some decomposition of wood with considerable evolution of gas begins at T=180oC. Therefore, to obtain a gas mixture need wood to heat up to 180oC and above. By heating the wood below 180oWith only allocates moisture and a small amount of co and CO2, i.e., by heating the wood below 180oSince it is impossible to obtain a gas-vapor mixture with a density higher than the density of water vapor.By heating the wood above 320oWith dramatically increases the removal of carbon from the wood and reduces the release of oxygen, which leads to a sharp drop of the heat of combustion of treated wood, because a significant amount of energy in the form of heat of combustion gases is removed from the treated mass, and this leads to higher energy consumption for the briquetting process, and in this case, the obtained briquettes with low heat of combustion.Thermal decomposition of wood waste should be carried out under a pressure of P=1-10 kgf/cm2without access of air. If you get air into the waste mass is formed combustible mixture of gases and air, which can lead to explosion and fire waste. Therefore, to prevent explosions and fires the pressure of the gas mixture in the processing of waste must be maintained not lower than 1 ATM (1 kg/cm
where Qmix- the amount of heat, kJ/s; WITHpsm- specific heat of the mixture, kJ/kgo;cmthe mixture density, kg/m3; Gcm- air mixture flow rate, kg/s; T = Tlogin-Toutletthe difference between the temperature of the mixture at the entrance to the waste layer and output layer.The increase in the content of products of thermal decomposition in the gas mixture more than 1 kg per 1 kg of water vapor water vapor leads to an increase in energy consumption for the production of decomposition products, because it is necessary to increase the temperature of the waste above 320oWith and expend energy to obtain gas with a high calorific value.To obtain a gas mixture it is necessary to evaporate the moisture of the waste. In the case of treatment of dry waste must be dampened to a certain humidity. Minimum humidity to which it is necessary to humidify dry waste must be at least 5 wt.%, i.e. 1 kg of moist waste must contain not less than 0.05 kg of moisture.When the content in the waste moisture less than 5 wt.% it is impossible to obtain a vapour-gas mixture containing water vapor and products Terminalia 50 wt.% will require in the heat treatment process of high energy consumption for evaporation and, thus, dramatically increasing negotatiate on the briquetting process, and will also increase the number of gas-vapor mixture, which must be cleaned before release into the environment.To prevent emission of gaseous and liquid products in the environment it is advisable to moisten the waste to use a condensate obtained by condensing the exhaust gas mixture. At the same time to ensure the moisture content of 5-50 wt.% need 1 kg of dry waste to spend 0,053-1.00 kg of condensate.The invention is illustrated by the following examples.Example 1.In chopper 1 serves 500 kg/h of absolutely dry wood waste and reduce them to a state of sawdust (1-5 mm in diameter). Next, the shredded waste pneumatic transport of the shredder 1 served in the storage hopper 2, where with the help of a hygrometer 3 measure the moisture content of the waste. From the tank 4 through the water meter and valve 6 in the hopper 2 serves (sprayed into the hopper) 500 kg/h of water, which corresponds to a moisture content of 50 wt.%. With the help of the screw 7 carry out the mixing of wastes to align their humidity controlled according to the testimony of the hygrometer 3. When you achieve uniform wetting of the waste (hygrometer constantly pru heat treatment 9. At the same time in the furnace 10 is served dry wood waste in the number 120,9 kg/h, burn them, and the products of combustion are directed into the jacket 11 of the heat treatment chamber and then through the induced draft fan 12 and the combustion products to display in the flue 13.Simultaneously with the filing into the chamber 9 of the waste with the help of the engine 14 cause the rotation of the screw 15, which moves the waste from the chamber entrance to the exit.In the heat treatment chamber 9 due to the heat of the flue gas (the temperature of the gases at the inlet of the jacket 1000oAnd leaving the shirt - 200o(C) conduct waste heat, the evaporation of 500 kg/h moisture, overheating, steam, thermal decomposition, resulting in a gain steam and gas mixture containing 500 kg of superheated up to 180oWith water vapor and 500 kg,05=25 kg and products of thermal decomposition that corresponds to the mass ratio of water vapor products of thermal decomposition of 20:1.The heat consumption for processing waste in the chamber 9 will be the amount
