Emergency energy absorbing device for cars railway transport

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to buffers with the absorption of shock by the residual deformation of the buffer member. The device is installed between the coupler (11) and the frame (2) of the car and consists of three plates - mobile (3), intermediate (4) and stationary (5), between which there is an energy-absorbing elements (7-9) of varying intensity. Elements (7-9) are chosen so that the first to absorb the energy from impact items (7-8) movable between (3) and intermediate (4) plates, and then the elements (9) between the intermediate (4) and stationary (5) plates and last - fixing elements (10) measured failure strength, which is stationary (5) plate connected to the housing (1). The proposed solution is aimed at ensuring the gradual increase of the force actuation and low weight devices. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 5 Il.

The invention relates to railway transport and related devices-time actions to absorb the impact energy and excessive shocks railway vehicle. It can be used in other branches of engineering for the above purposes.

Known energy absorbing device is a one-time action for Zheleznodorozhnyi with the latest stock, moreover, a deformable unit is designed in the form of service consistently-installed washers decreasing thickness, separated by spacers, and the stem is made with a cylindrical guide surface, paired with conical working. The rod under the action of the emergency load is included in the first as, the greatest thickness of the washer, deforming it by increasing the inner section.

The drawback of the device in relatively large size of the device and possible deformation of the body, which does not allow to use the device again.

Know emergency buffer device [2], which consists of telescopically related inner and outer cylinder, the outer surface of the latter of which holds the collar in the form of a multiple helix, separated into segments by longitudinal incisions in height.

The drawback of the device in complexity achieve the specified strength of the shear created by the segments.

Know emergency energy absorbing device of the vehicle [3] . It contains a movable rod with a tapered end that interacts with a deformable tubular element fixedly mounted on the frame of transportaton and rigidly connected to a rod oven, which also tied the other end of this rod is placed in a deformable tubular element. The disadvantage of this device is that when a sufficiently large during the guide rods must have an adequate supply of rigidity on the buckling and the great length of their guides. This increases the size and weight of the device.

However, the last device most closely with its technical essence of the proposed and adopted as a prototype.

The problem to be solved by the proposed device is to provide a progressive emergency power characteristics of the shock absorber, i.e. a smooth increase efforts actuation reducing the mass of the device, the possibility of implementing a relatively simple regulation characteristics energobaltia, and limiting free running after deformation.

The problem is solved in that the device comprising a housing, guides, and energy-absorbing elements installed between the hitch and the frame of the car, consists of at least three plates, between which there is an energy-absorbing elements of varying intensity. One of them, mobile, connected with hitch, the other, the device, the third intermediate plate located in the housing between the other two can move it along the guide surface of the body and consequent deformation of the energy absorbing elements, the first located between the movable and intermediate plates, and then between the intermediate and stationary plates, and the maximum force of deformation of the first is less than the minimum effort deformation of the second. Plates interconnected traction-guide couplers, and a housing rigidly mounted on the frame of the carriage and provided with a limiter reverse, made in the form of lugs on the device and on the fixed plate with the opportunity to interact with each other during reverse motion of the device. Traction-guide couplers made of energy absorbing ribs (teeth), interacting with the shear edges of the holes of the intermediate plate.

Energy absorbing elements in the form of tubes of variable cross-section, provided with a resistant outer bands with the opportunity to interact with jaws holes (nozzles) or bushings intermediate plate within the plastic deformation of the tubes. You can perform an energy-absorbing elements in the form of a rigid steamy intermediate plate within the plastic deformation of the holes.

In Fig.1 shows a General view of the device.

In Fig. 2 and 3 (Type a and B) presents the installation of energy-absorbing elements.

In Fig. 4 (Type b) shows an energy-absorbing ribs on the traction-guide couplers.

In Fig. 5 (Type D) shows the fastening of the fixed plate to the housing of the device.

The device consists of a housing 1 fixed to the frame 2 of the car, and the three plates - mobile 3, intermediate 4, and fixed 5 installed on the guides 6.

Between the movable plate 3 and the intermediate 4 is installed energy-absorbing elements 7 in the form of hollow tubes of variable cross-section (Fig. 2) or in the form of a rigid rod 8 with bands of different diameters (Fig.3).