Qloadappr=CpapprMapprTappr=1.9 kJ/kgoS kg/h(180oC-15oS)=156750 kJ/h
QCOIin=CpinWhat SUP>oSCG/CoWith+2 kJ/kgoS kg/CoWith+2257 kJ/KGK/h= 1386150 kJ/h
Qterm=qtermMappr=30 kJ/kg kg/h=kg/h,
where Cpappr=1.9 kJ/kgoC - the specific heat of absolutely dry wood waste;
WITHpin- the specific heat of water;
WITHpp=2 kJ/kgoC - specific heat of water vapor;
Min= 500 kg/h mass of evaporated moisture in the chamber 9;
Tappr= (180C-15C) - the temperature difference between the waste at the entrance to the chamber (15oC) and at the output of the camera (180oC);
(180oS - 100o(C) the amount of superheated water vapor;
2257 kJ/kg heat of evaporation of waste;
Qterm= 30 kJ/kg heat absorbed by the decomposition of wood in the range of 150-180oC.Thus, with 10% of heat consumption heat in the chamber 9 will be the amount
QCam= (156750 + 1386150 + 15000)1,1 = 1713690 kJ/hPower chamber heat treatment P= 1713690/3600 = 476 kW
To provide such a heat supply through the jacketed chamber heat treatment 9 it is necessary to pump the following number of products of combustion
< / BR>Assuming the efficiency of the furnace 10, is equal to 75% kolichestvo QnR=18900 kJ/kg heat of combustion of wood waste.For the temperature of the wood waste in the chamber of the heat treatment see the readings of the temperature sensor 16, and the composition of the gas mixture see the readings of the detector 17. To provide a given composition of the gas mixture and the temperature at the outlet from the chamber T=180oTo regulate the number of revolutions of the screw (reduce or increase) and change the quantity pumped through the jacket 11 of the combustion products through the exhaust fan 12. When reducing the content of decomposition products in the gas-vapor mixture (increasing the amount of water vapor that shows the device 17) reduce the number of revolutions of the screw, which increases the residence time of the waste in the chamber, and increases the flow of combustion products through the shirt heat chamber and thus set the desired temperature and composition of the gas mixture.Upon reaching the preset parameters (temperature T=180oAnd the composition of the mixture paraproduct decomposition 20:1) using a dispenser 18 of the processed waste is served in the press on 19 and pressed into briquettes which the roller 20 is sent to the warehouse.Consumption of processed wood waste through the dispenser 18 will be the greates>/P>Formed in the chamber 9, the gas-vapor mixture creates pressure, the magnitude of which is supervised by the manometer readings controller 21. In our case, using a pressure gauge 21 and the actuator (valve) 22 set the pressure of the gas mixture in a heat chamber 1 ATM (1 kg/cm2). When the excess pressure in the chamber 9 of the excess vapor-gas mixture through the valve 22 and the valve 23 is applied to the capacitor 24, where the cooling air flow generated by the fan 25, is condensed and the condensate is fed into the drive 4 and the non-condensable gas through the valve 26 is fed into the furnace 10 and is fired (gas contains CO, CO2CH4N2).To moisturize dry waste to a moisture content of 50 wt.% it is necessary in our case (500 kg waste) 500 kg of condensate. Therefore, in order to avoid the accumulation of excess condensation in the tank 4 through the valve 23 into the condenser 24 serves 505 kg/h gas mixture, which produces 500 kg/h of condensate (the amount needed to hydrate waste), and 5 kg/h of non-condensable gases (CO, CO2CH4N2) from the condenser 24 through the valve 26 and 20 kg/h of steam-gas mixture through the valve 22 and the valve 27 is applied to the furnace 10 and burn.Example 2.In ismalic the haunted wastes of the pneumatic transport of the grinder 1 is fed into the hopper 2, where by moisture 3 measure the moisture content of the waste. From the tank 4 through the water meter 5 and the valve 6 in the hopper 2 serves (sprayed into the hopper) and 52.7 kg/h of water, which corresponds to a moisture content of 5 wt.%. With the help of the screw 7 carry out the mixing of wastes to align their humidity controlled according to the testimony of the hygrometer 3. When you achieve uniform wetting of the waste (moisture meter always displays humidity 5 wt. %) using a dispenser 8 moist wood waste with a flow rate of 1052,6 kg/h is fed into the heat treatment chamber 9. At the same time in the furnace 10 is served dry wood waste quantity kg/h, burn them, and the products of combustion are directed into the jacket 11 of the heat treatment chamber and then through the induced draft fan 12 and the combustion products to display in the flue 13. At the same time with the help of the engine 14 cause the rotation of the screw 15, which moves the waste from the entrance into the chamber 9 to the exit.In the heat treatment chamber 9 provide waste heat to a temperature of 320oC. In the heating of the evaporation and 52.7 kg/h moisture waste, overheated steam, thermal decomposition of wood with the formation of the gas-vapor mixture containing 52,7 kg of superheated water vapor and 52.7 kg of products of decomposition of the waste.For receiving superheated water vapor in the mixture observing the readings of the detector 17.When the deviation of these parameters from the set (T=320oC, correlation of vapor-decomposition - 1:1) regulated by changing the flow rate of combustion products and the speed of rotation of the screw 7.In the heat treatment chamber 9 heat from flue gases (products of combustion) is spent on heating the waste to 275oWith:
Qloadappr=1.9 kJ/kgoS kg/h(275oC-15oS)=494000 kJ/h
Part of the heat of the combustion products is used to evaporate the moisture of the waste and overheated steam up to 275oWITH:
QCOIin=4,18 kJ/kgoC52,7 kg/CoWith+2 kJ/kgoC52,7 kg/h(275oS-100oC)+2257 kJ/kg,7 kg/h=156113,2 kJ/h
The heat of the combustion products also spent on thermal decomposition:
Qterm=qtermMappr=863,3 kJ/kg kg/h=863300 kJ/h,
where qterm= 863,3 kJ/kg - average temperature range (180-275)oWith the heat consumed for thermal decomposition of waste.Thus, with 10% of heat consumption heat in the chamber 9 when heated waste up to T=275oWith the amount value
QCam=(494000 kJ/kg+156113 kJ/h+863300 kJ/h)1,1=1664754,5 kJ/h
The power chamber 9 P=462,4 kW
To provide such a heat supply across the efficiency of the furnace 10 is 75% of the amount of wood waste, combusted to provide heat chamber heat treatment amount value:
< / BR>Upon reaching the temperature in the curing oven to 275oWith the process of thermal decomposition of changes from endothermic to exothermic stage, i.e., heat is not already absorbed and excreted .On waste heat from 275oWith up to 320oWith the need to spend the following amount of heat
Qloadappr=1.9 kJ/kgo(1000 kg/h and 52.7 kg/h)(320oS-275oS)=80994,2 kJ.To superheat the steam-gas mixture from 275oWith up to 320oWith wasted heat
Qlanesm= CpsmMcmT= 2 kJ/kgoC (52,7 kg/h+52,7 kg/h)(320oS-275oS)=9486 kJ/h
With 10% of heat consumption heat at the heating stage of waste from 275oWith up to 320oWith the amount value:
Qloadappr= 1,1 (80994,2 kJ/h+9486 kJ/h) =99473 kJ/hTo ensure the heat supply in the camera 9 at the stage of waste heat from 275oWith up to 320oSince you need to burn the following amount of fuel (wood waste)
< / BR>Because when heated from 275oWith up to 320oWith heat, in order to avoid overheating of waste above 320oWith you in line is the head chamber 9 and to hold (by adjusting the flow rate of the flue gas) temperature waste T=320oWith the output from the camera 9.Upon reaching the preset parameters (temperature T=320oAnd the composition of the mixture vapor-decomposition 1:1) using a dispenser 18 of the processed waste is served in the press on 19 and pressed into briquettes which the roller 20 is sent to the warehouse.The output of briquettes is the value of
1000 kg/h and 52.7 kg/h=947,3 kg/h
Formed in the chamber 9, the gas-vapor mixture creates pressure, the magnitude of which is supervised by the manometer readings controller 21. In our case, using a pressure gauge 21 and the actuator 22 set pressure vapor-gas mixture in the chamber 9 is equal to 10 ATM. When the excess pressure in the chamber 9 of the excess vapor-gas mixture through the valve 22 and the valve 23 is applied to the capacitor 24, where the cooling air flow generated by the fan 25, is condensed and the condensate is fed into the drive 4 and the non-condensable gas through the valve 26 is fed into the furnace 10 and burned.To moisturize dry waste to a moisture content of 5 wt.