Traction-guide couplers made of energy absorbing ribs (teeth) 9 (Fig. 4). The fixed plate 5 is fixed to the body 1 of the fastening elements 10 measured failure strength (Fig.5). The movable plate 3 is connected to the coupling 11.

The device operates as follows. When the application to the trailer hitch 11 compressive forces occurring as a result of sharp braking or emergency collision of cars, the latter is transmitted to the movable thrust plate 3, and then through the energy absorbing cell battery (included) is fixed on the support plate 5, the fastening elements 10 and closes with the stops made on the housing 1 (in the form of an annular ledge or legs), on the frame 2 of the car. Under the application of tensile (pulling) effort on the part of the hitch 11 is transmitted to the thrust plate 3, then the traction-coupling of the coupler 6, the support plate 5, the housing 1 and through the fastening bolts 12 of the housing 1 to the frame 2 of the car.

To ensure maximum passenger safety by minimizing accelerations cars when they collisions settlement efforts positives at all levels and elements emergency shock absorber provided on the rise, since the minimum specified at the beginning of the operation to the maximum at the breakage of the fastening elements 10.

If during splicing cars collision energy is sufficient to trigger the first stage, then there is compression resistant belts on the energy absorbing tubes 7 and the last dive into the holes of the intermediate plate 4. The plate 3 is moved toward the intermediate plate 4. Since the diameter of the holes (filerow) plate 4 is significantly less than the outer diameter of the tubes 7, the energy required to push the pipe through a die, dampens the energy of the collision. If the impact energy is greater than enersource plate 4, made of solid hardened steel alloy will start to cut the ribs 9, made of soft metal (for example, nesacaine steel or aluminum). To ensure self-chips ribs last run on the tie-rods 6 in the form of sectors and thus cut edges do not prevent the cutting of new edges. This process lasts until the stop plates 3 and 4 in the support plate 5, and in the case of nepogashennoi energy is the destruction of fasteners 10. The connection of the hitch to the carriage in the direction of compression is lost and the linkage moves freely in undercar space, thus triggering other means of protection of passengers in case of accidents (for example, actuation of the sacrificial part of the body of the car and so on).

Gradual increase of load resistance to impact all levels of emergency absorber is due to a consistent increase in the thickness of the tubes 7 in the first stage and due to variations in the thickness and length of the ribs 9 on the second level. When used in the first stage instead of the tube 7 tube 8 bands fade efforts is achieved by a stepwise increase of the diameter of the belts. The bands however are made of solid steel, and the walls of the holes square is - solid.

Sources of information

1. Author's certificate N 668838. Energy absorbing device is a one-time action for rail transport. 1979.

2. Author's certificate N 867746. Emergency buffer unit. 1981

3. RF patent N 1326490. Emergency energy absorbing device of the vehicle. 1986 (prototype).

1. Emergency energy absorbing device for cars railway transport, comprising a housing, guides, and energy-absorbing elements, characterized in that the device is installed between the hitch and the frame of the car consists of at least three plates, between which there is an energy-absorbing elements of varying intensity, one of which is movable, connected with hitch, other, still, is connected to the housing fixing elements measured failure strength in the direct course of the device, the third intermediate plate located in the housing between the other two can move it along the guide surface of the body and consequent deformation of the energy absorbing elements, first located between the movable and intermediate plates, and then between the intermediate and not the ryh, plates interconnected traction-guide couplers, and a housing rigidly mounted on the frame of the carriage and provided with a limiter reverse.

2. Emergency energy absorbing device under item 1, characterized in that the limiter reverse made in the form of lugs on the device and on the fixed plate with the opportunity to interact with each other during reverse motion of the device.

3. Emergency energy absorbing device under item 1, characterized in that the energy absorbing elements in the form of tubes of variable cross-section, provided with a resistant outer belt with the opportunity to interact with jaws bushings intermediate plate within the plastic deformation of the tubes.

4. Emergency energy absorbing device under item 1, wherein the energy absorbing element is designed in the form of rods with bands consistent with the increase in diameter with the opportunity to interact with the holes of the intermediate plate within the plastic deformation of the holes of the intermediate plate.

 

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