% it is necessary in our case 52,7 kg condensate(i.e., 0,053 kg per 1 kg of dry waste). Therefore, in order to avoid the accumulation of excess condensation in the tank 4 through the valve 23 into the condenser 24 serves 63 kg/h steam-gas mixture from which obratsova mixture through the valve 22 and the valve 27 is applied to the furnace 10 and burn. 1. Method of briquetting of waste, including grinding, processing waste coolant and subsequent pressing, characterized in that after grinding waste moistened to a moisture content of 5-50 wt. % by submitting water, and as the coolant using the vapour-gas mixture containing water vapor and products of thermal decomposition of the waste mass ratio (1-20): 1, which is obtained by evaporation of moisture from the waste and thermal decomposition of the latter at a temperature of 180-320oC and a pressure of 1-10 kg/cm2.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the wetting of the waste using the condensate in the amount of 0,053-1.0 kg per kilogram of waste, which is produced by condensation of the exhaust gas mixture.
FIELD: solid fuels.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fabrication of hydrocarbon moldings in the form of briquettes or granules. Which can be used as natural solid fuel substitutes for municipal and industrial needs but also as fertilizers and/or soil structure improvers. Carbon-containing moldings contain (i) ground peat and/or lignin (5-50%), (ii) wood-vegetable components in the form of sawdust and/or wood chips, and/or bark, and/or straw, and/or chaff, and/or seed shells, and/or oilcake, and/or plant stems and leaves, and/or animal components in the form of poultry dung and/or manure (1-10%), and (iii) binder in the form of burnt lime, sodium hydroxide, or potassium hydroxide (balancing amount). Method of fabrication comprises dispensing, mixing, grinding, and activation of peat and/or lignin with binder, after which is added above-indicated wood-vegetable and/or animal components and resulting mixture is remixed. Final mixture is converted into moldings, which are then compacted by lying during 2 to 30 h.
EFFECT: extended consumer's market of low-cost and environmentally safe fuel product, enabled utilization of wide range of energy organic wastes, and improved fertility of soil.
6 cl, 9 ex
FIELD: production of coal-containing fuel; preparation of briquettes (granules) for furnace units of minor and medium heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: fuel (briquette, granule) contains 47.5-52.5% of culm, 28.5-31.5% of coal screenings and 19-21% of sawdust. Fuel thus produced is cheaper than similar fuels due to utilization of coal output wastes and wood-working process wastes without binding materials; fuel possesses high heat of combustion of coal; slag forming is excluded; finely-dispersed ash may be used as mineral fertilizer.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: fuel briquettes for domestic and industrial use in boiler houses and railway car furnaces.
SUBSTANCE: proposed fuel composition contains 20-65% of waste of leather production process; 10-30% of hydrocarbon sludge; 0-20% of wood waste; the remainder being peat. Hydrocarbon sludge contains up to 200 g/kg of petroleum products. Waste of leather production process is used in form of leather dust, leather cuttings and leather chips. Fuel composition may also include waste of wood-pulp and paper industry, weaving and sewing processes in the amount of up to 10 mass-%. Proposed fuel enhances utilization of sludge of car repair plants, engineering plants and other works containing up to 200 g/kg of petroleum products.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: heat-and-power industry; wood-working industry; petroleum industry: other industries; methods of production of the fuel briquette.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of production of the fuel briquettes, which may be used as the fuel in the municipal housekeeping, in the residential buildings boiler rooms in the capacity of the kindling material for ignition, and also in the capacity of the heat insulating material. The method of production of the fuel briquette provides for injection molding of the filler material in the form of the waste of the woodworking industry mixed with petroleum. In the capacity of the filler material use 80-85 % of the salvage sawdust saturated with petroleum at purification of the oil-polluted waste waters, in which add 15-20 % of wood meal, intermix and mold under pressure of 4.5 - 5 MPa. The invention allows to produce the briquettes of the higher thermal value, the smaller ash content, and also allows to recycle the wastes of the industrial productions and to improve the ecological state of the environment.
EFFECT: the invention ensures production of the briquettes of the higher thermal value, the smaller ash content, and also to recycle the wastes of the industrial productions and to improve the ecological state of the environment.
FIELD: manufacture of fuel elements from wood dust produced at wood-working houses.
SUBSTANCE: wood dust 17 and binder are fed by means of charging device 15 and device 18 for feeding of binder into space 16 between contours 1 and 2 made from steel whole stretched or plated belt. Cylindrical drive brushes are positioned in upper parts of both contours. Mass produced is mixed and compacted in space 16 upon actuation of drive units 5, 6 and movement in downward direction of adjacent runs of contours 1 and 2. Pressure of compressed mass is perceived by converging runs of both contours and by straight roller supports 10 and 11 mounted on columns 3 and 4. Simultaneously with displacement of mass in downward direction, said mass is cut-through by acute edges of partitions 14 when partitions 14 of contour 1 approach run of contour 2. On approaching to lower units 5 and 6, individual fuel elements 20 formed as bars-logs are produced from said mass. Fuel elements are discharged onto conveyor 19.
EFFECT: increased efficiency and simplified construction of complex, and reduced costs for manufacture of said complex.
4 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns obtaining of moulded fuel, particularly of carbonaceous mouldings in the briquette or pellet form made of organic carbonaceous waste. Additionally, carbonaceous mouldings can be used in agriculture as fertiliser and/or soil structure-forming agent. The process involves proportioning, activation mixing of the components, activated component moulding under the pressure of 120 MPa to obtain carbonaceous mouldings. Organic carbonaceous waste includes lignine and/or sewage treatment sediments, and/or animal manure, and/or bird droppings. The components or their mix are dried to 40% dampness before moulding, either by direct contact with drying medium containing up to 14 mass % of oxygen with the components or their mix; or without direct contact with the drying medium heated up to 500°C.
EFFECT: fast adhesion of organic carbonaceous component particles in mouldings and higher moulding solidity due to the optimal component dampness and moulding pressure.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to the production of non-toxic solid fuel briquettes from production wastes and can be used in various industries. The method allows for obtaining solid fuel briquettes, containing in mass.%: chips of clear wood - 25-30, tobacco dust wastes - 10-15, grain husk - 10-15, organic binding substance - 40-55, with uniform density in the whole volume and improves their calorific capacity. The method involves grinding the organic material to a fraction in the range of 0.1-5 mm, drying to moisture of 9-14%, mixing the components of the mixture with the molten organic binding substance and subsequent pressing into briquettes at specific pressure in the range of 30.0-40.0 MPa. The device consists of a case with a receiving funnel, transmission shaft, joined to a hub, with an angle hole, in which a spindle is freely fitted, on the lower part of which a former block is mounted inclined to the axis of the shaft, with a cone-shaped packing surface. The former block is made with grooves for supplying the reinforcement material under the packing surface of the working organ. In the lower part of the case there are cut plates and a matrix, with calibrated openings, the dimensions of which correspond to the cross sectional dimensions of the briquettes. On the cone-shaped surface of the forming block there are pressure clutches, with dimensions corresponding to the dimensions of the calibrated openings of the matrix, into which the enter during spherical motion of the forming block. The transmission shaft is fitted with provision for vertical displacement. The forming block is made with provision for pressing at specific pressure in the 30.0-40.0 MPa range.
EFFECT: increased productivity of the whole cycle of making briquettes.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: working elements of complex are made in the form of two flexible circuits with solid surfaces from rubberized tape, infinitely closed on drive and tension units installed on stands. Both circuits are installed in vertical plane. At that stand of the first circuit is oriented vertically, and stand of the second circuit - at sharp angle to stand of the first circuit. Both circuits are arranged as converging downwards, and branches of both circuits facing each other are installed with possibility of their resting on flat friction supports fixed on stands with coating of anti-friction material relative to material of circuits tape. On the sides tapes of circuits are limited with vertical walls. The first vertically oriented circuit is arranged with baffle partitions of triangular cross section installed normally to its surface and fixed in it with the same pitch. Sharp edges of partitions face the second circuit. Above upper tension units, loading device is installed with the possibility of continuous supply of saw dust into space between circuits. Device for continuous supply of liquid binder is also installed there for supply to the same space. Drive unit of the first vertically oriented circuit is installed below drive unit of the second slating circuit by at least one step of baffle partitions installation in the first circuit. Vertically oriented plate is installed on the side of the second circuit on the frame with the possibility of displacement relative to it and side walls in vertical plane, fixation on frame and interaction with its upper edge with external surface of the second circuit tape. Conveyor is installed under drive units with the possibility of molded raw fuel elements reception and transportation into drying department. Distance between branched of both circuits facing each other in area of lower units installation and distance between surface of the first circuit tape in area where it envelopes drive unit and plate surface is accepted as equal to height of partitions. Stands of both circuits in their upper part are connected to each other by screw couplings. Speeds of the first and second circuit tapes are accepted as different.
EFFECT: simplification and cheapening of complex structure with provision of its high efficiency.
5 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: while carriage 32 travel relative to the frame 24 guides 33 frames 24, required angle is regulated between racks 3, 4 and circuits 1 and 2. There are connected drives 5 and 6, sawdust 22 charging device 20 and liquid binder feeder 23. Sawdust and liquid binder are supplied continuously to the space 21 between circuits 1 and 2 wood sawdust and the liquid binding. Simultaneously there is connected crank drive 29 which by rod 28 makes the rack 4 and the second circuit 2 to vibrate in a vertical plane. In the intercircuit space 25, sawdust 22 and liquid binder are mixed, while formed mass is pressed by moving adjacent branches of circuits 1 and 2.
EFFECT: simplified and cheaper utilisation of equipment, higher performance reliability and quality of moulded fuel cells.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: wood industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for production of fuel elements from composite based production waste. A required angle α between posts 3 and 4, and cycles 1 and 2 is set by moving a carriage against guides 26 of frame 18. Drive units 5 and 6, loading device 14 for sawdust 16 supply and liquid binder feeding device 17 are activated. Sawdust 16 are mixed with the liquid binder in intercycle space and the mixture thus obtained is packed by means of downward movement of the adjacent sides of cycles 1 and 2. When the device is running, pressure of the mixture being compressed is taken up by convergent belt sides of both cycles 1 and 2 and by flat friction bearings 9 10 and 1 fixed to posts 3 and 4. Simultaneously with the downward movement of the mixture, the mixture is cut by sharp edges of transverse walls 13 while cycle side 2 is gradually approaching walls 13 of cycle 1.
EFFECT: invention allows to simplify the equipment being used and to make it cheaper, to increase performance reliability and quality of the fuel cells being formed.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: heat recuperation plant for exhaust gas from a gas-turbine unit that uses associated petroleum gas and/or natural gas from development of hydrocarbon-bearing formation as a working medium includes afterburner, closed circulation loop of low-boiling organic compounds and compressor feeding exhaust gas to petroleum-bearing stratum, which are locates in-series along the flow of exhaust gas. For driving of compressor feeding exhaust gas to petroleum-bearing stratum energy is used that is produced at the shaft of gas-turbine unit and turbine with closed circulation loop of low-boiling organic compounds.
EFFECT: invention allows increase of development intensity for petroleum and gas deposits and use of heat recuperated from exhaust gas of the gas-turbine unit operated by petroleum industry enterprise.